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  • 1.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    School of Business Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Ingela
    City of Gothenburg, Parks and Landscape Administration, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Landscape Analysis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Urban Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A framework for assessing urban greenery's effects and valuing its ecosystem services2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 205, p. 274-285, article id S0301-4797(17)30940-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes. The framework is unique as it recognizes that an urban greenery comprises several components and functions that can contribute to multiple ecosystem services in one or more ways via different functional traits (e.g. foliage characteristics) for which readily measured indicators have been identified. The framework consists of five steps including compilation of an inventory of indicator; application of effectivity factors to rate indicators' effectiveness; estimation of effects; estimation of benefits for each ES; estimation of the total ES value of the ecosystem. The framework was applied to assess ecosystem services provided by trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and bees, in green areas spanning an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden. Estimates of perceived values of ecosystem services were obtained from interviews with the public and workshop activities with civil servants. The framework is systematic and transparent at all stages and appears to have potential utility in the existing spatial planning processes.

  • 2.
    Butler, Andrew
    et al.
    Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    Field Forest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sarlöv Herlin, Ingrid
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Ångman, Elin
    Institutionen för Stad och Land, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Foraging for identity: the relationships between landscape activities and landscape identity after catastrophic landscape change2019In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we deal with landscape activities in relation to changing landscape identity after a major wildfire in Sweden in 2014. The aim was to investigate the relationships between 22 landscape activities (before the fire) and 2 components (emotion and cognition) of landscape identity (before and after the fire). A total of 656 respondents living nearby the fire area participated in this study. Before the fire, a positive association was found between the activities of enjoying nature and foraging, and both components of landscape identity. This suggests that the more participants enjoyed nature and picked berries and mushrooms, the stronger their attachment to the landscape (emotion), and the more they remembered and reasoned about the landscape (cognition). Post fire, these relationships were found only between the two components of landscape identity and foraging. This implies a significant role of this type of activity for keeping alive' landscape identity.

  • 3.
    Butler, Andrew
    et al.
    Institutionen för Stad och Land, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Sarlöv-Herlin, Ingrid
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ångman, Elin
    Institutionen för Stad och Land, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    FieldForest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Landscape identity, before and after a forest fire2018In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 878-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our identity is tied to where we are and how we engage with the landscapes in which we find ourselves. But what happens if the landscape which we use for our everyday life is drastically altered by a catastrophic upheaval, for example, when forest fires ravage the landscape? In this paper, interviews with individuals affected by the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history are used to exemplify our conceptualisation of how landscape identity is impacted by dramatic change. We address the phases of stability, change and progression in relation to the case. Finally, we propose that landscape identity can be utilised as a central concept for engaging with the social aspects of the impact of forest fires.

  • 4. Eliasson, I
    et al.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, U
    Thorsson, S
    Lindström, F
    Urban climate spaces: A multidisciplinary project2006In: The sixth International Conference on Urban Climate, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5. Eliasson, I
    et al.
    Thorsson, S
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Klimatet vänder turistströmmar2009In: Miljöforskning, ISSN 1650-4925, no 1, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    aDepartment of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Fredholm, Susanne
    aDepartment of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heritage Planning in Practice and the Role of Cultural Ecosystem Services2018In: Heritage & Society, ISSN 2159-032X, E-ISSN 2159-0338, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 44-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the role of cultural ecosystem services in heritage planning by examining daily working processes at the municipal and county planning levels. The focus was on the cultural ecosystem service dimensions of cultural heritage, place identity, and aesthetic and existential values. Cultural ecosystem service dimensions are currently inadequately represented in research and application of the ecosystem service concept. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with public officials with formal assignments directly related to heritage planning. The results show that cultural ecosystem services are indeed considered in the planning processes, even though the respondents did not actually use the ecosystem service approach. Despite institutional and methodological constraints, respondents were found to aim for a broad planning approach involving dimensions of the landscape such as historic time depth, human use of the landscape, place identity, landscape views, and a strong integration between culture and nature. Thus, the results indicate a potential for integration of cultural ecosystem service dimensions into the ecosystem service approach by utilizing existing knowledge and practices within heritage planning at the local and regional levels. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 7.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ljungdahl, Ewa
    Gaaltje, Sydsamiskt kulturcentrum, Östersund.
    Hanneryd, Ola
    Härjedalens Fjällmuseum AB, Funäsdalen.
    Karlsson, Eva
    Länsstyrelsen i Jämtlands län.
    Fjäll som kultur?2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Fjällområdet är ett kulturlandskap där människor bott och verkat under tusentals år. Naturen har satt gränsen för människans livsvillkor och möjlighet att överleva. Här har växt- och djurliv slipats och formats och det är bara arter med hög grad av anpassning som överlevt. 

    Vi ser fysiska lämningar efter mänskliga aktiviteter, men det finns också minnen, berättelser och kunskap som förs vidare från generation till generation.

    Denna skrift är en sammanfattning av resultaten från projektet Fjällandskap: betydelsen av kulturella ekosystemtjänster som har varit ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Göteborgs universitet, Högskolan i Gävle, Länsstyrelsen i Jämtlands län, Fjällmuseet i Funäsdalen och Gaaltije, sydsamiskt kulturcentrum. Projektet är en del av forskningsprogrammet Storslagen fjällmiljö.

  • 8.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet. Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Climate and behaviour in a Nordic city2007In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 82, no 1-2, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four urban public spaces, representing various designs and microclimates, were investigated in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to estimate how weather and microclimate affect people in urban outdoor environments. The research strategy was both multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary and included scientists from three disciplines: architecture, climatology and psychology. The project is based on common case studies carried out during four seasons, including measurements of meteorological variables, interviews and observations of human activity at each place. Multiple regression analysis of meteorological and behavioural data showed that air temperature, wind speed and clearness index (cloud cover) have a significant influence on people's assessments of the weather, place perceptions and place-related attendance. The results support the arguments in favour of employing climate sensitive planning in future urban design and planning projects, as the physical component of a place can be designed to influence the site-specific microclimate and consequently people's place-related attendance, perceptions and emotions.

  • 9.
    Fredholm, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Conservation of historical landscapes: What signifies ‘successful’ management?2018In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 735-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the management of an industrial heritage site in Sweden, which local stakeholders and heritage planners have claimed to be successful. This status of excellence is investigated in relation to the general, county-wide applied heritage planning. The results show that key factors for successful management of the industrial heritage site are not related only to conservation work, but also to personal engagement, sense of responsibility, and well-being among participants. However, heritage planners generally lack methods to address immaterial values and socio-economic benefits of engaging in heritage activities, resulting in a separation between physical and communal aspects of heritage planning. The results highlight the issue of professional legitimacy and the challenges for heritage planners to address regional policy objectives, such as finding ways to utilise historic landscapes in destination-driven strategies and to simultaneously support civil engagement in heritage-related issues. © 2017 Landscape Research Group Ltd

  • 10.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, c/o Department of EcologySwedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sang, Åsa
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and ManagementSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Effects of biodiversity and environment-related attitude on perception of urban green space2017In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 37-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green space in cities contributes to the quality of life for city dwellers, e.g., by increasing the opportunity for recreation. However, perception of urban green space is influenced by multiple factors. We investigated effects of biodiversity and environment-related attitudes on visual and auditory perceptions of urban green space. Field measurements of biodiversity were conducted in six sites across an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden, and three categories of biodiversity—high, medium, low—were established. Households were sent a survey on aesthetic perception of urban green space, sound perception and the importance of trees and plants for the perception of bird species. Each respondent focused on the site that was located nearby. The environment-related attitudes comprised “Nature-oriented” and “Urban-oriented” persons and were based on participants’ own attitude estimations. It was shown that participants’ “subjective” aesthetic and sound-related perception of urban greenery were in line with the “objectively” measured subdivisions of high, medium and low biodiversity. So also were their estimations of the importance of trees and plants for perception of bird species in urban greenery, although differing only between high and medium/low biodiversity conditions. Persons rating themselves as highly nature-oriented were shown to give higher scores to urban green space aesthetics and to value greenery-related sounds higher, and to attach greater importance to trees and plants in their perception of bird species in urban greenery, than less nature-oriented persons. Highly urban-oriented persons compared to less urban-oriented persons did the same, but only regarding urban greenery-related aesthetics and sounds of nature. We conclude that environment-related attitudes influence perceptions of green space. Moreover, our findings support the idea that biodiversity per se also influences perceptions; people value green space significantly more with high than with low measured biodiversity. Urban planning needs to provide city inhabitants with green spaces that are species-rich, lush, varied and rich with natural sounds.

  • 11.
    Hedblom, M.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedenås, H.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blicharska, M.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adler, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore .
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Mikusiński, G.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden; School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Svensson, J.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, P.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wardle, D. A.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore.
    Landscape perception: linking physical monitoring data to perceived landscape properties2019In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the landscape affect not only people’s well-being but also how people perceive and use the landscape. An increasing number of policies have highlighted the importance of conserving a landscape’s recreational and aesthetical values. This study develops and evaluates a model that links people’s perceptions of a mountain landscape to physical monitoring data. Using a questionnaire, we revealed how respondents working with the Swedish mountains characterise the Magnificent Mountain landscape (as defined by Swedish policy objectives) and translated these characteristics into data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS). We found 14 potential indicators that could be derived from the existing NILS physical monitoring data and which could be used to monitor changes in the landscape values as perceived by people. Based on the results, we suggest how to simultaneously utilise field sampling of physical data and field photos to provide temporal information about landscape perception.

  • 12.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resource Management, Umea, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Iravani, Behzad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Schaefer, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Div Appl Acoust, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lundstrom, Johan N.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Monell Chem Senses Ctr, Philadelphia, PA USA.;Univ Penn, Dept Psychol, 3815 Walnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.;Stockholm Univ, Brain Imaging Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reduction of physiological stress by urban green space in a multisensory virtual experiment2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 10113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although stress is an increasing global health problem in cities, urban green spaces can provide health benefits. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the link between physiological mechanisms and qualities of urban green spaces. Here, we compare the effects of visual stimuli (360 degree virtual photos of an urban environment, forest, and park) to the effects of congruent olfactory stimuli (nature and city odours) and auditory stimuli (bird songs and noise) on physiological stress recovery. Participants (N = 154) were pseudo-randomised into participating in one of the three environments and subsequently exposed to stress (operationalised by skin conductance levels). The park and forest, but not the urban area, provided significant stress reduction. High pleasantness ratings of the environment were linked to low physiological stress responses for olfactory and to some extent for auditory, but not for visual stimuli. This result indicates that olfactory stimuli may be better at facilitating stress reduction than visual stimuli. Currently, urban planners prioritise visual stimuli when planning open green spaces, but urban planners should also consider multisensory qualities.

  • 13.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Stockholm University Brain Imaging Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sounds of Nature in the City: No Evidence of Bird Song Improving Stress Recovery2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 8, article id 1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. In this study, while respondents (n = 117) watched a 360 degrees virtual reality (VR) photograph of a park, they were exposed to different soundscapes and mild electrical shocks. The soundscapesbird song, bird song and traffic noise, and traffic noisewere played during a 10 min recovery period while their skin conductance levels were assessed as a measure of arousal/stress. No significant difference in stress recovery was found between the soundscapes although a tendency for less stress in bird song and more stress in traffic noise was noted. All three soundscapes, however, significantly reduced stress. This result could be attributed to the stress-reducing effect of the visual VR environment, to the noise levels being higher than 47 dBA (a level known to make masking ineffective), or to the respondents finding bird songs stressful. Reduction of stress in cities using masking with natural sounds requires further studies with not only larger samples but also sufficient methods to detect potential sex differences.

  • 14.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, B.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bird diversity improves the well-being of city residents2017In: Ecology and Conservation of Birds in Urban Environments / [ed] Enrique Murgui, Marcus Hedblom, Springer, 2017, p. 287-306Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are increasingly becoming urbanized. Because a number of bird species readily live in urban areas and birds are relatively easily observed, birds are becoming the largest everyday encounter with wild fauna people will have, globally. Despite, few studies have been made on how visual (or acoustic) bird encounter affects humans. The few existing studies show that birds provide humans with increased self-evaluated well-being when seeing and hearing them. These values provided by birds can be recognized as a cultural ecosystems service. Here we review extant literature to consider why certain species fascinate humans more than others, and some can increase well-being and provide ecosystem services, while others offer disservices through unappealing characteristics. We particularly highlight indications of links between species diversity and well-being. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for variations in our responses to birds and birdsong associated with age, gender, childhood, contact with nature, and the biophilia theory. If interaction with birds truly increases quality of life, then this value should be considered in the planning of sustainable cities. Both conservation and proper management of existing urban green areas are needed to increase possibilities to encounter many bird species. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

  • 15.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sang, A. Ode
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, B.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of natural sounds in urban greenery: potential impact for urban nature preservation2017In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 170037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most humans now live in cities and their main experience of nature is through urban greenery. An increasing number of studies show the importance of urban green spaces for wellbeing, although most of them are based on visual perception. A questionnaire examining people’s evaluations of natural sounds was answered by 1326 individuals living near one of six urban green areas of varying naturalness in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. Women and the elderly reported greater calmness when hearing bird song and rustling leaves (and placed a higher importance on the richness of bird species) than did men, younger and middle-aged individuals. Independent of age and gender, urban woodlands (high naturalness) had higher evaluations than parks (low naturalness). Our results suggest that to increase positive experiences of urban green areas, demographic variables of gender and age should be taken into account, and settings that mimic nature should be prioritized in planning.

  • 16.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of noise, heat and indoor lighting on cognitive performance and self-reported affect2001In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    A model of artificial biotope and organism: Luminous environment and gender : effects upon mood and cognition.1993Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Affective and cognitive reactions to subliminal flicker from fluorescent lighting2014In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 97-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study renews the classical concept of subliminal perception (Peirce & Jastrow, 1884) by investigating the impact of subliminal flicker from fluorescent lighting on affect and cognitive performance. It was predicted that low compared to high frequency lighting (latter compared to former emits non-flickering light) would evoke larger changes in affective states and also impair cognitive performance. Subjects reported high rather than low frequency lighting to be more pleasant, which, in turn, enhanced their problem solving performance. This suggests that sensory processing can take place outside of conscious awareness resulting in conscious emotional consequences; indicating a role of affect in subliminal/implicit perception, and that positive affect may facilitate cognitive task performance. 

  • 19.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Allmän kontorsbelysning: Effekter på sinnesstämning och intellektuellt arbete1994Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Attachment and identity as related to a place and its perceived climate2005In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 207-218Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Autobiographical memories for places2006In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 359-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The purpose of the present exploratory study was to investigate operations and contents of a naturally occurring reminiscence for physical places in 26 Swedish participants. Using Conway and Pleydell-Pearce's (2000) model of autobiographical memory as a framework, two main questions were examined. First, in what sense are physical places ingredients of our selves-that is, of our self-knowledge-and, if so, how are they and their characteristics organised in the autobiographical knowledge base? Second, what form do personal memories for places take and what kinds of meanings and emotional contents do we bind to this type of reminiscence? The results showed that the Swedish participants' most important places in their lives were mainly childhood- and cottage-related rural types of milieus, and mostly categorised as summarised events; that is, frequently revisited. The personal recollections of the place-related event-specific knowledge were mostly of the generic imagery type, comprising semantic, perceptual, and emotional contents related to the "self'', "others'', and the "environment''. The memories mainly reflected on the participants' growth period and feelings of activation and pleasantness. This was more pronounced in older (M = 59) than in younger (M = 35) participants. All this indicates that physical places can serve as thematic pathways guiding reminiscence and self-knowing consciousness as we recollect details of perceptual, semantic, and emotional characters of periods in our lives.

  • 22.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Changes in females' and males' positive and negative moods as a result of variations in CCT, CRI and illuminance levels.1997In: Right Light 4 Proceedings., 1997, p. 149-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knez (1995a) reported two experiments on the indirect, non-visual, psychological effects of the office lighting which varied correlated colour temperature (CCT), colour rendering index (CRI), illuminance and gender ?in a factorial, between-subject, experimental design (Kirk, 1968). The separate analyses of these experiments did not, however, enable a conclusive interpretation of the CRI parameter?s impact on subjects? emotional state. As a follow-up analysis, the present paper synthesised statistically the experiments reported in Knez (1995a) into one experiment. This revealed several new results, showing a combined impact of the CCT, CRI and illuminance parameters on females? and males? positive and negative mood.

  • 23.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Climate: A nested physical structure in places2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Det är stort att tänka fritt, men större att tänka rätt.2000In: Ljuskultur, ISSN 0024-5429, no 6, p. 28-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of colour of light on nonvisual psychological processes2001In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 201-208Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Emotionella effekter av ljusfärg.1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Estimation of the hypothesis hierarchy in probabilistic inference tasks.1992In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there a hierarchical order among the hypotheses about functional rules in probabilistic inference tasks, i.e. what is the construction and the procedure of the "hypothesis sampling mechanism" employed by the subjects in this kind of task? According to the hypothesis sampling model initially proposed by Brehmer ( 1974) there should be a hierarchical order among the hypotheses in the subject's hypothesis pools. The procedures of hypothesis sampling and testing ought to follow this strict data independent order (see e.g. Sniezek, 1986; Brehmer, 1987). Knez (199]a,b) showed, however, that this assumption may be incorrect. As a follow up to these results the question regarding the construction of the subject's hypothesis pools was reapproached in the present study. The results indicated a consistency with the hierarchical assumption (Brehmer, 1974) only regarding the relation between the linear and nonlinear rules but not within these types of rules.

  • 28.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Individuelt lysmiljö efterlyses1997In: LYS, no 2, p. 87-90Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Interaction of data and hypotheses in probabilistic inference tasks: Rejection of the hypothesis sampling model?1991In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Life goals, self-defining life-goal memories, and mental time travel among young women and men going through emerging versus entering adulthood: An exploratory study2017In: Psychology of Consciousness, ISSN 2326-5523, E-ISSN 2326-5531, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 414-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of gender and age in emerging (M = 22 years of age) versus entering (M = 28 years of age) adulthood on participants’ ratings of life goals, self-defining life-goal memories, and goal-related mental time travel, as well as the relations within the goal category (i.e., home, work/education, money, social life, close relationships, health/fitness, and emotions/feelings). Life goals in the present age cohort were predominantly about health/fitness, and the self-defining life-goal memories were mostly about emotions/feelings, close relationships, work/education, and social life containing mostly the phenomenology of emotional intensity and coherence. Age effects on life-goal ratings and goal-related mental time travel showed that life goals and mental monitoring of personal future may vary across the psychosocial maturation periods of emerging and entering adulthood. No effects of gender were obtained, probably due to similar concerns shared by males and females in terms of goals and aspirations in the age cohort assessed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 31.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Ljusets psykologiska inverkan2005In: Svenska Miljöpsykologi / [ed] Maria Johansson & Marianne Küller, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, p. 71-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Memories for Climate and Places2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Non-visible flicker from fluorescent lighting: Psychological impact2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Non-visual effects of colour temperature and illuminance: Some practical implications.1995In: Proceedings of Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage 23rd session, Vienna: Central Bureau of CIE , 1995, p. 180-183Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Place and the self: an autobiographical memory synthesis2014In: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 164-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I argue that the relationship between place and self can be accounted for by recent theoretical work on autobiographical memory. The link between place and self is conceptualized as a transitory mental representation that emerges as a place of mine (personal autobiographical experience) from a place (declarative knowledge). The function of place of mine is to guide personal memory and self-knowing consciousness of periods of our lives. I combine inquiries of memory, self, and place in a triadic relationship, a synthesis, suggesting a conceptual model for the phenomenon of place-related self as a sub-system of the self. This is formed by a causal progression from a physical place across time via emotional and cognitive bonds, components of the autobiographical information grounding the self, apportioned across declarative memory. Finally, using the methods of factor analysis and structural equation modeling, I show that the proposed model accounts for previous and new data on place-related identity.

  • 36.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Subjects´ inferential performance and the interaction of data and hypotheses in probabilistic inference tasks.1992In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 56-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper, Knez (1991) showed an interaction of data and hypotheses in probabilistic inference tasks. The results illustrated two, earlier not obtained, significant main effects on subjects' hypothesis sampling, viz. the effect of different forms of data presentation and subjects' execution of cognitive control over their hypothesis pool throughout the series of trials. The present paper followed up these results in that the subjects' hypothesis testing, in Knez (1991) was subjected to an analysis. Hence, to see if the effects mentioned above significantly influenced the subjects' hypothesis testing. as they did for subjects' hypothesis sampling. The results showed a consistency with Knez (1991), i.e. the results emphasize the interaction of data and hypothesis in probabilistic inference tasks, as well as the subjects' execution of cognitive control over their hypothesis pool concerning both the subjects' hypothesis sampling and testing.

  • 37.
    Knez, Igor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    To know what to know before knowing: acquisition of functional rules in probabilistic ecologies1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Toward a model of work-related self:: a narrative review2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 331Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational work as personal and social identification can be conceptualized as one of the life goals that we strive for and find meaning in. A basic categorization of the phenomenon of work-related identity is suggested, based on psychological theories of identity, memory and relational schema. It distinguishes between organizational, workgroup and professional identity. The two former relate to the concepts of social identity and collective self and the latter to the concepts of personal identity and individual self. These are assumed to form functionally independent cognitive structures, leading to separate motivations and influences on work-related satisfaction. Given this, empirical research on the impact of work-related identity on employee satisfaction, in general terms, is reviewed. The article concludes with some prospective directions for future research by sketching a general model of work-related self. It is hypothesized to evolve by a causal progression from employment across time via emotional and cognitive components.

  • 39.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Towards a non-visual psychology of light.2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Butler, A.
    Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Ode Sang, Å.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Alnarp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ångman, E.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sarlöv-Herlin, I.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Alnarp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Åkerskog, A.
    Fieldforest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Before and after a natural disaster: disruption in emotion component of place-identity and wellbeing2018In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 55, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate relationships between emotion and cognition components of place-identity and wellbeing, before and after a natural disaster. A total of 656 respondents, living near the area of the largest forest and landscape fire in modern times in Sweden, participated in this study. Before the disaster, a positive association was found between place-identity and wellbeing, indicating that the stronger emotions participants evolved to the place, as well as remembered more and thought about the place, the stronger wellbeing they experienced at the site. After the disaster, the strength of this relationship decreased more than twice, accounted for by the weakening of the emotion-wellbeing link. Accordingly, participants almost lost their emotional bond to the area but maintained their memories and thoughts about the site intact and, by that, their positive wellbeing associations with the location. This indicates tentatively the phenomenon of post-traumatic growth, type of resilience involving operations of cognitive appraisal. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 41.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Relationships between Personal and Collective Place Identity and Well-Being in Mountain Communities2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no JAN, article id 79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county (N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite sites, and tourism and alpine for collective favorite sites. According to quantitative analyses the stronger the attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place identity) residents felt to favorite personal and collective sites the more well-being they perceived when visiting these places. Similarly, the more remembrance, thinking and mental travel (cognitive component of place identity) residents directed to these sites the more well-being they perceived in these places. In both types of sites well-being was more strongly predicted by emotional than cognitive component of place-identity. All this indicates the importance of person-place bonds in beneficial experiences of the outdoors, over and above simply being in outdoor environments.

  • 42.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    El-Nasr, M.S.
    Niedenthal, S
    Almeida, P
    Zupko, J
    Dynamic Lighting for Tension in Games2007In: Game Studies, ISSN 1604-7982, E-ISSN 1604-7982, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of office lighting on mood and cognitive performance, and a gender effect in work-related judgement1998In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 553-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents an investigation of the effects of the recommended office lighting on subjects' mood and cognitive performance in the physical setting of an office. In addition, a gender effect in the performance appraisal task was examined, both as a between- and within-subject factor. The results showed no significant effect of the lighting on the performance of cognitive tasks. However, an interaction between gender and color temperature on mood showed that 3000K (more reddish) and 4000K (more bluish) office lighting may communicate different affective loadings or meanings to each gender. The cognitive workload induced by almost 2 hours of intellectual work diminished the subjects' positive mood and augmented a negative mood. Moreover, independently of their gender, the raters evaluated the neutral female significantly different from the neutral male ratee. Implications of these findings for the mood effects of indoor lighting and the gender effect in work-related judgment are discussed.

  • 44.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hjärpe, Daniel
    Bryngelsson, Mari
    Predicting Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Work-Related Self2019In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the links between work-related identification, conceptualized, and operationalized as the work-related self (WS), and the “good soldier syndrome” (organizational citizenship behavior [OCB]). More precisely, we investigated the relationships between emotional and cognitive components of WS and OCB dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, civic virtue, and sportsmanship. A total of 147 subjects working within the Swedish public sector participated in this study. As hypothesized, WS significantly predicted OCB. A positive association was found between the emotional component of WS and OCB dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue. This suggests that the “good soldier syndrome” might be, to some extent, accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of work bonding, especially, highlighting the importance of the emotional component of work-related identification. 

  • 45.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Irrelevant speech and indoor lighting: effects on cognitive performance and self-reported affect2002In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 709-718Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    The circumplex structure of affect: a Swedish version2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 389-398Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kers, Christina
    Effects of indoor lighting, gender, and age on mood and cognitive performance2000In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 817-831Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ljunglöf, Louise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Willander, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Self-grounding visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories2017In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 52, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4 years, participated in a study involving a three × three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self. Furthermore, there was a trend showing positive autobiographical memories to increase their proportion to both cognitive and emotional components of the self, from olfactory to auditory to visually cued autobiographical memories; but, yielding a reverse trend for negative autobiographical memories. Finally, and independently of modality, positive affective states were shown to be more involved in autobiographical memory than negative ones. 

  • 49.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Löfberg, H. A.
    Belysningsforskningen i Sverige och internationellt 2000 och framtida svenska FoU-insatser2000Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Löfberg, Hans-Allan
    Underlag till kvalitetskriterier för inomhusbelysning: Ett urval1995Book (Other academic)
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