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  • 1. Andrienko, Gennady
    et al.
    Dykes, JasonJiang, BinUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    GeoViz Hamburg 2011: Linking geovisualization with spatial analysis and modeling2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Behnisch, Martin
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Hecht, Robert
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Herold, Hendrik
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Urban big data analytics and morphology2019In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 46, no 7 (SI), p. 1203-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Benenson, Itzhak
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Human Environment University Tel Aviv.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Editorial : Bridging the Gap between Urban and Regional Modeling, and Planning Practice2012In: Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, ISSN 1045-8077, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Benenson, Itzhak
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Human Environment, University Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Jiang, BinUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Special issue: GIS in Spatial Planning2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    3D geovisualization as a communication and analysis tool in fluvial geomorphology2004In: Geoinformatics 2004: proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics - Geospatial Information Research: Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic, University of Gävle, Sweden, 7-9 June 2004, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2004, p. 339-346Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology get more and more attention in the general public. The reason for this is changed climate patterns with increased frequencies of storms and river flooding and as a result changed geomorphology and living conditions for the inhabitants of the area. With the development of 3D geovisualization, hydrological and geomorphological processes can be better simulated and visualized. Thus not only the domain specialists, but also the general public can appreciate very complex hydrological processes and resulting geomorphology. This is of great value since a high frequency of storms and flooding has been a big issue for politicians, planners, and the general public. It is in this sense that 3D geovisualization can be an important tool for analysis and communication. Complex hydrological and geomorphological processes can be effectively simulated and analyzed by the domain specialists while efficient and effective visualization provides a common platform for communication among domain specialists and the general public. This paper will discuss and illustrate these issues using a case study of geomorphology along the Reventazón River, downstream from the Cachí Reservoir in Costa Rica, due to the release of extreme amounts of sediment during flushing of the reservoir.

  • 6.
    Chen, Yanguang
    et al.
    Department of Geography, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hierarchical scaling in systems of natural cities2018In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 20, no 6, article id 432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchies can be modeled by a set of exponential functions, from which we can derive a set of power laws indicative of scaling. The solution to a scaling relation equation is always a power law. The scaling laws are followed by many natural and social phenomena such as cities, earthquakes, and rivers. This paper reveals the power law behaviors in systems of natural cities by reconstructing the urban hierarchy with cascade structure. Cities of the U.S.A., Britain, France, and Germany are taken as examples to perform empirical analyses. The hierarchical scaling relations can be well fitted to the data points within the scaling ranges of the number, size and area of the natural cities. The size-number and area-number scaling exponents are close to 1, and the size-area allometric scaling exponent is slightly less than 1. The results show that natural cities follow hierarchical scaling laws very well. The principle of entropy maximization of urban evolution is then employed to explain the hierarchical scaling laws, and differences entropy maximizing processes are used to interpret the scaling exponents. This study is helpful for scientists to understand the power law behavior in the development of cities and systems of cities. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 7. Ivan, Igor
    et al.
    Benenson, ItzhakJiang, BinUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.Horák, JiříHaworth, JamesInspektor, Tomáš
    Geoinformatics for intelligent transportation2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    KTH.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Building and analyzing the US airport network based on en-route location information2012In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 391, no 15, p. 4031-4042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a complex network perspective, this study sets out two aims around the US airport network (USAN) which is built from en-route location information of domestic flights in the US. First, we analyze the structural properties of the USAN with respect to its binary and weighted graphs, and second we explore the airport patterns, which have wide-ranging implications. Results from the two graphs indicate the following. (1) The USAN exhibits scale-free, small-world and disassortative mixing properties, which are consistent with the mainstream perspectives. Besides, we find (2) a remarkable power relationship between the structural measurements in the binary graph and the traffic measurements in the weighted counterpart, namely degree versus capacity and attraction versus volume. On the other hand, investigation of the airport patterns suggests (3) that all the airports can be classified into four categories based on multiple network metrics, which shows a complete typology of the airports. And it further indicates (4) that there is a subtle relationship between the airport traffic and the geographical constraints as well as the regional socioeconomic indicators.

  • 9.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. Division of Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Exploring human activity patterns using taxicab static points2012In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 89-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the patterns of human activities within a geographical space by adopting the taxicab static points which refer to the locations with zero speed along the tracking trajectory. We report the findings from both aggregated and individual aspects. Results from the aggregated level indicate the following: (1) Human activities exhibit an obvious regularity in time, for example, there is a burst of activity during weekend nights and a lull during the week. (2) They show a remarkable spatial drifting pattern, which strengthens our understanding of the activities in any given place. (3) Activities are heterogeneous in space irrespective of their drifting with time. These aggregated results not only help in city planning, but also facilitate traffic control and management. On the other hand, investigations on an individual level suggest that (4) activities witnessed by one taxicab will have different temporal regularity to another, and (5) each regularity implies a high level of prediction with low entropy by applying the Lempel-Ziv algorithm.

  • 10.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. Division of Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Carling, Kenneth
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden .
    Bolin, Magnus
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden .
    Ban, Yifang
    Division of Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    An empirical study on human mobility and its agent-based modeling2012In: Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, ISSN 1742-5468, E-ISSN 1742-5468, no 11, p. P11024-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyze the GPS traces of 258 volunteers in order to obtain a better understanding of both the human mobility patterns and the mechanism. We report the regular and scaling properties of human mobility for several aspects, and importantly we identify its Levy flight characteristic, which is consistent with those from previous studies. We further assume two factors that may govern the Levy flight property: (1) the scaling and hierarchical properties of the purpose clusters which serve as the underlying spatial structure, and (2) the individual preferential behaviors. To verify the assumptions, we implement an agent-based model with the two factors, and the simulated results do indeed capture the same Levy flight pattern as is observed. In order to enable the model to reproduce more mobility patterns, we add to the model a third factor: the jumping factor, which is the probability that one person may cancel their regular mobility schedule and explore a random place. With this factor, our model can cover a relatively wide range of human mobility patterns with scaling exponent values from 1.55 to 2.05.

  • 11.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    A city is a complex network2015In: A City is Not a Tree: 50th Anniversary Edition / [ed] Michael W. Mehaffy, Portland, OR: Sustasis Press , 2015, 1, p. 89-100Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city is not a tree but a semilattice. To use a perhaps more familiar term, a city is a complex network. The complex network constitutes a unique topological perspective on cities and enables us to better understand the kind of problem a city is. The topological perspective differentiates it from the perspectives of Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics that deal with essentially regular shapes and more or less similar things. Many urban theories, such as the Central Place Theory, Zipf's Law, the Image of the City, and the Theory of Centers can be interpreted from the point of view of complex networks. A livable city consists of far more small things than large ones, and their shapes tend to be irregular and rough. This chapter illustrates the complex network view and argues that we must abandon the kind of thinking (mis-)guided by Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, and instead adopt fractal geometry, power-law statistics, and Alexander's living geometry to develop sustainable cities.

  • 12.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    A complex-network perspective on Alexander's wholeness2016In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 463, p. 475-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains somehow mysterious and elusive, and therefore hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty for sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks — a classification scheme and a visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution, in order to make Alexander’s profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander’s thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty that exists in fine and deep structure. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their wholeness, and to better understand how the kind of structural beauty emerges from local actions guided by the 15 fundamental properties, and in particular by differentiation and adaptation processes. The wholeness goes beyond current complex network theory towards design or creation of living structures.

  • 13.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    A different topology: moving from geometry to geography2005In: GEO Informatics, no March, p. 21-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A recursive definition of goodness of space for bridging the concepts of space and place for sustainability2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15, article id 4091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander through his life's work, The Nature of Order, wholeness is defined as a mathematical structure of physical space in our surroundings. Yet, there was no mathematics, as Alexander admitted then, that was powerful enough to capture his notion of wholeness. Recently, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed that is capable of addressing not only why a space is good, but also how much goodness the space has. This paper develops a structural perspective on goodness of space (both large- and small-scale) in order to bridge two basic concepts of space and place through the very concept of wholeness. The wholeness provides a de facto recursive definition of goodness of space from a holistic and organic point of view. A space is good, genuinely and objectively, if its adjacent spaces are good, the larger space to which it belongs is good, and what is contained in the space is also good. Eventually, goodness of space, or sustainability of space, is considered a matter of fact rather than of opinion under the new view of space: space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living, or more sustainable or less sustainable. Under the new view of space, geography or architecture will become part of complexity science, not only for understanding complexity, but also for making and remaking complex or living structures. 

  • 15.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    A short note on data-intensive geospatial computing2011In: Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography, Berlin: Springer , 2011, p. 13-17Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    A structural perspective on visibility patterns with a topographic surface2005In: Transactions on GIS, ISSN 1361-1682, E-ISSN 1467-9671, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 475-488Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A topographic surface can be modeled as a graph, a visibility graph in terms of how each point location is visible to every other. This paper demonstrates various structural properties of visibility patterns with a topographic surface from a graph perspective, which could be important for landscape planning. This paper illustrates the fact that the visibility graph with a topographic surface is a small-world. This finding implies that the average visual separation between any two point locations with a surface is very short (i.e. a small separation), and the visible locations to a given location have a high possibility of being visible to each other (i.e. a high clustering level). Additionally we show that the visibility graph exhibits an exponential distribution rather than a power law distribution, i.e. it is not scale-free, in contrast to many other real world networks.

  • 17.
    Jiang, Bin
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    A topological pattern of urban street networks: universality and peculiarity2007In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 384, no 2, p. 647-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we derive a topological pattern of urban street networks using a large sample (the largest so far to the best of our knowledge) of 40 US cities and a few more from elsewhere of different sizes. It is found that all the topologies of urban street networks based on street-street intersection demonstrate a small world structure, and a scale-free property for both street length and connectivity degree. More specifically, for any street network, about 80% of its streets have length or degrees less than its average value, while 20% of streets have length or degrees greater than the average. Out of the 20%, there are less than 1 % of streets which can form a backbone of the street network. Based on the finding, we conjecture that the 20% streets account for 80% of traffic flow, and the I% streets constitute a cognitive map of the urban street network. We illustrate further a peculiarity about the scale-free property.

  • 18.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    A Topological Representation for Taking Cities as a Coherent Whole2018In: Geographical Analysis, ISSN 0016-7363, E-ISSN 1538-4632, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 298-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city is a whole, as are all cities in a country. Within a whole, individual cities possess different degrees of wholeness, defined by Christopher Alexander as a life-giving order or simply a living structure. To characterize the wholeness and in particular to advocate for wholeness as an effective design principle, this article develops a geographic representation that views cities as a whole. This geographic representation is topology-oriented, so fundamentally differs from existing geometry-based geographic representations. With the topological representation, all cities are abstracted as individual points and put into different hierarchical levels, according to their sizes and based on head/tail breaks-a classification and visualization tool for data with a heavy tailed distribution. These points of different hierarchical levels are respectively used to create Thiessen polygons. Based on polygon-polygon relationships, we set up a complex network. In this network, small polygons point to adjacent large polygons at the same hierarchical level and contained polygons point to containing polygons across two consecutive hierarchical levels. We computed the degrees of wholeness for individual cities, and subsequently found that the degrees of wholeness possess both properties of differentiation and adaptation. To demonstrate, we developed four case studies of all China and U.K. natural cities, as well as Beijing and London natural cities, using massive amounts of street nodes and Tweet locations. The topological representation and the kind of topological analysis in general can be applied to any design or pattern, such as carpets, Baroque architecture and artifacts, and fractals in order to assess their beauty, echoing the introductory quote from Christopher Alexander.

  • 19.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Bottom-up approach to studying the street structure and human movement patterns2010In: Workshop on Movement Research: Are you in the flow?, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Computing the image of the city2012In: Planning Support Tools: Policy analysis, implementation and evaluation: Proceedings of the 7th Int.conf.on Informatics and Urban and Regional planning INPUT / [ed] Campagna M., De Montis A., Isola F., Lai S., Pira C. and Zoppi C., 2012, p. 111-121Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Cybercartography: theory and practice2007In: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 186-187Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Data-intensive geospatial analysis and computation2010In: online proceeding, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Jiang, Bin
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Flow dimension and capacity for structuring urban street networks2008In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 387, no 16-17, p. 4440-4452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to measure the efficiency of urban street networks (a kind of complex networks) from the perspective of themultidimensional chain of connectivity (or flow). More specifically, we define two quantities: flow dimension and flow capacity, tocharacterize structures of urban street networks. To our surprise, for the topologies of urban street networks, previously confirmedas a form of small world and scale-free networks, we find that (1) the range of their flow dimensions is rather wider than theirrandom and regular counterparts, (2) their flow dimension shows a power-law distribution, and (3) they have a higher flow capacitythan their random and regular counterparts. The findings confirm that (1) both the wider range of flow dimensions and the higherflow capacity can be a signature of small world networks, and (2) the flow capacity can be an alternative quantity for measuring theefficiency of networks or that of the individual nodes. The findings are illustrated using three urban street networks (two in Europeand one in the USA).

  • 24.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Geospatial analysis and modeling: theme issue2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Geospatial analysis requires a different way of thinking: the problem of spatial heterogeneity2015In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geospatial analysis is very much dominated by a Gaussian way of thinking, which assumes that things in the world can be characterized by a well-defined mean, i.e., things are more or less similar in size. However, this assumption is not always valid. In fact, many things in the world lack a well-defined mean, and therefore there are far more small things than large ones. This paper attempts to argue that geospatial analysis requires a different way of thinking-a Paretian way of thinking that underlies skewed distribution such as power laws, Pareto and lognormal distributions. I review two properties of spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity, and point out that the notion of spatial heterogeneity in current spatial statistics is only used to characterize local variance of spatial dependence. I subsequently argue for a broad perspective on spatial heterogeneity, and suggest it be formulated as a scaling law. I further discuss the implications of Paretian thinking and the scaling law for better understanding of geographic forms and processes, in particular while facing massive amounts of social media data. In the spirit of Paretian thinking, geospatial analysis should seek to simulate geographic events and phenomena from the bottom up rather than correlations as guided by Gaussian thinking.

  • 26.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Head/tail breaks: A new classification scheme for data with a heavy-tailed distribution2013In: Professional Geographer, ISSN 0033-0124, E-ISSN 1467-9272, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 482-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a new classification scheme - head/tail breaks - in order to find groupings or hierarchy for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. The heavy-tailed distributions are heavily right skewed, with a minority of large values in the head and a majority of small values in the tail, commonly characterized by a power law, a lognormal or an exponential function. For example, a country's population is often distributed in such a heavy-tailed manner, with a minority of people (e.g., 20 percent) in the countryside and the vast majority (e.g., 80 percent) in urban areas. This heavy-tailed distribution is also called scaling, hierarchy or scaling hierarchy. This new classification scheme partitions all of the data values around the mean into two parts and continues the process iteratively for the values (above the mean) in the head until the head part values are no longer heavy-tailed distributed. Thus, the number of classes and the class intervals are both naturally determined. We therefore claim that the new classification scheme is more natural than the natural breaks in finding the groupings or hierarchy for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. We demonstrate the advantages of the head/tail breaks method over Jenks' natural breaks in capturing the underlying hierarchy of the data. Keywords: data classification, head/tail division rule, natural breaks, scaling, and hierarchy

  • 27.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Head/tail breaks for visualization of city structure and dynamics2016In: European Handbook of Crowdsourced Geographic Information / [ed] Cristina Capineri, Muki Haklay, Haosheng Huang, Vyron Antoniou, Juhani Kettunen, Frank Ostermann, Ross Purves, London: Ubiquity Press, 2016, p. 169-183Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The things surrounding us vary dramatically, which implies that there are far more small things than large ones, e.g., far more small cities than large ones in the world. This dramatic variation is often referred to as fractal or scaling. To better reveal the fractal or scaling structure, a new classification scheme, namely head/tail breaks, has been developed to recursively derive different classes or hierarchical levels. The head/tail breaks works as such: divide things into a few large ones in the head (those above the average) and many small ones (those below the average) in the tail, and recursively continue the division process for the large ones (or the head) until the notion of far more small things than large ones has been violated. This paper attempts to argue that head/tail breaks can be a powerful visualization tool for illustrating structure and dynamics of natural cities. Natural cities refer to naturally or objectively defined human settlements based on a meaningful cutoff averaged from a massive amount of units extracted from geographic information. To illustrate the effectiveness of head/tail breaks in visualization, I have developed some case studies applied to natural cities derived from the points of interest, and social media location data. I further elaborate on head/tail breaks related to fractals, beauty, and big data.

  • 28.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Head/tail breaks for visualization of city structure and dynamics2015In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 43, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The things surrounding us vary dramatically, which implies that there are far more small things than large ones, e.g., far more small cities than large ones in the world. This dramatic variation is often referred to as fractal or scaling. To better reveal the fractal or scaling structure, a new classification scheme, namely head/tail breaks, has been developed to recursively derive different classes or hierarchical levels. The head/tail breaks works as such: divide things into a few large ones in the head (those above the average) and many small ones (those below the average) in the tail, and recursively continue the dividing process for the large ones (or the head) until the notion of far more small things than large ones has been violated. This paper attempts to argue that head/tail breaks can be a powerful visualization tool for illustrating structure and dynamics of natural cities. Natural cities refer to naturally or objectively defined human settlements based on a meaningful cutoff averaged from a massive amount of units extracted from geographic information. To illustrate the effectiveness of head/tail breaks in visualization, I have developed several case studies applied to natural cities derived from the points of interest, social media location data, and time series nighttime images. I further elaborate on head/tail breaks related to fractals, beauty, and big data.

  • 29.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    How many turns? It is smaller than we thought2004In: Geoinformatics, Vol. Oct./Nov., p. 27-27Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    IJGIS International Journal of Geographical Information Science: Special issue on data-intensive geospatial computing2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Line simplification2016In: International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology / [ed] Douglas Richardson, Wiley-Blackwell, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Making GIScience research more open access2011In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1217-1220Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    New ways of thinking for maps and mapping2017In: Kart och Bildteknik, ISSN 1651-8705, E-ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. -, no 3, p. 9-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Ranking spaces for predicting human movement in an urban environment2009In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 823-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city can be topologically represented as a connectivity graph, consisting of nodes representing individual spaces and links if the corresponding spaces are intersected. It turns out in the space syntax literature that some defined topological metrics can capture human movement rates in individual spaces. In other words, the topological metrics are significantly correlated to human movement rates, and individual spaces can be ranked by the metrics for predicting human movement. However, this correlation has never been well justified. In this paper, we study the same issue by applying the weighted PageRank algorithm to the connectivity graph or space-space topology for ranking the individual spaces, and find surprisingly that: (1) the PageRank scores are better correlated to human movement rates than the space syntax metrics, and (2) the underlying space-space topology demonstrates small world and scale free properties. The findings provide a novel justification as to why space syntax, or topological analysis in general, can be used to predict human movement. We further conjecture that this kind of analysis is no more than predicting a drunkard's walking on a small world and scale free network.

  • 35.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Review of Else/Where: Mapping - New Cartographies of Networks and Territories2008In: Cartographic Journal, ISSN 0008-7041, E-ISSN 1743-2774, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 769-771Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Review of: Location-Based Services by Jochen Schiller and Agnes Voisard2005In: Geoinformatics, no July/August, p. 21-21Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Review of: Mapping Scientific Frontiers: the Quest for Knowledge visualization by Chaomei Chen2005In: Cartographic Journal, ISSN 0008-7041, E-ISSN 1743-2774, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 189-190Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Review of: Telegeoinformatics: Location-Based Computing and Services by Hassan A. Karimi and Amin Hammad2004In: Geoinformatics, Vol. September, p. 57-57Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Scaling as a design principle for cartography2017In: Annals of GIS, ISSN 1947-5683, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 67-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two fundamental laws of geography: scaling law and Tobler’s law. Scaling law is available across all scales ranging from the smallest to the largest, and it states that there are far more small things than large ones in geographic space. Tobler’s law is available in one scale, and it states that more or less similar things tend to be nearby or related. In this short article, I claim scaling as a design principle for cartography, but what I really wanted to convey is that scaling must become a dominant principle, if not the principle, of cartographic design. All other principles can, should, and must be subordinated to the major and dominant one.

  • 40.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Small world modelling for complex geographic environments2005In: Complex Artificial Environments: simulation, cognition and VR in the study and planning of cities / [ed] Portugali, Juval, Berlin: Springer , 2005, p. 259-270Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Jiang, Bin
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Some thoughts on geospatial analysis and modeling2007In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 477-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This issue contains papers selected from the contributions presented at the 1st International Car-tographic Association (ICA) Workshop on Geospatial Analysis and Modeling held in Vienna on the8th of July, 2006 (http://www.hig.se/~bjg/ica/workshop/). The theme papers demonstrate partiallyrecent developments in geospatial analysis and modeling for uncovering knowledge for variousapplications. This research has seen intensive growth over the past decade due to application needsand the increasing availability of geospatial information collected from various sources. The chal-lenge for the research is to go beyond the conventional cartographic and geographic (mainly statis-tics-based) methods, and to develop more advanced and robust models for analyzing and mininggeospatial information.

  • 42.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Spatial heterogeneity, scale, data character and sustainable transport in the big data era2018In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 7, no 5 (SI), article id 167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Spatial heterogeneity, scale, data character, and sustainable transport in the big data era2019In: CSUM 2018: Data Analytics: Paving the Way to Sustainable Urban Mobility: Proceedings of 4th Conference on Sustainable Urban Mobility (CSUM2018), 24 - 25 May, Skiathos Island, Greece / [ed] Nathanail E.G., and Karakikes I.D., Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 879, p. 730-736Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I have advocated and argued for a paradigm shift from Tobler’s law to scaling law, from Euclidean geometry to fractal geometry, from Gaussian statistics to Paretian statistics, and – more importantly – from Descartes’ mechanistic thinking to Alexander’s organic thinking. Fractal geometry falls under the third definition of fractal given by Bin Jiang – that is, a set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times – rather than under the second definition of fractal by Benoit Mandelbrot, which requires a power law between scales and details. The new fractal geometry is more towards Christopher Alexander’s living geometry, not only for understanding complexity, but also for creating complex or living structure. This short paper attempts to clarify why the paradigm shift is essential and to elaborate on several concepts, including spatial heterogeneity (scaling law), scale (or the fourth meaning of scale), data character (in contrast to data quality), and sustainable transport in the big data era.

  • 44.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Street hierarchies: a minority of streets account for a majority of traffic flow2009In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1033-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban streets are hierarchically organized in the sense that a majority of streets are trivial, while a minority of streets is vital. This hierarchy can be simply, but elegantly, characterized by the 80/20 principle, i.e. 80% of streets are less connected (below the average), while 20% of streets are well connected (above the average); out of the 20%, there is 1% of streets that are extremely well connected. This paper, using a European city as an example, examined, at a much more detailed level, such street hierarchies from the perspective of geometric and topological properties. Based on an empirical study, we further proved a previous conjecture that a minority of streets accounts for a majority of traffic flow; more accurately, the 20% of top streets accommodate 80% of traffic flow (20/80), and the 1% of top streets account for more than 20% of traffic flow (1/20). Our study provides new evidence as to how a city is (self-)organized, contributing to the understanding of cities and their evolution using increasingly available mobility geographic information.

  • 45.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    The fractal nature of maps and mapping2015In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 159-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fractal can be simply understood as a set or pattern in which there are far more small things than large ones, for example, far more small geographic features than large ones on the earth surface, or far more large-scale maps than small-scale maps for a geographic region. This article attempts to argue and provide evidence for the fractal nature of maps and mapping. It is the underlying fractal structure of geographic features, either natural or man-made, that make reality mappable, large-scale maps generalizable, and cities imageable. The fractal nature is also what underlies the beauty of maps. After introducing some key fractal concepts such as recursion, self-similarity, scaling ratio, and scaling exponent, this article demonstrates that fractal thought is rooted in long-standing map-making practices such as series maps subdivision, visual hierarchy, and Töpfer's radical law. Drawing on previous studies on head/tail breaks, mapping can be considered a head/tail breaks process; that is to divide things around an average, according to their geometric, topological and/or semantic properties, into the head (for those above the average) and the tail (for those below the average), and recursively continue the dividing process for the head for map generalization, statistical mapping, and cognitive mapping. Given the fractal nature of maps and mapping, cartography should be considered a perfect combination of science and art, and scaling must be formulated as a law of cartography or that of geography in general. 

  • 46.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    The Image of the city out of the underlying scaling of city artifacts or locations2013In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 103, no 6, p. 1552-1566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two fundamental issues surrounding research on the image of the city focus on the city's external and internal representations. The external representation in the context of this article refers to the city itself, external to human minds, whereas the internal representation concerns how the city is represented in human minds internally. This article deals with the first issue; that is, what traits the city has that make it imageable. I develop an argument that the image of the city arises from the underlying scaling of city artifacts or locations. This scaling refers to the fact that, in an imageable city (a city that can easily be imaged in human minds), small city artifacts are far more common than large ones; or, alternatively, low-density locations are far more common than high-density locations. The sizes of city artifacts in a rank-size plot exhibit a heavy-tailed distribution consisting of the head, which is composed of a minority of unique artifacts (vital and very important), and the tail, which is composed of redundant other artifacts (trivial and less important). Eventually, those extremely unique and vital artifacts in the top head or those largest, so to speak, what Lynch called city elements, make up the image of the city. I argue that the ever-increasing amount of geographic information on cities, in particular obtained from social media such as Flickr and Twitter, can turn research on the image of the city, or cognitive mapping in general, into a quantitative manner. The scaling property might be formulated as a law of geography.

  • 47.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Visualization of qualitative locations in geographic information systems2005In: Cartography and Geographic Information Science, ISSN 1523-0406, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 219-229Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative location (QL) refers to the reference of a spatial location using linguistic terms such as qualitative descriptions and qualitative spatial relations with other geo-referenced features. Qualitative locations will be increasingly more popular in the future, driven by theoretical, technological, and database developments. Multiplicity and uncertainty are two innate characteristics of QLs. In other words, a QL often has multiple target locations (multiplicity), and the target locations sometimes cannot be pinpointed exactly due to the qualitative nature (uncertainty) of the qualitative descriptions and relations. The presence of the characteristics imposes research challenges on visualization of QL in geographic information systems (GIS). In response to the visualization challenges we discuss four strategies—namely proportional symbol mapping, fog map, fuzzy 3D surface, and fuzzy-logic-based animation—for the visualization of QL referents in GIS. These strategies combine conventional mapping and advanced interactive visualization methods. Each of them is suitable for one or more scenarios, depending on the presence of either one or both of the two characteristics. All illustrations and related animations are also available at http://www.ggy.uga.edu/people/faculty/xyao/VisQL.html.

  • 48.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Volunteered geographic information and computational geography: New perspectives2013In: Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in Theory and Practice / [ed] Sui D. Elwood S. and Goodchild M, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 125-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), one of the most important types of user-generated web content, has been emerging as a new phenomenon. VGI is contributed by numerous volunteers and supported by web 2.0 technologies. This chapter discusses how VGI provides new perspectives for computational geography, a transformed geography based on the use of data-intensive computing and simulations to uncover the underlying mechanisms behind geographic forms and processes. We provide several examples of computational geography using OpenStreetMap data and GPS traces to investigate the scaling of geographic space and its implications for human mobility patterns. We illustrate that the field of geography is experiencing a dramatic change and that geoinformatics and computational geography deserve to be clearly distinguished, with the former being a study of engineering and the latter being a science.

  • 49.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Wholeness as a hierarchical graph to capture the nature of space2015In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1632-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Christopher Alexander’s theory of centers, a whole comprises numerous, recursively defined centers for things or spaces surrounding us. Wholeness is a type of global structure or life-giving order emerging from the whole as a field of the centers. The wholeness is an essential part of any complex system and exists, to some degree or other, in spaces. This paper defines wholeness as a hierarchical graph, in which individual centers are represented as the nodes and their relationships as the directed links. The hierarchical graph gets its name from the inherent scaling hierarchy revealed by the head/tail breaks, which is a classification scheme and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. We suggest that (1) the degrees of wholeness for individual centers should be measured by PageRank (PR) scores based on the notion that high-degree-of-life centers are those to which many high-degree-of-life centers point, and (2) that the hierarchical levels, or the ht-index of the PR scores induced by the head/tail breaks, can characterize the degree of wholeness for the whole: the higher the ht-index, the more life or wholeness in the whole. Three case studies applied to the Alhambra building complex and the street networks of Manhattan and Sweden illustrate that the defined wholeness captures fairly well human intuitions on the degree of life for the geographic spaces. We further suggest that the mathematical model of wholeness be an important model of geographic representation, because it is topological oriented, which enables us to see the underlying scaling structure. The model can guide geodesign, which should be considered as the wholeness-extending transformations that are essentially like the unfolding processes of seeds or embryos, for creating built and natural environments of beauty or with a high degree of wholeness.

  • 50.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Why can the image of the city be formed?2013In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on GeoComputation, LIESMARS, Wuhan University of Technology Press, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
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