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  • 1.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    “Democracy for me is saying what I want”: The teaching profession on free speech, democratic mission and the notion of political correctness in a Swedish context2019In: Teacher education and the development of democratic citizenship in Europe / [ed] Andrea Raiker, Matti Rautiainen & Blerim Saqipi, Taylor & Francis, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Let’s talk about teacher education!: Analysing the media debates in 2016-2017 on teacher education using Sweden as a case2019In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 1359-866X, E-ISSN 1469-2945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to contribute to research on themedia’s role in naming and framing the debate about teachereducation using Sweden as a case study. This is done by analysinghow articles published in four major Swedish newspapers from2016–2017 define: a) the challenges/strengths of current teachereducation and b) the kind of teacher professionalism that thedescriptions give rise to. Using content analysis, the study showsthat the media mainly emphasises the negative aspects of teachereducation and, in particular, scepticism of the scientific basiswhere postmodernism is regarded as problematic and needingto be replaced by cognitive science due to the insufficient knowledgeof teachers and student teachers, the shortage of teachers inthe country as a whole and disciplinary problems in the classroom.The debate is primarily fuelled by those outside the field ofeducational research, who argue that psychology and neurosciencescholars should have the power to define the contentof education, which indicates a view of professionalism as insideout-professionalism. There are more nuanced approaches to teachereducation as well, but these are marginalised.

  • 3.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Student teachers’ task perceptions of democracy in their future profession – a critical discourse analysis of students’ course texts2018In: Australian Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 1835-517X, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 82-97, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The education system is still important for establishing and maintaining democracy in society. In relation to this, it is reasonable to suggest that teachers’ different interpretations of their mission to teach for democracy will influence their teaching practices. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on student teachers’ task perceptions as a dimension of their professional role to teach for democracy in school. An analysis of Swedish student teachers’ course texts written as an assignment during a course focusing on democracy is conducted using critical discourse analysis as an analytical tool. The task perceptions are described according to two main discourses: as narrow and broad approaches to teaching for democracy. These two approaches are further analyzed in terms of two corresponding strategies for teacher professionalism: outside-in professionalism and inside-out professionalism. The result partly confirms earlier studies of student teachers, where narrow approaches to democracy have been found to be most common.

  • 4.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Olson, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Demokratiperspektiver i svensk lærarutdanning: Tre om svensk lærarutdanning2013In: Demokrati og lærerbevissthet: konferanserapport / [ed] Dag Fjeldstad og Rolf Mikkelsen, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo. Institutt for laererutdanning og skoleforskning , 2013, p. 81-95Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Elm, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Documentation between local professionalism and accountability – a case from the Swedish preschool2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Documentation of pedagogical practise has become a vibrant issue through its relationship with educational policy- and government in many national contexts. Documentation is also regularly used as a tool for local, collegial development, not necessarily driven by the external demands for accounting educational outcomes. Against this background, the practise of documentation could be related to different modes of teacher professionalism; outside-in-professionalism, characterized by teachers as responding to external and standardized demands, and inside-out-professionalism characterized by teachers  as responding to complexity and change, through qualified judgment.   

    Although documentation is regularly employed as a tool for local, collegial development, the responsibility for documentation commissioned by educational authorities remains an assignment, coming with consequences for how to relate this self-initiated local documentation to the demands of the educational authorities. The purpose of this presentation is to investigate the tension, between documentation based in inside-out-professionalism and outside-in-professionalism, by means of a case study from the Swedish preschool.  Our research questions reads: how do external demands of documentation impact on the collegial conditions of documenting practise? How do professional conditions of documenting impact on the external demands of documentation?

    Our analytical point of departure proceeds from the assumption that documentation is shaped from certain positions, interests and perspectives (Vallberg Roth 2012), including the crossing between different interests and logics within educational institutions.  A qualitative case study of one preschool setting in which a long term documentation has been performed, using CoRe (pedagogical content representation) has been adapted as an approach for teaching science, in a practice based research collaboration project, will be related to intentions from the municipality. The gathering of data includes participant observations in preschool and interviews with participating preschool teachers, at municipal briefings, interviews with responsible parties representing the local preschool as educational agency, and by collection of documents. 

    The expected outcomes of our study indicate that preschool teachers are acting between norms of designing documentation from their professional and local interests and that of adapting to the interests of the educational agencies. The first norm is based in their collegial self-defined needs (in collaboration with the researchers) for teaching science in preschool, mainly by teaching science and technology themes, paying attention to preschool children’s responses to science and technology content.  The second norm is characterised by accounting for national goals in the national syllabus, in ways corresponding with the national school system.  The preschool teachers respond to this latter assignment through (professional) deliberations, aiming to deliver material from their everyday work to the agency, while simultaneously keeping the integrity of their own work as separated from the assignment of the agency. These local deliberations and decisions will further be analysed in terms of the dynamic between the two modes of professionalism mentioned above, in light of the local policy context.      

    Our project shed light on conditions shared with several European countries regarding possibilities for sustainable teacher development within broader contexts of demands for accountability impacting on teachers professional work.   

  • 6.
    Elm, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Preschool Teachers´ Professional Development : Teachers and Researchers in Collaboration2019In: ECER 2019: Abstracts, 2019, article id 468Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in many other European countries early childhood education, including preschool, includes teaching in the area of subject knowledge. In Sweden this is related to a changed policy in order to connect preschool with the school system. Since 2011, “teaching” has been established as a new aspect of the preschool’s mandate and, since 2010, subjects like maths, science have been added to the national syllabus. Earlier, subjects has also been part of a preschool tradition already present in Fröbel’s kindergarten. In this earlier approach the intention was not to prepare for the forthcoming school and its subject content. Today, the national preschool syllabus has subject goals that overlaps with those of the school, often stated in a rather detailed, academic form. In addition, the Swedish school inspectorate has also included the preschools in its evaluations. According to the Swedish education act, practice should be based on scientific knowledge and proven experience. These changed directives comes with increasing expectations and demands on the preschool teacher profession for implementing this assignment. In light of this background we aim to support the preschool teachers to develop a professional and inside-out based (Stanley & Stronach 2013) knowledge for acting as professionals in this changed context. In this contribution we will direct our interest on the subject area of science and technology.

    Previous research has identified possibilities or lack of possibilities for science and technology learning in early childhood environments, with a tendency to a ‘diagnostic’ approach to preschool teacher knowledge. However, this research does not go far enough in investigating programs for developing preschool teachers´ science content knowledge (e.g. Nilsson, 2014; Fleer, 2009; Nilsson & Elm, 2017). Against the background of the need for including preschool teachers experiences and knowledge in a fair way (cf. Berry et al. 2008), while simultaneously recognize the need of further development in subject content, in the institutional frame of the preschool, we will address preschool teachers pedagogic content knowledge (PCK). The latter (PCK) refers to teachers´ understanding of the content and experiences and attitudes towards science. Our research question reads: In what ways can collaboration between preschool teachers´ and researchers contribute to preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development with special regard to preschool teachers’ pedagogic content knowledge?

    Our methodological approach is guided by Participatory Action Research (PAR) highlighting the need of a democratic process, developing of practical knowledge related to issues that are of great concern for the participants (Reason & Bradbury 2001). Furthermore, PAR recognizes our partners’ knowledge and experiences as a vital element to be brought into the research process (Brydon-Miller, Greenwood & Maguire, 2003). Thus, an important factor is the interaction between the researcher and the interests within the educational field, in order to promote both researchers and the practitioners work and goals. From this starting point there is initially an explicitly stated drive to meet on equal terms and to support each other to develop.

    The other leg, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) includes teachers’ understanding of how children learn, or fail to learn; in relation to this specific subject matter has been found to be an important matter. That is, a perspective on professional development that focus on preschool teachers´ understanding of the content, pedagogical content knowledge and attitudes towards science (cf. Schulman, 1987; Van Driel & Berry, 2012). Representation of teacher content knowledge (CoRe) by means of a commonly developed table, is systematically used as a tool to trigger preschool teachers´ ideas of both science and technology content as a tool for development and cooperation.

    Methodology or Methods/ Research Instruments or Sources Used

    9 preschool teachers during 1,5 year (currently ongoing) participates in the research project which includes both indoors- and outdoors activities focusing on technology and science content, paying attention to children’s perspectives. The teachers are meeting in reflective group sessions once a month. For this paper data was collected through a qualitative approach consisting of 23 + 29 hours recorded semi structured interviews with the participating preschool teachers from one preschool unit. The interviews were conducted after the first and third semester of participation. Data was then analysed out from thematic content analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006).

    As Braun and Clarke (2006) argue, it is a method that requires researchers to be clear about what they do, why they do it and how the analysis is conducted. The analyses of the data in this study were part of an inductive process from a) transcription → b) identifying emergent initial codes → c) searching for themes → d) reviewing and revising themes → e) defining and naming themes → f) formulating the result (with the starting point in identified and named themes). First, the interviews were transcribed verbatim. Some of the statements made in the interviews that did not correspond to the subject were not transcribed. Second, the data was read, and assigned initial codes.

    The third step involved searching for overall themes, based on the initial codes. In this step, the researchers sorted the data under each theme separately. In the fourth step themes were compared, data were reviewed the themes revised. In this process, similarities were identified in the themes that had emerged in the analysis of the interviews. Related examples of the participants’ learning were examined and refined until consensus was reached. Fifth, to establish the validity of the coding and identified themes, the authors worked to finally define and name the themes. The main data was then compared with the themes and provided a critical overview in terms of aspects being overemphasised, under represented, too vague or biased. The final step in the analysis, with a starting point in the themes, was to formulate the results.

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings

    Our results from the interview data shows that the use of CoRe:s contribute to focus on the specific content in a more systematic way. Some of the preschool teachers expressed how the use of the CoRe:s and the formulation of ‘Big Ideas’ supported them to establish the fundamental ideas of the topic they were teaching. With documentation in CoRe preschool teachers have been able to make visible aspects of their own practice and to see the educational value of a current situation. In their collegial work, the documentation of CoRe contributes to the preschool teachers distancing themselves from their daily practices and makes them evaluate their actions and activities. Further, the use of CoRE seems to provide a different point for innovative change in the preschool development. In this way, the collective knowledge of a team becomes qualitatively different to that of a single individual. In addition, other themes also comprises: improved knowledge of processes for planning; visibility of different aspects in the daily practice and in children's learning processes; a broader view connected to international and national development in preschool and society, and a practice on scientific basis.

     Our research contributes with how “teachers and other professionals on the field of education learn and develop throughout their professional career” in the developing field of early childhood education and its rising expectation of subject knowledge. We also attempt to show how teacher development and the research process is dependent on their reciprocal development in order to be accomplished. In a time characterized by rapid policy changes in the educational systems in Europe, the need for practitioner-researcher collaborations supporting professionalism based on conscious professional agency is of great concern.

    References

    Berry, A., Loughran, J. & van Driel, J.H. (2008) Revisiting the Roots of Pedagogical Content Knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 30:10, 1271-1279.

    Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 3. (2). p. 77-101.

    Brydon-Miller, M., Greenwood, D. & Maguire, P. (2003). Why action research? Action Research, vol. 1. (1). p. 9-28.

    Fleer, M. (2009). Supporting scientific conceptual consciousness or learning in ‘a Roundabout Way’ in play-based contexts. International Journal of Science Education, 31(8), p. 1069–1089.

    Nilsson, P. (2014). When Teaching Makes a Difference: Developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through learning study. International Journal of Science Education, 36(11), 1794-1814.

    Nilsson, P. & Elm, A. (2016). Capturing and developing early childhood teachers´ science Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) through CoRes. International Journal of Science Education, 28 (5), 406-424.

    Reason, P & Bradbury, H (2001). Introduction: Inquiry and participation in search of a world worthy of human aspiration. Peter Reason & Hilary Bradbury (eds.) Handbook of Action Research. London: SAGE.

    Skolverket (2011). Curriculum for the preschool Lpfö98. www.skolverket.se

    Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1-22.

    Stanley, E. and, & Stronach, I. (2013) Raising and doubling ‘standards' in professional discourse: a critical bid. Journal of Educational Policy, 28(3), pp. 291-305.

    van Driel, J. H., & Berry, A. K. (2012). Teacher professional development focusing on pedagogical content knowledge. Educational Researcher, 41(1), 26 - 28.

  • 7.
    Hammarberg, Annie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    The Construction of the Child on Documentation Panels in the Swedish Pre-School2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish pre-school, documentation of children’s activity is mandated in the national syllabus, Lpfö -98 (Skolverket, 2010). There are different documentations, both concerning material, e.g. photos, drawings, videos and for different purposes. One kind of documentation which is prominent for different kinds of actors in the pre-school, is the documentation panels of children’s activities posted on the walls (Helm, Beneke & Steinheimer1998; Kline 2008). Such “publications” can be seen as a case for how the pedagogues are interpreting the task of documenting the activity of the children in relation to their educational goals. However, documentation of children is always a social construction, focusing on certain things while excluding (possible) others. The documentation is not only a presentation of what is going on in the daily practice of the pre-school, but a discursive practice in which children are being constructed in different ways (Lenz Taguchi 2010). Our purpose is to explore how constructions of the child are performed in documentation panels in Swedish pre-schools.  The theoretical framework is taken from post-structural theory and from visual methodology (Rose 2007). The material consists of photographs from documentations from which a selection of documentations has been made. Some preliminary categories are discerned and will be presented in our paper. 

     

    Our preliminary findings show that the child is constructed mostly (but not only) in relation to educational goals which are attached to photographs with an accompanying text, constructing the child as e.g. someone who is learning and as someone being socialized as a “good pal”. The documentation panels focus mainly on good examples, i.e. of successful development and with a claim of capturing such a process in the public documentations. Our project is exploring both the local preconditions as well as the local consequences of the increasing accountability in the pre-school sector, and can be regarded as relevant for educational research in Scandinavia.

  • 8.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Barns möte med undervisning och dess konsekvenser för demokratiskt medborgarskap2010In: Utbildning & Demokrati, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 59-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Child- and subject orientation in Swedish preschool teachers’ practical reasoning2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy for the Swedish preschool has successively adapted its goals in order to prepare for the school system. Åsén & Roth (2012) finds support for a change in Swedish preschool policy and practice towards the culture of school. Support for this change is also found in studies about Swedish preschool teachers increasingly highlighting learning as a basic activity in their work (e.g. Alatalo et al 2016; Alvestad & Berge 2009; Westman & Bergmark 2013; Löfdahl & Perez 2009). Such transformations of early childhood education is not unique for Sweden; tensions between child centered- and subject focused goals, has for a long time been a characteristic in early childhood curricula in Europe. This contribution intends to shed light on this curricular relationship through scrutinizing the professional talk of preschool teachers.

    Since 2011 “Teaching” has been established as a new mission in the preschool and since 2010 subjects like math, science and Swedish language has been added to the national syllabus. By adding these goals, Swedish preschool now shares some general goals with the preschool class – the latter in which most of six year old children participate – and the comprehensive school. However, the Swedish preschool still has to conduct the tradition of being child- and play centered, according to its national syllabus; thus being kept within boundaries as more or less distinct from the school system. Simultaneously, the current approaching to the school system has become more accentuated ever since the national syllabus was introduced 1998 (Folke Fichtelius 2008). Swedish preschool teachers attempts to include children’s interests while paying attention to the national goals is studied by Thörner (2016) focusing (mainly) on recorded everyday situations. An important issue is how these policy changes are approached by the professionals by highlighting on their professional reasoning, regarding the purpose of the preschool in their everyday work.

    In this paper, professional reasoning is approached from the perspective of teachers as social actors in everyday life, shaped by but also re-shaping, the policy context(s) of the preschool. An important dimension of the curriculum is constituted by teachers as curriculum makers (cf. Cuban 1992), in that every curriculum is dependent on how teachers interpret policy in relation to their everyday work. The purpose of this paper is to investigate preschool teachers’ professional talk focusing on the relationship between child- and subject orientation. Discourse analysis will be used an analytic tool focusing on how everyday discourse people borrows from cultural repertoires stemming from a culture’s common-sense way of talking (Potter & Wetherell 1987). The reasoning of the preschool teachers will further analyzed in relation to the policy context foremost formulated on state- and municipal level during the conversation with the preschool teachers. 

    Method

    In order to address complexities of professional reasoning, qualitative interviews performed in the environment of the preschools was done (Potter & Wetherell 1987). 10 preschool teachers participated addressing their specific socio-geographic environment (approximately 50 minutes each). The volume of this sample has been judged as sufficient for the analytic purpose of discerning patterns of complex dilemmatic reasoning across both within individual interviews, and through comparison (of dilemmatic reasoning) between the teacher interviews.  In order to approach teachers’ everyday reasoning the interviews were designed as semi-structured conversations between the preschool teachers and me as a teacher educator, explicitly asking for access with the professional field. An interview guide was sent beforehand and read by all (except for one) preschool teachers before the interview was performed. The preschool teachers were informed about the project including their rights regarding participation, anonymization and proper storing of the data. Data was collected in a variety of social-cultural environments such as middle class areas with high amount cultural and economic capital (n=4/10); multi-ethnical areas with low(er) amount cultural and economic capital (n=5/10) and one mixed area regarding amount cultural and economic capital (n=1/10). 7 preschools was visited, whereof 3 preschools including 1 teacher responsible for educational development and 1 teacher without such a responsibility. However, no typical features characterized the preschool teachers with responsibility for educational development. The interviews were all transcribed verbatim. The interview guide addressed the preschool as preparing for school vs representing a tradition within its own right; experiences of the children vs focus on subject goals; how the preschool teacher was working with the school-like goals and how goals were documented; the latter addressing teacher everyday work (Sheridan et al 2011).  The interview transcript was read systematically, paying notice to relations regarding child, subject- and teacher orientations, i.e. themes where the teachers were focusing on basic values for preschool education. In the preliminary analysis of each interview, dilemmas on the (i) global level, i.e. through the whole transcript, and on (ii) local level within utterance and/or interaction sequence level, was focused.  In line with Potter & Wetherell (1987), discernment of characteristic linguistic repertoires recognizable from established pedagogical traditions has also been highlighted. Examples of linking the two dimensions were also noted.

    Expected Outcomes

    Regarding the purpose of the preschool, when the “child” and comparisons with school was topicalized, the preschool teacher´s draws on child-centered repertoires. Boundaries of child- respective subject centeredness are manifested when comparing preschool with school.  However, when school-like ”goals” in the syllabus is focused, teacher-centered repertoires were instead prominent, in which boundaries distinguishing preschool from school was dissolved. These opposing themes (cf. Wetherell et al. 2001) are mostly located in different contexts (within the individual interview) appearing as two different and parallel logics, rather than as one coherent logic. Thus, to address relations between preschool and school implied boundary talk, while addressing subject knowledge in the syllabus – sometimes related to future participation in school – did not. Dilemmatic tensions are also manifested locally i.e. within many sequences and utterances. Talk addressing the general purposes of preschool could be interpreted as local answers to top-down state policy due to its proper affirmations of different directives in the policy texts (cf. Biesta et al 2017).  However, connections between children’s experiences and school-like subjects were also formulated in the language of everyday work, such as listening for children’s initiatives and developing themes, more or less corresponding to content knowledge in the syllabus with interests within the group of children. This professional talk is expressed in temporal modes, like “first… and then” and focused on both children and the goals in the syllabus. Thus, the child- and subject foci do not appear only as separated but also as co-present and related to teacher judgement (Author 2014) when everyday professional work is addressed; i.e. themes of content knowledge and being continually sensitive to interests of the children. Such professional reasoning could be interpreted as creative ways of handling tensions implicitly present in the national syllabus, regarding the general purpose(s) of the preschool.

    References

    Alatalo, T, Meier, J & Frank, E (2016) Transition between preschool and preschool class: A question about interweaving care and Knowledge. Early Childhood Educational Journal, 44: 155.

    Alvestad, M & Berge, A (2009) Svenske førskolelærere om læring i planlegging og praksis relatert til den nasjonale læreplanen. [Swedish preschool teachers on planning and praxis in relation to the national syllabus]. Nordisk barnehageforskning [Nordic early childhood education research] (2), 57–68.

    Author (2014) ---------------

    Biesta, G, Priestley, M & Robinson, S (2017) Talking about education: exploring the significance of teacher´s talk for teacher agency. Journal of Curriculum Studies. 49:1, 38-54.

    Cuban, L (1992) Curriculum stability and change. In Jackson, Philip (ed.) Handbook of Research on Curriculum. American Educational Research Association, 216-247.

    Folke-Fichtelius, M (2008). Förskolans formande: statlig reglering 1944-2008. [The shaping of preschool. State regulation 1944-2008] Diss. Uppsala: Uppsala universitet.

    Löfdahl, A & Pérez, H (2009) Between control and resistance: planning and evaluation texts in the Swedish preschool. Journal of Education Policy, 24, 4, 393-408.

    Potter, J & Wetherell, M (1987) Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. London: Sage.

    Sheridan, S, Williams, P Sandberg, A & Vourinen (2011) Preschool teaching in Sweden – a profession in change. Educational Research, 53: 4, 415-437.

    Thörner, A (2016) ”Vi kan inte bara utgå från barnens intresse”. Pedagogers guidning av barns intresse i förhållande till förskolans målstyrning. [”We cannot only base it on the children's interest” - Educators guidance of children's interest in relation to goals and guidelines.] Högskolan i Borås.

    Westman, S & Bergmark, U (2014) A stengthened teaching mission in preschool: teachers´experiences, beliefs and strategies. International journal of early years education. Vol. 22, No. 1, 73-88. 

    Wetherell, M,Taylor, S & Yates,S (2001) Discourse as Data: A Guide for Analysis. London, UK: Sage.

    Åsén, Gunnar & Vallberg Roth, Ann-Christine (2012) Utvärdering i förskolan: en forskningsöversikt. [Evaluation in preschool: reveiw of research ] Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 10.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Citizenship Education in Discussions Concerning Political Issues2012In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 77-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Citizenship education in discussions concerning “political” issues2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Demokratiskt deltagande: Diskussionen som undervisning och demokrati2011Book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Den sociala konstruktionen av att förstå skolmatematik i forskningsintervjuer2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Attention to students cognitive states is an important issue in educational research. Educational research as well as testing practises generally is however dependent on communicative work in order to achive a credible picture of how the student perceive the teaching subject. The purpose in this paper is to study sequences of interaction produced in research interwievs with 14 year math students, designed to capture students thinking on school maths. The interwievs are designed as post-lesson interwievs after the lesson. The analysis of these research interwievs shows that talk on student thinking math is not a neutral medium and that the interaction has obvious similarities with teachers student interaction (IRE). This study also has implications for general educational questions concering teachers possibilities to validiate the knowledge of students in the classroom interaction.

  • 14.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Det demokratiska samtalet2011In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Dialogical Practise in Stockholm2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Dialogue-oriented theologies in the Swedish context2012Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Dilemmas in classroom discussions – teachers’ practical deliberations as a prerequisite for democratic education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to problematize evidence based approaches for understanding mundane teacher-student interaction by showing how education for democracy involves teachers’ handling of dilemmas between goals for promoting students’ personal engagement in controversial issues and to teach for critical thinking; further, I will argue that such knowledge is important for educating teachers to promote students development into a critical democratic participation. A case is taken from a Swedish religious studies classroom chosen from a larger classroom study about teacher student interaction in discussions about controversial issues. The case makes visible the dilemmatic praxis in which the teacher has to use her own judgment in order to promote a qualified democratic participation of the students, which also could be seen as an important part of teacher education. The visibility of such judgments however seems to be excluded in the discourse of evidence based teaching.   

  • 18.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Educating for critical, sustainable learning in early years – policy expectations and practical deliberations among Swedish preschool teachers2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Education for Citizenship in Swedish RE - Approaches and Dilemmas in Teachers’ Talk2017In: Religion & Education, ISSN 1550-7394, E-ISSN 1949-8381, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 317-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, religious education (RE) has successively developed into a school subject that aims to foster democratic citizenship that is characterised by social cohesion and tolerance of religious and life stance differences. This can be interpreted in different ways by teachers in the RE curriculum. The article presents 4 different approaches to how RE teachers in Sweden teach democratic citizenship in RE. Each approach has its own dilemmas and conflicting positions. Shedding light on teachers’ reasoning about these approaches and the resulting dilemmas contributes to the understanding of education for democratic citizenship in Swedish RE.

  • 20.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Education for interreligious dialogue and interreligious understanding: A comparative pilot study of two educational projects2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If the plural society is in need of interreligious dialogical encounters it is important to study if and in what way(s) educational projects can contribute to this process, and what possibilities and constrains such initiatives are associated with. The focus of this study is therefore on educational projects with a more or less distinct aim to develop interreligious understanding and an attitude of (partly) taking the perspective of the others religious faith.  In order to shed light on this issue I have conducted a comparative field study (cf. Broadfoot 2002) of two educational projects in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. One of these projects is located outside school and the other is carried out in classrooms in the Swedish school. By comparing these projects it becomes possible to make “the familiar strange” in each project and to contribute to a discussion of possibilities and constrains in education for interreligious understanding.

    The first project is located in an institution specialized in youth projects, many of them aiming for social integration. This project has three leaders representing three religions (Islam, Judaism and Christianity) and youth who are participating on voluntary basis for a (intended) period of three years. The other project is based on a teaching method, where the students assume roles in religious narratives taking from Islamic, Jewish and Christian traditions. By such role taking their predispositions for intercultural and interreligious understanding is intended to increase.

    The field study is conducted by interviews with the pedagogical responsible, i.e. youth leaders and teachers, in both projects; three leaders in the youth projects and four teachers in the classroom project. The interviews focus on their intentions for their respective project. By comparing the interviews in each case and between the two cases, the design makes it possible to capture how the actors formulate their goals and to see this in relation to their practical experiences. The approach enables a richer characterization of the projects intentions that is not offered on home pages and in other public presentations and therefore a deeper analysis of them.

    The main purpose of my paper is to describe and to compare how the pedagogical responsible understand and communicate the intentions of their projects. Based on an analysis of this, I will also discuss how the intentions of the pedagogical responsible are shaped by the context of their work, and some of the possibilities and constrains that the projects may have for developing interreligious understanding. The paper outlines four main themes: The motivation for their project in relation to the social environment where it is implemented; the notion of learning and development; the approach to similarities and differences and the notion of “dialogue”.   

  • 21.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Elevcentrerade undervisningsfilosofier som pedagogisk paradox2007In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Student centered philosophies of teaching as pedagogical paradox.The idea of student centered teaching is complex. In this study I approachthis subject by the notion of student activity and student discovery. Through these concepts the idea of having the student as point of departure becomes most distinct in the sense that the teachers knowledge is put more or less in the background in order to support the knowledge of the student. This idea may, however, be problemized by investigating the social interaction in the classroom. Through an empirical and theoretical investigation of typical situations in the classroom I develop three main conclusions: the student is always a subject in a web of social interactions with other participants, and

    not a private discoverer; the active and discovering student is more or less dependent on the teachers professionally recognized knowledge, and, finally; some students are better prepared for doing active discoveries than other students, which makes their dependence on the teacher even more visible. It is argued that the notion of activity and discovery has to be reformulated to include the social interaction with the teacher in order to be a practical possibility in the everyday life of the classroom.

  • 22.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Förskollärares professionella undervisningskunskap2019In: Förskola, barn och lärande – didaktik i förskolan / [ed] Kerstin Bäckman, Annika Elm, Lena O Magnusson, Liber, 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet visas hur förskollärare har utvecklat professionell kunskap om undervisning i förskolan. Kapitlet fokuserar hur spänningen mellan ämnescentrering och barncentrering i läroplanen hanteras av förskollärare i deras praktiska arbete. Med grund i en intervjustudie kunde deras tillvägagångssätt sammanfattas i fyra didaktiska kategorier som åsyftar ett medvetet arrangemang för barns lärande. Jag hävdar i kapitlet att förskollärare kan förstås som särskild grupp lärare som undervisar i förskolans sammanhang. 

  • 23.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    How Interreligious Buildings Influence Interreligious Neighbourhood Relations: The Case of the God's House Project in a Stockholm Suburb2018In: Religion and Dialogue in the City: Case Studies on Interreligious Encounter in Urban Community and Education / [ed] J. Ipgrave, T. Knauth, A. Körs, D. Vieregge, M. von der Lippe, Münster/New York: Waxmann Verlag, 2018, p. 159-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Klassrummet som diskussionsarena2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the dissertation is to study whole class discussions in the Swedish upper secondary school, concerning issues subjected to controversy in the public debate. The empirical study is related to a wider question: the possibilities for the school to educate democratic citizens.

    By using discourse analysis,14 videotaped lessons from social- and religious studies where analysed, with the ambition to investigate recurrent patterns of participation and meaning making. Five teachers and six classes participated in the study.

    The analysis shows that the teachers have two concurrent goals: to focus on the students’ contributions on issues in the public debate, and introduce the students to different questions in the public debate. A consequence of these goals is that the role of the teacher often becomes complex. By acting on the basis of having responsibility for the students’ development of knowledge, and sometimes also calling attention to certain values, the teacher attempts to guide the students as not yet ready for the public debate. Features from other kinds of teacher-centred education are thereby present in the discussions. However, students can also act as more autonomous participants in relation to the teacher. When they are not answering the teacher’s questions in an expected way, and in particular, in situations in which they are interacting with each other, the students may discuss the public issues without being teacher-guided to the same extent as in other situations.

    The last chapter concludes that the authority of the teacher is partly given by the official steering-documents. It is still possible to ask if the guiding role of the teacher itself could be subjected to discussion. This suggestion is made from the point that teacher authority is considered as more or less limited for developing a critical attitude among the students. One may also ask if the students’ could be offered possibilities to choose the topic for discussion themselves. This latter point is made against the background that classroom-discussion presupposes student’s viewpoints in order to be accomplished.

  • 25.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Konstruktionen av ungdomars syn på religion och samhälle i International Civic and Citizenship Education Study2015In: Det postsekulära klassrummet: mot ett vidgat religionskunskapsbegrepp / [ed] David Carlsson & Peder Thalén, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2015, p. 39-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Maintaining and Transforming Bridging Capital in a Swedish Interreligious Youth Project2019In: Interreligious Engagement in Urban Spaces: Social, material and ideological dimensions / [ed] Ipgrave, Julia, Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study of an interreligious youth project social capital is understood as an individual disposition, i.e. the participants in the study rely on their former and parallel experiences of capital as a social resource. In order to maintain the project as a sustainable network, norms and sanctions that are adapted to particular situations by means of relations work supporting social trust, are necessary. The study has shown that social capital is a vulnerable category that needs to be maintained by conducted bridging capital. Bonding capital contributes to bridging capital, but also seems to create a complex relationship between them. This is due to the fact that bonding operates through another selective logic than bridging capital, namely the bolstering of the (more) narrow social self. Norms and sanctions are the basic components for achieving bridging capital, although bonding also operates within partly excluding bonding mechanisms. 

    Keywords: youth project; individual disposition; conducted capital; norms; sanctions; excluding bonding 

  • 27.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Om betydelsen av lärarens vägledning och omdöme2015In: Kontroversiella frågor: Om kunskap och politik i samhällsundervisningen / [ed] Ljunggren, Carsten, Unemar Öst, Ingrid & Englund, Tomas, Lund: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2015, 1, p. 135-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Place and conditions for democratic action in multicultural NGO encounters2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Place and conditions for democratic education in interreligious encounters2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Presentation of Swedish data in the REDCO-project2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Religion and Swedishness: Swedish students' attitudes to religion and nationality2018In: Religion and Dialogue in the City: Case Studies on Interreligious Encounter in Urban Community and Education / [ed] J. Ipgrave, T. Knauth, A. Körs, D. Vieregge, M. von der Lippe, Münster/New York: Waxmann Verlag, 2018, p. 263-274Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Religions as Similar and Different According to Swedish Religious Studies Teachers2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this session is to explore empirically and to discuss theoretically religious studies teachers understanding of religious diversity. In my study of 9 religious study teachers (4 female; 5 male) in the Swedish secondary compulsory school I have found two main approaches to understand religious diversity. One is that different religious traditions are expressions of something common for all humans; e.g. a common human need or a universal ethic manifested as a core in all world religions. The other approach is that different religions are developed in different socio-cultural contexts and responding to different cultural needs. In the second part, the religious studies teachers’ approaches to religious diversity are analyzed in relation to different consequences for acting as citizens in a plural society. In the last part I will outline some possibilities concerning religious pluralism from the perspective of citizenship education.    

     

  • 33.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Religions constructed as similar or different by teachers of religious education from a citizenship education perspective2015In: British Journal of Religious Education, ISSN 0141-6200, E-ISSN 1740-7931, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 240-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore and theoretically discuss Swedish religious studies (RE) teachers’ understanding of religions as similar and different. In Sweden, RE is a mandatory subject and presents all the world’s major religions to students. Teachers of RE therefore need to relate to the various relations between the religions. A qualitative interview study with Swedish RE teachers (n  = 7) in Swedish secondary schools was performed to determine how they conceptualise religion and present ‘religion’ to their students. The teachers (m = 3; f = 4) were chosen from schools with a variety of ethnically homogenous and heterogeneous compositions of students. The teachers’ conceptions of ‘religion’ can be described according to two main categories: as something universal or as something dependent on the cultural context. These two main orientations are described more closely in this paper. The teachers’ conceptions are also discussed from the perspective of possible consequences for educating citizens in the Swedish school system. It is suggested that RE teachers’ conceptions of religions as similar and different facilitate and constrain identification and encounters with others as religious subjects.

  • 34.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Religionskunskapslärares resonemang om den komplicerade mångfalden2018In: Religion & Livsfrågor, Vol. -, no 2, p. 9-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Religiosity and Engagement in Religious Studies: Attitudes among Swedish Students2014In: Religious Education Journal of Australia, ISSN 0815-3094, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden RS (Religious studies) is a mandatory nonconfessional school subject, with the purpose to teach about religions and secular views of life. Such curricular design is connected to the development of Swedish society as one of the most secularized countries in the world with an increasing cultural and religious pluralism. Since school subjects aiming at citizenship education are more or less dependent on students’ engagement, this paper investigates whether such an engagement in RS is dependent on students’ religious vis-a-vis a secular orientation to life. The purpose of this paper is to investigate engagement for Swedish RS among religiously and non-religiously engaged groups of students in the Swedish secondary school. Eight items from the REDCO II questionnaire were used in this study. The result partly supported former studies on this subject. In the concluding section some didactic issues are discussed on the experience of religiously engaged students.

  • 36.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Religious Thinking Case Study 1: Dialogue Discussion Group2019In: Interreligious Engagement in Urban Spaces: Social, material and ideological dimensions / [ed] Ipgrave, Julia, Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates interreligious discussion groups where participants in interreligious projects or activities can meet to talk face-to-face, i.e. listen to each other and address issues that directly or indirectly concern religious pluralism, religion and different life stances. Discussions are not just about talking but are strongly related to relations and networking by relying on rules and norms for the conversations. Another finding was a general observation in our data that religious differences are used as a means for learning about other religions, as compared with community and side-by-side activities which instead were characterised by the emphasis on the commonalities. When differences were highlighted in discussion groups the asymmetry in knowledge between those belonging to a religion and those not belonging to that religion was established. We also found that truth claims were regularly downplayed and that religion instead was presented through personal stories. Another feature was the sharing of common experiences such as being a religious minority in a secularised society.  

    Keywords: face-to-face; rules and norms; asymmetries of knowledge; truth claims; stories; common experiences  

  • 37.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Religious Thinking Case Study 5: Community Consultation2019In: Interreligious Engagement in Urban Spaces: Social, material and ideological dimensions / [ed] Ipgrave, Julia, Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses interreligious community consultations, an activity in which people of different religious or non-religious identities are brought together to consult with each other on community issues or negotiate specific community projects. Religious thinking in the context of community consultations is often related to secular actors although the internal motivations may be religious. The former is due the fact that interreligious groups are situated in western secular society and as a consequence of this rely on a secular discourse. It is clear that a secular language impacts on theology and the possibilities for adopting religious thinking. However, this is not the case for all consultations. Our results point to the hybridity rather than the homogeneity of talking and thinking in public. The necessity of community consultation is thus clearly related to the mundane situatedness of interreligious dialogue rather than to a transcendent reality. In such an environment, theology implies different ways of relating religious motives to the mundane situatedness of interreligious work.                     

    Keywords: community projects; secular discourse; internal motivation; hybridity; secular language; mundane situatedness  

  • 38.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Skolkarriärer som social interaktion: exempel från matematiklektioner2004In: Sociala handlingar och deras innebörder: lärande och identitet / [ed] Melander, Helen, Pérez Prieto, Héctor & Sahlström, Fritjof, Uppsala: Pedagogiska institutionen , 2004, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Social capital and education in interreligious NGO encounters2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Spatial Dimension: Concluding Chapter Imagined Meaning, Embodied Meaning, Contested Meaning2019In: Interreligious Engagement in Urban Spaces: Social, material and ideological dimensions / [ed] Ipgrave, Julia, Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conclusion summarises and develops seven cases studies aiming to shed light on the spatial condition for urban interreligious projects. The characteristic of cooperation may (partly) be contrasted to religious pluralism characterised by competition, conflict and violence. As physical spaces for meeting, rooted in the histories of areas and of communities, the places in question are the sites where visions and perceptions meet material and social realities. We attempt to show that the aim of cooperation is intertwined in relationships originated in both perceptions and visions of places and through interactions in the embodiments related to physical constructions. Linked to vision and embodiment are the negotiations and contestations that are often found to be present when examples of cooperation are analysed regarding how place is enacted and interpreted by the groups and individuals involved. The interreligious activities highlighted in these cases illuminate dilemmatic situations when actors representing and belonging to different religious communities encounter each other with the main purpose to cooperate. 

    Keywords: visions; perceptions; physical construction; embodiment; negotiations; dilemmatic 

  • 41.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Spatial Dimensions Case Study 4: The Church Area of Fisksätra, Stockholm2019In: Interreligious Engagement in Urban Spaces: Social, material and ideological dimensions / [ed] Ipgrave, Julia, Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study highlights the interplay between different levels of smaller and larger spatial scales in an interreligious neighbourhood project in Stockholm, Sweden. The interreligious project is aiming to integrate a mosque with the current church building, operating with different materials and media in its public representations. On a small micro level, artefacts enact the project as a means for its public realisation, using micro model representations in front of the visiting public the image of a house-in-the-making and as an example of peaceful living in Sweden. By hosting the building project, the urban district also becomes an ideal city model for integration in a multicultural (liberal) Sweden in public media. The church area as a place for peacebuilding is symbolically locating the church area on Swedish national territory as a promising example of peace and a model directed outside the neighbourhood. 

    Keywords: neighbourhood; scales; urban district; church area; national territory; ideal city

  • 42.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Spatial Dimensions Case Study 5: Fryshuset Centre, Stockholm2019In: Interreligious Engagement in Urban Spaces: Social, material and ideological dimensions / [ed] Ipgrave, Julia, Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study focuses on a large building hosting an interreligious youth project. Fryshuset as a neutral and secular building is recognized in the political dimension of Together for Sweden, where human rights, multiculturalism and adaptation to a new situation characterised by immigration, stands out. A more or less individualised way of being religious (or nonreligious) becomes intertwined with the purpose of the house and the ideas of its founder. Fryshuset is described by Together for Sweden members as an open place for developing something new; an interreligious ‘we’ through initiatives of religious youth. Due to the general purpose of Fryshuset, the interreligious work is characterised as being part of a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. Simultaneously, when young religious people enter Fryshuset, it is also employed and partly transformed for religious purposes.   

    Keywords: youth project; secular building; neutral; interreligious ‘we’; human rights; individualised  

  • 43.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Structures of religious thinking – Dialogue project members in Stockholm (Urban strand)2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Swedish national church as a (questioned) actor in the multi-religious society: a case study of a debate in public and church media2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden as most other countries in Europe can be characterized as a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. One of the most prominent actors in inter-religious relations is the Swedish national church. However, such involvement can also be subject for public criticism and debate. Different expectations concerning cooperation with the Swedish Muslim community became visible in the public media and in national church media when an assembly in Stockholm decided to hire an imam in a multi-religious youth project. This media case highlights social tensions on the national level as well as within the church, concerning the role of the national church as an actor in the interreligious society. The purpose of this contribution is to analyse this debate with a focus on the arguments used by the debaters. A second purpose is to analyse how the young people are portrayed in this debate. The material is based on articles in Swedish public media and Swedish national church media during Mars to September 2011. The debate mainly focuses on the borders for what should be included and excluded by a national church in a multi-religious society.

  • 45.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Teacher education for democratic participation: the need for teacher judgement in times of evidence-based teaching2014In: Citizenship, social and economics education, ISSN 1478-8047, E-ISSN 2047-1734, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to national and international policy, teachers' work is supposed to be guided by reliable evidence in order to be effective and achieve the set goals. The purpose of this article is to problematise evidence-based approaches for teacher education by highlighting the occurrence of dilemmas in teachers' work connected to the assignment of educating democratic citizens. The article is a critical theoretical discussion that takes its departure in the teaching paradox of supporting students' initiatives to act as critical citizens. In order to address the current trend of anchoring teacher education in evidence-based methods, Swedish policy documents are used as a point of reference and are read through the lens of the teaching paradox and the need for teacher judgement. The analysis shows that policy texts fall short when it comes to the assignment to support students to take part in society as critical citizens. It is concluded that teacher education could gain from theoretically based case studies of dilemmatic everyday situations in which teaching for democratic participation is visible.

  • 46.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    The borders between preschool and school: Swedish preschool teacher's perspectives2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research aims

    Policy for the Swedish preschool has successively adapted its goals in order to prepare for the school system. However, the task of interpreting this assignment is given to preschool teachers. The purpose is to study how Swedish preschool teachers interpret the assignment to prepare preschool children for school.

    Relationship to previous research works

    Åsén & Roth (2012) finds support for a change in Swedish preschool policy and practice towards the culture of school. Further support for this change can be found in studies about Swedish preschool teachers (e.g. Alatalo et al 2016 Alvestad & Berge 2009; Westman & Bergmark 2013; Löfdahl & Perez 2009).

    Theoretical and conceptual framework

    The conceptual framework is taken from curriculum theory (Folke Fichtelius 2008) and dilemma theory (Wetherell et al 2001) focusing on actors tension filled interpretation(s) of concurrent ideals in everyday life.

    Paradigm, methodology and methods

    Within a qualitative research paradigm, semi-structured interviews are performed with individual preschool teachers in their preschool environment.

    Ethical Considerations

    The preschool teachers was contacted and informed about the project including their rights regarding participation, anonymization and proper storing of the data.

    Main finding or discussion

    The preliminary results show that school-like goals in the preschool syllabus are approached as a child-based curriculum "for an enriched life", and by this transcending a narrow school centred curricula. However, the possibilities of including every child are dependent on the social background and interest of the child.

    Implications, practice or policy

    This study could provide teachers with insights about possibilities and limitations regarding how preschool may include local culture and children’s voices in the context of hegemonizing policies towards narrow skills.

  • 47.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    The Church of Sweden as a (Contested) Actor in a Multi-religious Society: A Case Study of the Imam Debate in Public and Church Media2015In: Journal of Dialogue Studies, ISSN 2054-3131, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 87-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden can be characterised as a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. One of the most prominent actors in interreligious relations is the Church of Sweden. However, such involvement is also open to criticism, both within the church and in public debate. Different expectations concerning cooperation with the Swedish Muslim community became visible in the public media and in the national church media when a congregation in Stockholm engaged an imam for a multi-religious youth project. This paper examines the arguments relating to the mission of the church as a church for Swedish people in a pluralistic society, and discusses some of the consequences of these arguments for interreligious relations and dialogue. The material is based on articles published in Swedish public media and Swedish church media between March and September, 2011. The debate, analysed through five sub-themes, focuses on the borders of what should be included and excluded by a national church in a multi-religious society and the national church’s responsibility for caring for religious minorities. The paper concludes with a discussion about issues of power regarding the church as an initiator of dialogue, and how different actors are represented in the media.

  • 48.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    The place and conditions for democratic education in interreligious encounters2018In: Religious education, ISSN 0034-4087, E-ISSN 1547-3201, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the spatial and environmental conditions for democratic education in an interreligious project. The interreligious project provides a case for applying Dewey´s concepts of experience and environment. Four kinds of experiences are presented: invited places - being a guest, common meeting points - shaping an interreligious "we", nomadic places - sharing everyday life and school as a secular public place - acting in public. It is concluded that educational experience is shaped by acting in a variety of environments. However, dimensions of power are also present in the context of civil life and should be taken into consideration.

  • 49.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    The Value of RE for Citizenship Education According to Swedish RE-Teachers2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish RE has the purpose to teach about religion and to present a comprehensive view of different traditions. However, this assignment can be interpreted in different ways by different RE-teachers with different consequences for the education of citizens. In this contribution RE-teachers are considered as socialization agents representing an important part of the enacted curriculum. The purpose of this contribution is to explore Swedish RE-teachers notions of citizenship education in relation to RE as a subject in the compulsory school with a special reference to education for democratic citizenship. A second purpose is to analyze possible implications for civic social action. In order to explore how teachers interpreted their assignment a semi-structured interview study was carried out. The theoretical point of departure is based on a pragmatical analysis of moral political consequences.

  • 50.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    The Value of RE for Citizenship Education According to Swedish RE-Teachers – multiculturalism and individual thinking2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of Religious Education (RE) in Sweden is to teach about religion and to present a comprehensive view of different traditions. However, this assignment can be interpreted in different ways by different RE teachers with different consequences for the education of citizens. In this contribution RE-teachers are considered as socialization agents representing an important part of the enacted curriculum. The purpose of this contribution is to explore Swedish RE teachers’ notions of citizenship education in relation to RE as a subject in the compulsory school, with special reference to education for democratic citizenship. A second purpose is to analyze possible implications for civic social action. In order to explore how teachers interpret their assignment, a semi-structured interview study was carried out and data were categorized according to content analysis. The theoretical point of departure was based on the pragmatic analysis of (potential) moral political consequences. A (preliminary) categorization of the teachers’ responses was developed according to the following themes: learning democratic values from religions; learning to cope with differences; learning for correcting prejudices; acquiring tools for a personal political.

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