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  • 1.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    AM 557 4to: Studier i en isländsk samlingshandskrift från 1400-talet2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this dissertation is the Icelandic manuscript AM 557 4to, dated to the 15th century. This volume is mainly known for being one of the main sources to Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu and Eiríks saga rauða. The manuscript today contains eight gatherings, and the make-up of it is characterized by a rather large number of defect vellum leaves and no less than 16 lacunae. In two places the script suddenly changes character, which divides the manuscript into three scribal portions, section 1, 2 and 3 (last gathering) respectively.

    The lacunae can in most cases be reconstructed, regarding scope and contents as well as when they have arisen. The two former factors are analysed through a comparison with textual witnesses as closely related as possible to AM 557 4to. The age of the lacunae is chiefly assessed with the help of secondary manuscripts.

    In the process of establishing the typological units in AM 557 4to, the macropaleographic and micropaleographic variation in the manuscript is studied, defined within a graphonomical framework as variation on graph-type and allograph level, respectively. Orthographic variation is defined as variation on grapheme level.

    The micropaleographic variation shows that several differences on this level exist between sections 1 and 2, which indicates that they were written by different scribes. Section 3 shows great similarities with section 1, and these two portions are probably written by the same scribe.

    The investigation of the macropaleographic variation strengthens the assumption of different scribes in sections 1 and 2, as some sudden changes occur when the latter section begins. There are also some macropaleographic differences between sections 1 and 3.

    The orthographic investigation concerns the writing of frequent words, the usage of abbreviations and the representation of the ending -ir. Different orthographical habits are found in sections 1 and 2 regarding almost all the investigated variables, whereas sections 1 and 3 are alike but not identical. This investigation also indicates that section 3 was written before section 1.

    The different studies show that sections 1 and 3 were probably written by same scribe, but section 2 by someone else. It is likely that section 3 from the beginning belonged to the same manuscript as the other sections, but that it originally was placed before the first gathering of the current manuscript.

  • 2. Mårtensson, Lasse
    Anna Catharina Horn: Lov og tekst i middelalderen. Produksjon og resepsjon av Magnus Lagabøtes landslov2018In: European Journal of Scandinavian Studies, ISSN 2191-9399, E-ISSN 2191-9402, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 108-113Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Den fristående redaktionen av Karls þáttr vesæla: Undersökning, utgåva och översättning2013Book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Digital paleografi och den medeltida skriften i Sverige: En introduktion samt en applikation2015In: Kungl. Humanistiska vetenskaps-samfundet i Uppsala = Annales Societatis litterarum humaniorum regiae Upsaliensis, ISSN 0349-0416, Vol. 2014Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet.
    Digital utgåva av den isländska handskriften AM 557 4to2009Other (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Editionsfilologi och språkhistorisk forskning2017In: Kunskap Motstånd Möjlighet: Humanistiskt forskning i dag / [ed] Ulrika Serrander & Peder Tahlén, Halmstad: Molin & Sorgenfrei, 2017, 1, p. 64-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet.
    En ovanlig ordform i den isländska handskriften AM 557 4to2007In: Språk och lagArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Isolerade graftyper i DG 11 (Codex Upsaliensis)2009In: Á austrvega. Saga and East Scandinavia: Preprint papers of The 14th International Saga Conference. Volume 2 / [ed] Agneta Ney, Henrik Williams & Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist, Gävle: University of Gävle , 2009, p. 657-658Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Mårtensson, Lasse
    Maskinell identifiering av skrivtecken i medeltida handskrifter ur ett språkvetenskapligt perspektiv2015In: Danske studier, ISSN 0106-4525, E-ISSN 2246-8323, Vol. 587, p. 109-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet.
    Recension av Names Through the Looking-glass. Festschrift in honour of Gillian Fellows-Jensen July 5th 20062008In: Namn och bygd, ISSN 0077-2704Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Skrivaren och förlagan: Norm och normbrott i Codex Upsaliensis av Snorra Edda2013Book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Studier i Am 557 4to2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this study is the manuscript AM 557 4to, sometimes known as Skálholtsbók. The manuscript contains 12 Icelandic sagas, independent þættir and chivalric sagas (riddarasögur), but it is probably best known for being one of the main manuscripts of Eiríks saga rauða. The manuscript, written in the first half of the fifteenth century, is unremarkable in appearance; many of its leaves are not of full size and were probably like this from the beginning.

    The author discusses the original composition of the manuscript, and also the content of the leaves now missing. A detailed investigation is made of the letter forms and their usage, and also of the orthography. Graphemic analysis is used in characterizing and grouping all the letters and signs in the manuscript; analysis of this data reveals that two scribes were responsible for producing AM 557 4to. The manuscript was previously dated to 1420–50, but the present study suggests that it may be somewhat older. The author compares AM 557 4to with the charter AM dipl. isl. fasc. VII 29, written on January 14, 1420, by one of the AM 557 4to scribes; the investigation suggests that the manuscript was produced before the charter.

    The present study is an important contribution to the field of manuscript studies. The investigation adds to our knowledge of fifteenth-century Icelandic manuscripts and also shows the importance of graphemics in examining medieval script, orthography and scribal hands.

  • 13.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Studier i en isländsk samlingshandskrift från 1400-talet2008In: Kungl. Humanistiska Vetenskaps-Samfundet i Uppsala. Årsbok 2008, p. 189-194Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Uttal, skriftnorm och förlaga: Att identifiera genomslag från förlagan i medeltida västnordiska handskrifterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Översikten över Háttatal i DG 11 4to: dess funktion och ursprung2010In: Gripla, ISSN 1018-5011, E-ISSN 2351-4264, p. 105-145Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Översikten över Háttatal i DG 11 4to: dess funktion och ursprungManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Brun, Anders
    Wahlberg, Fredrik
    Paleografiska egenskaper ur ett digitalt perspektiv2017In: Beyond the Piraeus : Lion East Norse Studies from Venice / [ed] Jonathan Adams & Massimiliano Bampi, København: Universitets-Jubilæets danske Samfund , 2017, Vol. 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Pálsson, Heimir
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Anmärkningsvärda suspensioner i DG 11 4to (Codex Upsaliensis av Snorra Edda): spåren av en skriven förlaga?2008In: Scripta Islandica: Isländska Sällskapets Årsbok, ISSN 0582-3234, E-ISSN 2001-9416, Vol. 59, p. 135-155Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Veturliði, ÓskarssonInstitutionen för nordiska språk, Uppsala universitet.
    Scripta Islandica: Isländska sällskapets årsbok 66/20152015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Wahlberg, Fredrik
    Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Brun, Anders
    Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Digital Palaeography and the Old Swedish Script: The Quill Feature Method as a Tool for Scribal Attribution2015In: Arkiv för nordisk filologi, ISSN 0066-7668, Vol. 130, p. 79-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the so-called Quill Feature method is tested as a means for scribal attribution in mediaeval manuscripts and placed in a palaeographic context. The Quill Features encompass a range of measurable features such as stroke curvature and variation in the width of strokes that graphs are comprised of, giving consideration to the angle at which they are drawn. The construction of the mediaeval pen, the quill, creates variation in the width of strokes, most importantly due to direction and force of pressure. It has been assumed that individual patterns can be discerned in this variation. The manuscript chosen for investigation is Cod. Ups. C 61, which contains a number of St Birgitta's Revelations and other material connected with this saint. Earlier researchers claimed that three or four scribes produced this manuscript, and this assertion was tested with the Quill Feature method. It transpired that the resultant values, calculated through measuring the investigated features, were very similar for the pages produced by the same scribe, which means that the method identifies important regularities in the scribal hands. Nevertheless, some of the investigated hands showed great similarities and were difficult for the computer to separate. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the digital methods of script analysis are discussed. The main advantage of these approaches is that a computer can measure characteristics of the script that cannot be discerned with the naked eye, and with a high degree of exactness. One weakness is that the measurements obtained are given in numbers, and can thus be difficult to apply to the script signs. Furthermore, one single method cannot provide a full description of script characteristics, so a combination of methods, both digital and manual, is desirable.

  • 21.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Óskarsson, VeturlidiUppsala universitet.
    Scripta Islandica: Isländska sällskapets årsbok 64/20132014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Óskarsson, VeturliðiInstitutionen för nordiska språk, Uppsala universitet.
    Scripta Islandica: Isländska sällskapets årsbok 65/20142014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Wahlberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion.
    Brun, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Writer identification using the Quill-Curvature feature in old manuscripts2015In: Proceedings of SSBA, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Wahlberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för bildanalys.
    Dahllöf, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Brun, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för bildanalys.
    Data Mining Medieval Documents by Word Spotting2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 Workshop on Historical Document Imaging and Processing, New York: ACM , 2011, p. 75-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents novel results for word spotting based on dynamic time warping applied to medieval manuscripts in Latin and Old Swedish. A target word is marked by a user, and the method automatically finds similar word forms in the document by matching them against the target. The method automatically identifies pages and lines. We show that our method improves accuracy compared to earlier proposals for this kind of handwriting. An advantage of the new method is that it performs matching within a text line without presupposing that the difficult problem of segmenting the text line into individual words has been solved. We evaluate our word spotting implementation on two medieval manuscripts representing two script types. We also show that it can be useful by helping a user find words in a manuscript and present graphs of word statistics as a function of page number.

  • 25.
    Wahlberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Centrum för bildanalys, Uppsala universitet/Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Dahllöf, Mats
    Inst. för lingvistik och filologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Brun, Anders
    Centrum för bildanalys, Uppsala universitet/Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Spotting Words in Medieval Manuscripts2014In: Studia Neophilologica, ISSN 0039-3274, E-ISSN 1651-2308, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the technology of handwritten text recognition (HTR) as a tool for the analysis of historical handwritten documents. We give a broad overview of this field of research, but the focus is on the use of a method called ‘word spotting’ for finding words directly and automatically in scanned images of manuscript pages. We illustrate and evaluate this method by applying it to a medieval manuscript. Word spotting uses digital image analysis to represent stretches of writing as sequences of numerical features. These are intended to capture the linguistically significant aspects of the visual shape of the writing. Two potential words can then be compared mathematically and their degree of similarity assigned a value. Our version of this method gives a false positive rate of about 30%, when the true positive rate is close to 100%, for an application where we search for very frequent short words in a 16th-Century Old Swedish cursiva recentior manuscript. Word spotting would be of use e.g. to researchers who want to explore the content of manuscripts when editions or other transcriptions are unavailable.

  • 26.
    Wahlberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion.
    Dahllöf, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Brun, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion.
    Word Spotting in Pre-Modern Manuscripts using Dynamic Time Warping2012In: Proceedings of SSBA, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Wahlberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Brun, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion.
    Estimating manuscript production dates using both image and language data2016In: Proceedings of SSBA, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Wahlberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Brun, Anders
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Large scale continuous dating of medieval scribes using a combined image and language model2016In: Proceedings - 12th IAPR International Workshop on Document Analysis Systems, DAS 2016, 2016, p. 48-53, article id 7490092Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the production date of a pre-modern manuscript is commonly a long process in historical research, requiring days of work from highly specialised experts. In this paper, we present an automatic dating method based on modelling both the language and the image data. By creating a statistical model over the changes in the pen strokes and short character sequences in the transcribed text, a combination of multiple estimators give a distribution over the time line for each manuscript. We have evaluated our estimation scheme on the medieval charter collection "Svenskt Diplomatariums huvudkartotek" (SDHK), including more than 5300 transcribed charters from the period 1135 - 1509. Our system is capable of achieving a median absolute error of 12 years, where the only human input is a transcription of the charter text. Since reading and transcribing the text is a skill that many researchers and students have, compared to the more specialized skill of dating medieval manuscripts based on palaeographical expertise, we find our novel approach suitable for helping individual researchers to date collections of manuscript pages. For larger collections, transcriptions could also be collected using crowd sourcing. 

  • 29.
    Wahlberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Brun, Anders
    Uppsala universitet.
    Large scale style based dating of medieval manuscripts2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Historical Document Imaging and Processing (HIP’15), New York: ACM Digital Library, 2015, p. 107-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a novel approach for manuscript dating based on shape statistics. Our goal was to develop a strategy well suited for a large scale dating effort where heterogeneous collections of thousands of manuscripts could be automatically processed. The proposed method takes the gray scale image as input. Uses the stroke width transform and a statistical model of the gradient image to find ink boundaries. Finally, a distribution over common shapes, quantified using shape context descriptors, is produced for each manuscript image. The proposed method is binarization free, rotational invariant and requires minimal segmentation. Also, we propose parameters estimation schemes, simplifying the deployment process. We evaluate our work on the 10000+ manuscripts collection “Svenskt diplomatariums huvudkarotek”, consisting of charters from the medieval period of todays Sweden. The images, originally intended for web viewing, were of low quality and had compression artifacts, but could still be dated with a median absolute error of < 19 years. Due to unsupervised feature learning and regression, we get these results using only 5% of the labels in the estimator training

  • 30.
    Wahlberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Brun, Anders
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scribal Attribution using a Novel 3-D Quill-Curvature Feature Histogram2014In: 14th International Conference on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition (ICFHR 2014), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 732-737Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a novel pipeline for automated scribal attribution based on the Quill feature: 1) We compensate the Quill feature histogram for pen changes and page warping. 2) We add curvature as a third dimension in the feature histogram, to better separate characteristics like loops and lines. 3) We also investigate the use of several dissimilarity measures between the feature histograms. 4) We propose and evaluate semi-supervised learning for classification, to reduce the need of labeled samples. Our evaluation is performed on 1104 pages from a 15th century Swedish manuscript. It was chosen because it represents a significant part of Swedish manuscripts of said period. Our results show that only a few percent of the material need labelling for average precisions above 95%. Our novel curvature and registration extensions, together with semi-supervised learning, outperformed the current Quill feature.

  • 31.
    Óskarsson, Veturliði
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Mårtensson, LasseUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Scripta Islandica: Isländska sällskapets årsbok 67/20162016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
1 - 31 of 31
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