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  • 1.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Elofsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Characterizing electromagnetic interference in vicinity to a railway freight train2009In: Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. on EMC/EMECO, Saint-Petersburg, 2009, p. 23-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    APD measurements for characterization and evaluation of radio interference in steel mill2009In: Proceedings IEEE nternational Symposiumon EMC, Kyoto, 2009, p. 625-628Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    EMI disruptive effect on wireless industrial communication systems in a paper plant2009In: Proc. IEEE EMC Symp. Austin-Texas, 2009, p. 221-224Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that industrial and factory environments present considerable challenges for wireless communications. Because every industrial environment is different, and may offer a unique set of obstacles to effective wireless communication, a site characterization is needed at first step in determining improvements of existent wireless technologies to increase the reliability. In this work electric field strength and APD measurements have been performed to characterize electromagnetic interference in an industrial paper plant. Common characteristics of the industrial environments affecting wireless communication were identified. Additionally, results show high interference levels at the frequencies for the DECT band 1880-1890 MHz. The interference level is correlated to the working mode of the electrical engines used in the process.

  • 4.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Impulsive noise measurement methodologies for APD determination in M2M environments2009In: Proc. IEEE EMC Symp. Austin-Texas, 2009, p. 151-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communications in industrial environments are maintained under persistent adverse conditions, such as noise, fading and many electromagnetic interference sources. These electromagnetic interferences exhibit usually impulsive characteristics and it can seriously degrade the performance of the current wireless systems. Over the last few years, the amplitude probability distribution (APD) had been formally written into CISPR16 as a measure of the emitted electromagnetic energy from electrical equipment. In this approach we present two APD measurement methods. The first method based on 12-bit A/D converter and the second one based on in-phase and quadrature components of the impulsive noise at frequencies between 20 and 3000 MHz. Electromagnetic interference measurements in three different industrial environments were performed using the developed methods with promising results.

  • 5.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    FOI.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ultra-Wideband Propagation Channel-Measurements and Simulations in Industrial Environments2010In: 9th International Symposium on EMC joint with 20th International Wroclaw Symposium on EMC, 2010, p. 615-618Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology, Kista, Sweden .
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. FOI.
    Industrial environment characterization for future M2M applications2011In: Proc. 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 960-963Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining electronics, telecommunications, and information technology to connect devices and remote systems is perhaps the best feature of the future Machine-to-Machine (M2M) technology. Wireless communication technologies for managing future M2M applications are becoming mature, but electromagnetic interference and time dispersion in industrial environments can limit the successful functioning of these wireless systems, leading to a failure in the control of critical functions. The characterization of these environments is necessary for collecting and specifying M2M requirements. In this paper, we present the conclusions from measurements carried out in four different industrial environments during the past three years.

  • 7.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Simulation and Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation Absorption in a Finished-product Warehouse2010In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2010, p. 881-884, article id 5711396Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have characterized industrial environments as being highly reflective. In this paper, we provide the data obtained from electromagnetic field measurements performed at the warehouse of a paper mill. The data is also compared to simulated data. This data proves the existence of non-reflective and very high absorption industrial environments where wireless communication is impossible at certain frequencies. Furthermore, in such environment, radio performance cannot be improved by multiple antenna solutions such as MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) since multiple reflections are effectively absorbed.

  • 8.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    FOI.
    Characterisation of electromagnetic properties in iron-mine production tunnels2012In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 62-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern underground mines require reliable wireless communication for transmitting voice data, operating surveillance cameras, and monitoring mining equipment such as heavy vehicles. The electromagnetic characteristics of mines therefore have to be considered when determining the type of wireless technology for such critical applications. In this reported work, measurements of radio interference levels, path loss, and multipath propagation are performed in the world's now largest iron ore mine, situated in Sweden, to determine a suitable wireless technology for this mine.

  • 9.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Characterisation of highly absorbent and highly reflective radio wave propagation environments in industrial applications2012In: IET Communications, ISSN 1751-8628, E-ISSN 1751-8636, Vol. 6, no 15, p. 2404-2412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience has shown that Bluetooth, Wireless LAN (WLAN), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) and other Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) frequency band wireless technologies developed for office use, have encountered problems when used in critical industrial applications. The development of more reliable wireless solutions requires extensive knowledge of industrial environments with regards to both electromagnetic interference and wave propagation. This study presents the results of the analysis of two important classes of industrial environments having opposite characteristics, one being highly absorbent and the other being highly reflective, with respect to radio wave propagation. The analysis comprises both multipath and path loss characterisation. The results show that wireless solutions with different fundamental properties must be chosen for each of these environments to ensure high reliability. The conclusions of this work can be used as an important reference for further research in this area, as well as the design of new standards and guidelines for selecting wireless solutions in similar industrial environment classes.

  • 10.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Elofsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. FOI.
    Antenna Cross Correlation and Ricean K-Factor Measurements in Indoor Industrial Environments at 433 and 868 MHz2013In: Wireless personal communications, ISSN 0929-6212, E-ISSN 1572-834X, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 587-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ricean K-factor and antenna diversity properties for indoor industrial environments have been characterized for 433 and 868 MHz. The high amount of metallic structures gives a multipath environment that heavily differs from other environments e.g. indoor office environments. The results show that low correlation between receiving antennas can be achieved for shorter antenna distances than in other environments.

  • 11.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Shabai, He
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut and Linköping University.
    Analysis of wireless communications in underground tunnels for industrial use2012In: 38TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY (IECON 2012), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 3216-3220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication is expected to improve the safety and the productivity in underground tunnels for industrial use. However the multiple shapes and structures of tunnels affect wireless communication characteristics in terms of signal propagation which is significantly different from terrestrial environments. This paper presents comprehensive broadband measurements and simulations of multipath propagation and path loss in two underground environments. The results can be used in the development of new communication systems in tunnels that provide industrial services.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Carl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    FOI.
    Outdoor electromagnetic interference measurements in industrial environments2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ragulis, Paulius
    et al.
    Microwave Laboratory of Center for Physical Sciences andTechnology, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Simniškis, Rimantas
    Microwave Laboratory of Center for Physical Sciences andTechnology, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kancleris, Žilvinas
    Shielding Effectiveness of Modern Energy-Saving Glasses and Windows2017In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 4250-4258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin metal coatings on glass are widely used in modern windows to improve their thermal properties. However, while there are some available papers on the properties of microwave propagation through commercial metallized windows glass below 6 GHz there seems to be a lack of papers regarding metallized multi-glazed windows at higher frequencies. Such data are of the great importance when designing modern microwave communication systems working in urban environments. In this paper, the shielding effectiveness of modern energy-saving glasses and windows were investigated at microwave frequencies from 1 GHz to 20 GHz. Wide measurement range together with proposed fast calculation procedure based on the matrix multiplication method, allowed us to elucidate the reasons responsible for the extremes in dependencies of shielding effectiveness on frequency. It was also shown that by comparing measured and calculated results, the conductivity of the thin metallic layer used in modern energy-saving windows can be determined. During the study, we found that attenuation of microwave radiation passing through modern windows can be as high as 60 dB.

  • 14.
    Savic, Vladimir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    An experimental study of ranging techniques in a tunnel environment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a preliminary experimental analysis of the ranging techniques using UWB measurements obtained in a tunnel at Linköping university. According to our results, range estimates based on time-of-arrival are very accurate in LOS and all NLOS scenarios with thin obstacles. However, there is a relatively large bias when a NLOS is caused by a tunnel wall.

  • 15.
    Savic, Vladimir
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Department of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI), Linköping, Sweden .
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Department of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Measurement analysis and channel modeling for TOA-based ranging in tunnels2015In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 456-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A robust and accurate positioning solution is required to increase the safety in GPS-denied environments. Although there is a lot of available research in this area, little has been done for confined environments such as tunnels. Therefore, we organized a measurement campaign in a basement tunnel of Linköping university, in which we obtained ultra-wideband (UWB) complex impulse responses for line-of-sight (LOS), and three non-LOS (NLOS) scenarios. This paper is focused on time-of-arrival (TOA) ranging since this technique can provide the most accurate range estimates, which are required for range-based positioning. We describe the measurement setup and procedure, select the threshold for TOA estimation, analyze the channel propagation parameters obtained from the power delay profile (PDP), and provide statistical model for ranging. According to our results, the rise-time should be used for NLOS identification, and the maximum excess delay should be used for NLOS error mitigation. However, the NLOS condition cannot be perfectly determined, so the distance likelihood has to be represented in a Gaussian mixture form. We also compared these results with measurements from a mine tunnel, and found a similar behavior.

  • 16.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University and Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) .
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Challenges and conditions for wireless machine-to-machine communications in industrial environments2013In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless solutions are rapidly growing in machine-to-machine communications in industrial environments. These environments provide challenging conditions in terms of radio wave propagation as well as electromagnetic interference. In this article, results from the characterization of radio channel properties are summarized in order to provide some guidelines for the choice of wireless solutions in industrial environments. In conclusion, it is essential to know the sensitivity of industrial processes to time delay in data transfer. Furthermore, it is important to be aware of the radio interference environment and the manner in which different wireless technologies react upon interference. These steps will minimize the risk of unforeseen expensive disturbances in industrial processes.

  • 17.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Challenges and Conditions for Wireless Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communications2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH - Royal Institute of Technology.
    Avsiktliga elektromagnetiska störningar: Det osynliga hotet2014In: Electronic Environment, no 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH - Royal Institute of Technology.
    EMP-symposium 8-9 maj 2014 i Oslo2014In: Electronic Environment, no 2, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Measurement and Analysis of Radio Wave Coverage in Industrial Environments2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have characterized the path loss properties in industrial environments. However most of them have focused on one frequency, and some two or maximum three frequencies, usually cellular telephone frequencies or the unlicensed ISM bands that are commonly used in various industries. Few, if any, have characterized a larger part of the useable frequency range.This thesis is taking that challenge and investigates the path loss characteristics over a large frequency range, 300 MHz – 3 GHz, in industrial environments.

    First a measurement system suitable for the harsh environments found in industries is designed and verified. The measurement system is designed as two asynchronous stand-alone units that can be positioned at an arbitrary position to measure the path loss characteristics in any environment without interfering with the normal activities at the location.

    After that a measurement campaign involving three different types of environments is carried out. The environment types are: first, one highly absorbing – a paper warehouse at a paper mill; second, one highly reflective – a furnace building filled with metal objects and constructions and third, a mine tunnel – located 1 km below the surface of earth which is neither highly reflective nor absorbing but exhibits somewhat wave-guide like characteristics.

    The environments are shown to have very different behavior when it comes to propagation characteristics. Observations in the first environment reveal an environment that almost cancels out certain frequency bands and only line-of-sight communication is possible, hence no improvement will be achieved if installing systems that take multipath propagation into account, like MIMO. In the second environment reflections are legion; there are so many reflecting surfaces at different angles so any polarization of the signal is almost completely eliminated. Large fading variations were observed.The third environment is the underground mine where signals propagate inside the tunnels like in waveguides. It is shown that there are regions in the spectrum where the path loss dips and that these dips at least partly can be modeled with a simple two-beam propagation model normally used for outdoor propagation over infinite fields.

    The overall conclusion is that industrial environments are more heterogeneous regarding propagation characteristics than commonly assumed when selecting communication solutions. And that the only way to really know if a radio system will work at a certain location is to measure and characterize the environment.

  • 21.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Electromagnetic Engineering Lab, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Backstrom, M.
    Electromagnetic Engineering Lab, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vallhagen, B.
    SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, C.
    SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Shielding effectiveness of energy saving windows and HPM effects on coated window panes: Measurements conducted 2014-2016 - Results and lessons learned2016In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2016, p. 461-466, article id 7739288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past few decades have shown a veritable explosion of new versions of energy-saving windows and coated window panes. In the wake of this, problems with radio communications into and from within buildings has arisen. However, this unexpected attenuation of radio signals may also be used to shield a facility from incoming intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI). With the intention to investigate the shielding effectiveness (SE) of modern windows and window panes a two-year measurement campaign was launched mid-2014. Another, little investigated area is what happens to coated glass when irradiated by a high-power microwave (HPM) source. Shielding effectiveness has been measured for different types of energy saving windows and coated window panes both in a semi-anechoic chamber and in a reverberation chamber over the frequency range 1-18 GHz. The effects of HPM irradiation were studied by comparing SE measured before and after the pulsed 28 kV/m L-band irradiation. The main conclusion is that with the right choice of window the shielding effectiveness of a building can reach up 40-50 dB. In this paper we summarize these measurements and lessons learned from the measurement campaign.

  • 22.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Carl
    Saab Aeronautics - SAAB AB.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    Saab Aeronautics - SAAB AB.
    Shielding Effectiveness Studies of Energy Saving Windows and Coated Window Panes - a Summary2016In: Proceedings of the European Electromagnetics Symposium (EUROEM) 2016, London: Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2016, article id 7.a.2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, window panes and windows have undergone a virtual revolution with respect to energy saving. Along with this revolution a strong reduction of radio transmission capability through windows has followed. It has been observed that radio communication (e.g. mobile telephony) in newly built or renovated buildings has become increasingly difficult to accomplish due to the higher attenuation in these energy-saving windows. On the upside though, the increased attenuation can help in the protection against intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) and compromising emanations from activities inside the building.

    In this paper we summarize shielding effectiveness (SE) measurements conducted on window panes and window modules during 2014 and 2015 and give some conclusions drawn regarding do’s and don’ts when installing windows.

  • 23.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Elektroteknisk teori och konstruktion.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH, Elektroteknisk teori och konstruktion; SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    High Power Microwave Effects on Coated Window Panes2015In: Asia Electromagnetics Conference (ASIAEM) 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today window panes are usually coated with at least one metal or metal oxide layer to prevent heat energy of the light spectrum from propagating to the other side. This has given problems regarding radio propagation through windows, which might be utilized as a part of a buildings IEMI protection. This paper reports the results from measurements of the shielding effectiveness of a selection of modern window panes before and after irradiation with high power electromagnetic waves. The shielding effectiveness measurements are made in a nested reverberation chamber covering the range 1 – 18 GHz; both before and after high power irradiation at 1.3 GHz. The results show that the shielding effectiveness of window panes may be severely impaired due to thermal stress effects on the coatings during the irradiation, depending of the type of coating.

  • 24.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Elektroteknisk teori och konstruktion.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH, Elektroteknisk teori och konstruktion; SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    Measurement of Radio Signal Propagation through Window Panes and Energy Saving Windows2015In: 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 74-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass windows have undergone an energy saving evolution over the past three, four decades, from single panes till today’s ultralow-emission windows. While the earliest energy saving windows were constructed as a sandwich of clear glass panes using the vacuum-flask principle, modern low-emission windows includes panes with coatings of metal and/or metal oxides. This coating has caused radio propagation problems for communication systems; something that may be utilized to protect a building from intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) attacks and to help protecting against information leakage. In this paper measurements of the shielding performance of different generations of windows and qualities of window panes are presented. The intention is to include the results in a guide-line for IEMI protection of critical infrastructures. Measurements are made using two complementary methods; in a nested reverberation chamber and in a semi-anechoic chamber, both over the range 1 – 18 GHz. The results show a clear generation dependency where the energy saving windows largely do not attenuate RF signals at all and low-emission windows offer shielding effectiveness values between 10 and 45 dB with potentially as much as around 60 dB in the upper half of the spectrum.

  • 25.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH - Royal Institute of Tecknology.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH - Royal Institute of Technology; Saab Aeronautics - SAAB AB.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    Saab Aeronautics - SAAB AB.
    Samuelsson, Carl
    Saab Aeronautics - SAAB AB.
    Skärmverkan och mikrovågseffekter på fönster och fönsterglas2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett allt vanligare fenomen är att mobil telekommunikation inte fungerar i moderna/nybyggda hus. Detta kan härledas till de moderna energisparfönster som monteras in. Denna skärmverkan är inte bara ett problem utan kan också vändas till en fördel i de fall man vill skydda verksamhet från yttre elektromagnetiska störningar, till exempel avsiktlig elektromagnetisk störning (IEMI), samt i de fall då man vill undvika att röjande strålning (RÖS) från elektronisk utrustning läcker ut och kan avlyssnas.

    Här kommer vi presentera resultaten från mätningar av skärmverkan hos dels fönster av olika generation och dels enskilda fönsterglas med olika funktion som används för att bygga upp dessa fönster. Dessutom presenteras resultat från mätningar av hur skärmverkan påverkas vid bestrålning med högeffekts mikrovågsstrålning (HPM).

  • 26.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH - Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH - Royal Institute of Technology.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    Saab Aeronautics - SAAB AB.
    Samuelsson, Carl
    Saab Aeronautics - SAAB AB.
    Skärmverkan och mikrovågseffekter på fönster och fönsterglas2016In: Electronic Environment, no 3, p. 26-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett allt vanligare fenomen är att mobil telekommunikation inte fungerar i moderna/nybyggda hus. Detta kan härledas till de moderna energisparfönster som monteras in. Denna skärmverkan är inte bara ett problem utan kan också vändas till en fördel i de fall man vill skydda verksamhet från yttre elektromagnetiska störningar, till exempel avsiktlig elektromagnetisk störning (IEMI), samt i de fall då man vill undvika att röjande strålning (RÖS) från elektronisk utrustning läcker ut och kan avlyssnas.

    Här kommer vi presentera resultaten från mätningar av skärmverkan hos dels fönster av olika generation och dels enskilda fönsterglas med olika funktion som används för att bygga upp dessa fönster. Dessutom presenteras resultat från mätningar av hur skärmverkan påverkas vid bestrålning med högeffekts mikrovågsstrålning (HPM).

  • 27.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    WLAN IEEE 802.11 i industriella miljöer: en riskabel strategi2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    WLAN är förmodligen den vanligaste trådlösa installationen inom våra industrier idag. Vad få inser är att den lösning de valt i första hand är avsedd för an vändning i kontorsmiljö med helt andra krav på säkerhet och robusthet.

  • 28.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    WLAN IEEE 802.11 i industriella miljöer: En riskabel strategi2012In: Electronic Environment, Vol. 3, p. 24-26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    FOI.
    Limitations of WLAN IEEE 802.11 in Industrial Environments2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Sources of Disturbances on Wireless Communication in Industrial and Factory Environments2010In: 2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, APEMC 2010, 2010, p. 281-284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical and mechanical machinery, highly reflective industrial facilities and co-existing communication systems are the major sources of disturbances in wireless industrial applications. Characterization of industrial environments is important for the development of standards, to assess current and future deployment of wireless technologies, and to provide systems integrators and end user with guidelines. In this paper some deductions from measurements carried out at three industrial environments using traditional electric field strength, amplitude probability distribution (APD) and multipath time dispersion measurements are presented. These measurements have given surprising and interesting results.

  • 31.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oakes, Ben
    KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Maintaining Functional Safety under an Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI) Attack2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of protection against IEMI effects in civilian applications is growing rapidly as more and more societal infrastructure is equipped with electronic devices. This paper discusses methods to help maintaining functional safety in the event of an IEMI attack.

  • 32.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Elektroteknisk teori och konstruktion.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    SAAB Electronic Defence Systems, SAAB AB.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH, Elektroteknisk teori och konstruktion; SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    Shielding Effectiveness Study of Two Fabrics with Microwave Properties Before and After High Power Irradiation2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications: ICEAA 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 930-933Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade several applications forfabrics with electromagnetic properties have emerged, most ofthem relating to garments, including jackets with built-inantennas and workwear with increased radar visibility. Besidethese have surfaced two protective applications, namely toprotect transports of confidential equipment from discoveryand identification; and to protect sensitive apparatus fromdamage by high power electromagnetic irradiation e.g. in fieldoperations. In this paper results are presented frommeasurement of shielding effectiveness before and after highpower radiation for two types of fabrics under considerationfor the latter applications. Shielding effectivenessmeasurements have been conducted between 1 and 18 GHzwhile the high power irradiation

1 - 32 of 32
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