hig.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 142
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • sv-SE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • de-DE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Andrienko, Gennady
    et al.
    Dykes, JasonJiang, BinUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    GeoViz Hamburg 2011: Linking geovisualization with spatial analysis and modeling2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Behnisch, Martin
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Hecht, Robert
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Herold, Hendrik
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Urban big data analytics and morphology2019In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 46, no 7 (SI), p. 1203-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Benenson, Itzhak
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Human Environment University Tel Aviv.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Editorial : Bridging the Gap between Urban and Regional Modeling, and Planning Practice2012In: Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, ISSN 1045-8077, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Benenson, Itzhak
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Human Environment, University Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Jiang, BinUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Special issue: GIS in Spatial Planning2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    3D geovisualization as a communication and analysis tool in fluvial geomorphology2004In: Geoinformatics 2004: proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics - Geospatial Information Research: Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic, University of Gävle, Sweden, 7-9 June 2004, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2004, p. 339-346Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology get more and more attention in the general public. The reason for this is changed climate patterns with increased frequencies of storms and river flooding and as a result changed geomorphology and living conditions for the inhabitants of the area. With the development of 3D geovisualization, hydrological and geomorphological processes can be better simulated and visualized. Thus not only the domain specialists, but also the general public can appreciate very complex hydrological processes and resulting geomorphology. This is of great value since a high frequency of storms and flooding has been a big issue for politicians, planners, and the general public. It is in this sense that 3D geovisualization can be an important tool for analysis and communication. Complex hydrological and geomorphological processes can be effectively simulated and analyzed by the domain specialists while efficient and effective visualization provides a common platform for communication among domain specialists and the general public. This paper will discuss and illustrate these issues using a case study of geomorphology along the Reventazón River, downstream from the Cachí Reservoir in Costa Rica, due to the release of extreme amounts of sediment during flushing of the reservoir.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Chen, Yanguang
    et al.
    Department of Geography, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hierarchical scaling in systems of natural cities2018In: Entropy, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 20, no 6, article id 432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchies can be modeled by a set of exponential functions, from which we can derive a set of power laws indicative of scaling. The solution to a scaling relation equation is always a power law. The scaling laws are followed by many natural and social phenomena such as cities, earthquakes, and rivers. This paper reveals the power law behaviors in systems of natural cities by reconstructing the urban hierarchy with cascade structure. Cities of the U.S.A., Britain, France, and Germany are taken as examples to perform empirical analyses. The hierarchical scaling relations can be well fitted to the data points within the scaling ranges of the number, size and area of the natural cities. The size-number and area-number scaling exponents are close to 1, and the size-area allometric scaling exponent is slightly less than 1. The results show that natural cities follow hierarchical scaling laws very well. The principle of entropy maximization of urban evolution is then employed to explain the hierarchical scaling laws, and differences entropy maximizing processes are used to interpret the scaling exponents. This study is helpful for scientists to understand the power law behavior in the development of cities and systems of cities. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 7.
    de Rijke, Chris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science, Public Health Science.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Living Structure as an Empirical Measurement of City Morphology2020In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 9, no 11, article id 677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human actions and interactions are shaped in part by our direct environment. The studies of Christopher Alexander show that objects and structures can inhibit natural properties and characteristics; this is measured in living structure. He also found that we have better connection and feeling with more natural structures, as they more closely resemble ourselves. These theories are applied in this study to analyze and compare the urban morphology within different cities. The main aim of the study is to measure the living structure in cities. By identifying the living structure within cities, comparisons can be made between different types of cities, artificial and historical, and an estimation of what kind of effect this has on our wellbeing can be made. To do this, natural cities and natural streets are identified following a bottom-up data-driven methodology based on the underlying structures present in OpenStreetMap (OSM) road data. The naturally defined city edges (natural cities) based on intersection density and naturally occurring connected roads (natural streets) based on good continuity between road segments in the road data are extracted and then analyzed together. Thereafter, historical cities are compared with artificial cities to investigate the differences in living structure; it is found that historical cities generally consist of far more living structure than artificial cities. This research finds that the current usage of concrete, steel, and glass combined with very fast development speeds is detrimental to the living structure within cities. Newer city developments should be performed in symbiosis with older city structures as a whole, and the structure of the development should inhibit scaling as well as the buildings themselves.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Hu, Bisong
    et al.
    School of Geography and Environment, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, China.
    Fu, Sumeng
    School of Geography and Environment, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, China.
    Luo, Jin
    School of Geography and Environment, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, China.
    Lin, Hui
    School of Geography and Environment, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, China.
    Yin, Qian
    State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Tao, Vincent
    Wayz AI Technology Company Limited, Shanghai, China.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Zuo, Lijun
    Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Meng, Yu
    Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Geographical detector-based assessment of multi-level explanatory powers of determinants on China’s medical-service resumption during the COVID-19 epidemic2023In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1739-1758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowing the multi-level influences of determinants on medical-service resumptions is of great benefits to the policymaking for medical-service recovery at different levels of study units during the post-COVID-19 pandemic era. This article evaluated the hospital- and city-level resumptions of medical services in mainland China based on the data of location-based service (LBS) requests of mobile devices during the two time periods (December 2019 and from February 21 to March 18, 2020). We selected medical-service capacity, human movement, epidemic severity, and socioeconomic factors as the potential determinants on medical-service resumptions and then explicitly assessed their multi-level explanatory powers and the interactive effects of paired determinants using the geographical detector method. The results indicate that various determinants had different individual explanatory powers and interactive relationships/effects at different levels of medical-service resumptions. The current study provides a novel multi-level insight for assessing work resumption and individual/interactive influences of determinants, and considerable implications for regionalized recovery strategies of medical services.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Huang, Haosheng
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Yao, Xiaobai Angela
    University of Georgia, USA.
    Krisp, Jukka M.
    Augsburg University, Germany.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Analytics of location-based big data for smart cities: Opportunities, challenges, and future directions2021In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 90, article id 101712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing ubiquity of location/activity sensing technologies and location-based services (LBS) has led to a large volume and variety of location-based big data (LocBigData), such as location tracking or sensing data, social media data, and crowdsourced geographic information. The increasing availability of such LocBigData has created unprecedented opportunities for research on urban systems and human environments in general. In this article, we first review the common types of LocBigData: mobile phone network data, GPS data, Location-based social media data, LBS usage/log data, smart card travel data, beacon log data (WiFi or Bluetooth), and camera imagery data. Secondly, we describe the opportunities fueled by LocBigData for the realization of smart cities, mainly via answering questions ranging from “what happened” and “why did it happen” to “what's likely to happen in the future” and “what to do next”. Thirdly, pitfalls of dealing with LocBigData are summarized, such as high volume/velocity/variety; non-random sampling; messy and not clean data; and correlations rather than causal relationships. Finally, we review the state-of-the-art research trends in this field, and conclude the article with a list of open research challenges and a research agenda for LocBigData research to help achieve the vision of smart and sustainable cities.

  • 10. Ivan, Igor
    et al.
    Benenson, ItzhakJiang, BinUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.Horák, JiříHaworth, JamesInspektor, Tomáš
    Geoinformatics for intelligent transportation2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    KTH.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Building and analyzing the US airport network based on en-route location information2012In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 391, no 15, p. 4031-4042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a complex network perspective, this study sets out two aims around the US airport network (USAN) which is built from en-route location information of domestic flights in the US. First, we analyze the structural properties of the USAN with respect to its binary and weighted graphs, and second we explore the airport patterns, which have wide-ranging implications. Results from the two graphs indicate the following. (1) The USAN exhibits scale-free, small-world and disassortative mixing properties, which are consistent with the mainstream perspectives. Besides, we find (2) a remarkable power relationship between the structural measurements in the binary graph and the traffic measurements in the weighted counterpart, namely degree versus capacity and attraction versus volume. On the other hand, investigation of the airport patterns suggests (3) that all the airports can be classified into four categories based on multiple network metrics, which shows a complete typology of the airports. And it further indicates (4) that there is a subtle relationship between the airport traffic and the geographical constraints as well as the regional socioeconomic indicators.

  • 12.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. Division of Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Exploring human activity patterns using taxicab static points2012In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 89-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the patterns of human activities within a geographical space by adopting the taxicab static points which refer to the locations with zero speed along the tracking trajectory. We report the findings from both aggregated and individual aspects. Results from the aggregated level indicate the following: (1) Human activities exhibit an obvious regularity in time, for example, there is a burst of activity during weekend nights and a lull during the week. (2) They show a remarkable spatial drifting pattern, which strengthens our understanding of the activities in any given place. (3) Activities are heterogeneous in space irrespective of their drifting with time. These aggregated results not only help in city planning, but also facilitate traffic control and management. On the other hand, investigations on an individual level suggest that (4) activities witnessed by one taxicab will have different temporal regularity to another, and (5) each regularity implies a high level of prediction with low entropy by applying the Lempel-Ziv algorithm.

  • 13.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. Division of Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Carling, Kenneth
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden .
    Bolin, Magnus
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden .
    Ban, Yifang
    Division of Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    An empirical study on human mobility and its agent-based modeling2012In: Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, ISSN 1742-5468, E-ISSN 1742-5468, no 11, p. P11024-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyze the GPS traces of 258 volunteers in order to obtain a better understanding of both the human mobility patterns and the mechanism. We report the regular and scaling properties of human mobility for several aspects, and importantly we identify its Levy flight characteristic, which is consistent with those from previous studies. We further assume two factors that may govern the Levy flight property: (1) the scaling and hierarchical properties of the purpose clusters which serve as the underlying spatial structure, and (2) the individual preferential behaviors. To verify the assumptions, we implement an agent-based model with the two factors, and the simulated results do indeed capture the same Levy flight pattern as is observed. In order to enable the model to reproduce more mobility patterns, we add to the model a third factor: the jumping factor, which is the probability that one person may cancel their regular mobility schedule and explore a random place. With this factor, our model can cover a relatively wide range of human mobility patterns with scaling exponent values from 1.55 to 2.05.

  • 14.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    A city is a complex network2015In: A City is Not a Tree: 50th Anniversary Edition / [ed] Michael W. Mehaffy, Portland: Sustasis Press , 2015, 1, p. 89-100Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city is not a tree but a semilattice. To use a perhaps more familiar term, a city is a complex network. The complex network constitutes a unique topological perspective on cities and enables us to better understand the kind of problem a city is. The topological perspective differentiates it from the perspectives of Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics that deal with essentially regular shapes and more or less similar things. Many urban theories, such as the Central Place Theory, Zipf's Law, the Image of the City, and the Theory of Centers can be interpreted from the point of view of complex networks. A livable city consists of far more small things than large ones, and their shapes tend to be irregular and rough. This chapter illustrates the complex network view and argues that we must abandon the kind of thinking (mis-)guided by Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, and instead adopt fractal geometry, power-law statistics, and Alexander's living geometry to develop sustainable cities.

  • 15.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    A complex-network perspective on Alexander's wholeness2016In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 463, p. 475-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains somehow mysterious and elusive, and therefore hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty for sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks — a classification scheme and a visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution, in order to make Alexander’s profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander’s thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty that exists in fine and deep structure. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their wholeness, and to better understand how the kind of structural beauty emerges from local actions guided by the 15 fundamental properties, and in particular by differentiation and adaptation processes. The wholeness goes beyond current complex network theory towards design or creation of living structures.

  • 16.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    A different topology: moving from geometry to geography2005In: GEO Informatics, no March, p. 21-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A Geospatial Perspective on Sustainable Urban Mobility in the Era of BIG Data2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As stated eloquently by the former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, “We shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us”. To paraphrase Churchill in the context of urban mobility, we shape our transport, and it will shape us; make sure we shape it well, so we will be well-shaped too. To be more specific, we shape our transport system as a living structure, and afterwards it shapes our mobility towards sustainability. The notion of living structure, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander in the magnum opus The Nature of Order, is also called wholeness or life or beauty, which is defined mathematically as a recursive structure, and exists in space and matter physically, and is reflected in our minds and hearts psychologically. There are two fundamental laws governing the living structure: scaling law and Tobler’s law. Scaling law is available across all scales ranging from the smallest to the largest, and it states that there are far more smalls than larges in a living structure. Tobler’s law, also known as the first law of geography, is available at one scale, and it states that nearby things tend to be more or less similar or related. In this presentation, I will add a geospatial perspective on sustainable urban mobility in the era of big data. Distinct from the existing geospatial perspective, which is a bit too geometric, focusing on geometric details such as locations, sizes and directions (or geometric primitives of points, lines, polygons or pixels), and a bit too mechanistic, as shown in raster and vector formats, I have been advocating a topological perspective that enables us to see the scaling or fractal or living structure using the emerging geospatial big data. I will use two concepts natural cities and natural streets to demonstrate living structures of Greece at both country and city levels, and further argue for the kind of topological and scaling analysis in order to better understand our transport system as the living structure. Human mobility is substantially shaped by the living structure, so to achieve sustainable urban mobility is, to a great extent, to make the underlying transport system more whole or more living or more beautiful. 

  • 18.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A recursive definition of goodness of space for bridging the concepts of space and place for sustainability2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15, article id 4091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander through his life's work, The Nature of Order, wholeness is defined as a mathematical structure of physical space in our surroundings. Yet, there was no mathematics, as Alexander admitted then, that was powerful enough to capture his notion of wholeness. Recently, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed that is capable of addressing not only why a space is good, but also how much goodness the space has. This paper develops a structural perspective on goodness of space (both large- and small-scale) in order to bridge two basic concepts of space and place through the very concept of wholeness. The wholeness provides a de facto recursive definition of goodness of space from a holistic and organic point of view. A space is good, genuinely and objectively, if its adjacent spaces are good, the larger space to which it belongs is good, and what is contained in the space is also good. Eventually, goodness of space, or sustainability of space, is considered a matter of fact rather than of opinion under the new view of space: space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living, or more sustainable or less sustainable. Under the new view of space, geography or architecture will become part of complexity science, not only for understanding complexity, but also for making and remaking complex or living structures. 

  • 19.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    A short note on data-intensive geospatial computing2011In: Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography, Berlin: Springer , 2011, p. 13-17Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    A structural perspective on visibility patterns with a topographic surface2005In: Transactions on GIS, ISSN 1361-1682, E-ISSN 1467-9671, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 475-488Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A topographic surface can be modeled as a graph, a visibility graph in terms of how each point location is visible to every other. This paper demonstrates various structural properties of visibility patterns with a topographic surface from a graph perspective, which could be important for landscape planning. This paper illustrates the fact that the visibility graph with a topographic surface is a small-world. This finding implies that the average visual separation between any two point locations with a surface is very short (i.e. a small separation), and the visible locations to a given location have a high possibility of being visible to each other (i.e. a high clustering level). Additionally we show that the visibility graph exhibits an exponential distribution rather than a power law distribution, i.e. it is not scale-free, in contrast to many other real world networks.

  • 21.
    Jiang, Bin
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    A topological pattern of urban street networks: universality and peculiarity2007In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 384, no 2, p. 647-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we derive a topological pattern of urban street networks using a large sample (the largest so far to the best of our knowledge) of 40 US cities and a few more from elsewhere of different sizes. It is found that all the topologies of urban street networks based on street-street intersection demonstrate a small world structure, and a scale-free property for both street length and connectivity degree. More specifically, for any street network, about 80% of its streets have length or degrees less than its average value, while 20% of streets have length or degrees greater than the average. Out of the 20%, there are less than 1 % of streets which can form a backbone of the street network. Based on the finding, we conjecture that the 20% streets account for 80% of traffic flow, and the I% streets constitute a cognitive map of the urban street network. We illustrate further a peculiarity about the scale-free property.

  • 22.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    A Topological Representation for Taking Cities as a Coherent Whole2018In: Geographical Analysis, ISSN 0016-7363, E-ISSN 1538-4632, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 298-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city is a whole, as are all cities in a country. Within a whole, individual cities possess different degrees of wholeness, defined by Christopher Alexander as a life-giving order or simply a living structure. To characterize the wholeness and in particular to advocate for wholeness as an effective design principle, this article develops a geographic representation that views cities as a whole. This geographic representation is topology-oriented, so fundamentally differs from existing geometry-based geographic representations. With the topological representation, all cities are abstracted as individual points and put into different hierarchical levels, according to their sizes and based on head/tail breaks-a classification and visualization tool for data with a heavy tailed distribution. These points of different hierarchical levels are respectively used to create Thiessen polygons. Based on polygon-polygon relationships, we set up a complex network. In this network, small polygons point to adjacent large polygons at the same hierarchical level and contained polygons point to containing polygons across two consecutive hierarchical levels. We computed the degrees of wholeness for individual cities, and subsequently found that the degrees of wholeness possess both properties of differentiation and adaptation. To demonstrate, we developed four case studies of all China and U.K. natural cities, as well as Beijing and London natural cities, using massive amounts of street nodes and Tweet locations. The topological representation and the kind of topological analysis in general can be applied to any design or pattern, such as carpets, Baroque architecture and artifacts, and fractals in order to assess their beauty, echoing the introductory quote from Christopher Alexander.

  • 23.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A Topological Representation for Taking Cities as a Coherent Whole2019In: Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology, Springer , 2019, p. 335-352Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city is a whole, as are all cities in a country. Within a whole, individual cities possess different degrees of wholeness, defined by Christopher Alexander as a life-giving order or simply a living structure. To characterize the wholeness and in particular to advocate for wholeness as an effective design principle, this paper developed a geographic representation that views cities as a whole. This geographic representation is topology-oriented, so fundamentally differs from existing geometry-based geographic representations. With the topological representation, all cities are abstracted as individual points and are put into different hierarchical levels, according to their sizes and based on head/tail breaks—a classification and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. These points of different hierarchical levels are respectively used to create Thiessen polygons. Based on polygon–polygon relationships, we set up a complex network. In this network, small polygons point to adjacent large polygons at the same hierarchical level and contained polygons point to containing polygons across two consecutive hierarchical levels. We computed the degrees of wholeness for individual cities, and subsequently found that the degrees of wholeness possess both properties of differentiation and adaptation. To demonstrate, we developed four case studies of all China and UK natural cities, as well as Beijing and London natural cities, using massive amounts of street nodes and Tweet locations. The topological representation and the kind of topological analysis in general can be applied to any design or pattern, such as carpets, Baroque architecture and artifacts, and fractals in order to assess their beauty, echoing the introductory quote from Christopher Alexander.

  • 24.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Alexander’s wholeness as the scientific foundation of sustainable urban design and planning2019In: New Design Ideas, ISSN 2522-4875, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 81-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As Christopher Alexander conceived and defined through his life’s work – The Nature of Order – wholeness is a recursive structure that recurs in space and matter and is reflected in human minds and cognition. Based on the definition of wholeness, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed, and it is able to address not only why a structure is beautiful, but also how much beauty the structure has. Given the circumstance, this paper is attempted to argue for the wholeness as the scientific foundation of sustainable urban design and planning, with the help of the mathematical model and topological representation. We start by introducing the wholeness as a mathematical structure of physical space that pervasively exists in our surroundings, along with two fundamental laws – scaling law and Tobler’s law – that underlie the 15 properties for characterizing and making living structures. We argue that urban design and planning can be considered to be wholenessextending processes, guided by two design principles of differentiation and adaptation, to transform a space – in a piecemeal fashion – into a living or more living structure. We further discuss several other urban design theories and how they can be justified by and placed within the theory of wholeness. With the wholeness as the scientific foundation, urban design can turn into a rigorous science with creation of living structures as the primary aim.

  • 25.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Bottom-up approach to studying the street structure and human movement patterns2010In: Workshop on Movement Research: Are you in the flow?, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bridging the Two Concepts of Space and Place through the Concept of Wholeness2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A good space has a healing effect. Mechanistic view of space (Newton, Leibnitz, and Descartes). Organic view of space (Alexander). Living structure as a mathematical structure of physical structure (external). Place is human-experienced space (internal). Two laws of living structure: scaling law and Tobler’s law. Goodness of space as a fact rather than opinion. Conclusion: Two concepts of space and place are not separated – as currently perceived, or under the current mode of thinking – but can be bridged through the very concept of wholeness. Goodness of space can be objectively judged as a matter of fact rather than of opinion. * The more the centers, the more beautiful; * The higher the hierarchy, the more beautiful. Goodness of space can be well reflected as our inner experience with a good sense of belonging, well-being, and healing.

  • 27.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Challenging the Establishment of Cartography and GIS2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It may seem immodest to have "challenging" in the title, but I have been accurate, painfully accurate in my criticism of our discipline, regardless how it is named, either geography or cartography or GIScience. * Not Gaussian, but Paretian thinking * Not only Tobler’s law, but also scaling law * Not Euclidean geometric, but fractal or living geometric thinking * Not only data quality, but also data character * Not only topology of geometric primitives, but also topology of meaningful geographic features * Not bigness about big data, but the three characteristics * Not mechanistic, but organic thinking.

  • 28.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Christopher Alexander and His Life’s Work: The Nature of Order2019In: Urban Science, E-ISSN 2413-8851, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This editorial briefly introduces Christopher Alexander, as a theorist, as a design practitioner, as an architect, and importantly as a scientist, as well as his life’s work-The Nature of Order-focusing not only on the trinity of wholeness, life, beauty, but also on his new organic cosmology.

  • 29.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Computing the image of the city2012In: Planning Support Tools: Policy analysis, implementation and evaluation: Proceedings of the 7th International conference on Informatics and Urban and Regional planning INPUT / [ed] Campagna M., De Montis A., Isola F., Lai S., Pira C. and Zoppi C., 2012, p. 111-121Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Cybercartography: theory and practice2007In: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 186-187Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Data-intensive geospatial analysis and computation2010In: online proceeding, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Jiang, Bin
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Flow dimension and capacity for structuring urban street networks2008In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 387, no 16-17, p. 4440-4452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to measure the efficiency of urban street networks (a kind of complex networks) from the perspective of themultidimensional chain of connectivity (or flow). More specifically, we define two quantities: flow dimension and flow capacity, tocharacterize structures of urban street networks. To our surprise, for the topologies of urban street networks, previously confirmedas a form of small world and scale-free networks, we find that (1) the range of their flow dimensions is rather wider than theirrandom and regular counterparts, (2) their flow dimension shows a power-law distribution, and (3) they have a higher flow capacitythan their random and regular counterparts. The findings confirm that (1) both the wider range of flow dimensions and the higherflow capacity can be a signature of small world networks, and (2) the flow capacity can be an alternative quantity for measuring theefficiency of networks or that of the individual nodes. The findings are illustrated using three urban street networks (two in Europeand one in the USA).

  • 33.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Geography as a science of the earth’s surface founded on the third view of space2022In: Annals of GIS, ISSN 1947-5683, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 31-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The third or organismic view of space states that space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living, thus different fundamentally from the first two mechanistic views of space: Newtonian absolute space and Leibnizian relational space. The living structure is defined as a physical and mathematical structure or simply characterized by the recurring notion (or inherent hierarchy) of far more small substructures than large ones. This paper seeks to lay out a new geography as a science of the Earth's surface founded on the third view of space. The new geography aims not only to better understand geographic forms and processes but also - maybe more importantly - to make geographic space or the Earth?s surface to be living or more living. After introducing two fundamental laws of geography: Tobler's law on spatial dependence (or homogeneity) and scaling law on spatial heterogeneity, we argue that these two laws are fundamental laws of living structure that favour statistics over exactitude, because the former (or statistics) tends to make a structure more living than the latter  (or exactitude). We present the concept of living structure through some working examples and make it clear how a living structure differs from a non-living structure, under the organismic worldview that was first conceived by the British philosopher Alfred Whitehead (1861-1947). In order to make a structure or space living or more living, we illustrate two design principles - differentiation and adaptation - using two paintings and two city plans. The new geography is a science of living structure, dealing with a wide range of scales, from the smallest scale of ornaments on walls to the scale of the entire Earth's surface.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Geospatial analysis and modeling: theme issue2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Geospatial analysis requires a different way of thinking: the problem of spatial heterogeneity2015In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geospatial analysis is very much dominated by a Gaussian way of thinking, which assumes that things in the world can be characterized by a well-defined mean, i.e., things are more or less similar in size. However, this assumption is not always valid. In fact, many things in the world lack a well-defined mean, and therefore there are far more small things than large ones. This paper attempts to argue that geospatial analysis requires a different way of thinking-a Paretian way of thinking that underlies skewed distribution such as power laws, Pareto and lognormal distributions. I review two properties of spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity, and point out that the notion of spatial heterogeneity in current spatial statistics is only used to characterize local variance of spatial dependence. I subsequently argue for a broad perspective on spatial heterogeneity, and suggest it be formulated as a scaling law. I further discuss the implications of Paretian thinking and the scaling law for better understanding of geographic forms and processes, in particular while facing massive amounts of social media data. In the spirit of Paretian thinking, geospatial analysis should seek to simulate geographic events and phenomena from the bottom up rather than correlations as guided by Gaussian thinking.

  • 36.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Univ Gavle, Fac Engn & Sustainable Dev, Div GISci, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Geospatial Analysis Requires a Different Way of Thinking: The Problem of Spatial Heterogeneity2018In: TRENDS IN SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND MODELLING: DECISION-SUPPORT AND PLANNING STRATEGIES / [ed] Behnisch, M Meinel, G, SPRINGER , 2018, Vol. 19, p. 23-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geospatial analysis is very much dominated by a Gaussian way of thinking, which assumes that things in the world can be characterized by a well-defined mean, i.e., things are more or less similar in size. However, this assumption is not always valid. In fact, many things in the world lack a well-defined mean, and therefore there are far more small things than large ones. This paper attempts to argue that geospatial analysis requires a different way of thinking - a Paretian way of thinking that underlies skewed distribution such as power laws, Pareto and lognormal distributions. I review two properties of spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity, and point out that the notion of spatial heterogeneity in current spatial statistics is only used to characterize local variance of spatial dependence or regression. I subsequently argue for a broad perspective on spatial heterogeneity, and suggest it be formulated as a scaling law. I further discuss the implications of Paretian thinking and the scaling law for better understanding geographic forms and processes, in particular while facing massive amounts of social media data. In the spirit of Paretian thinking, geospatial analysis should seek to simulate geographic events and phenomena from the bottom up rather than correlations as guided by Gaussian thinking.

  • 37.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Head/tail breaks: A new classification scheme for data with a heavy-tailed distribution2013In: Professional Geographer, ISSN 0033-0124, E-ISSN 1467-9272, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 482-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a new classification scheme - head/tail breaks - in order to find groupings or hierarchy for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. The heavy-tailed distributions are heavily right skewed, with a minority of large values in the head and a majority of small values in the tail, commonly characterized by a power law, a lognormal or an exponential function. For example, a country's population is often distributed in such a heavy-tailed manner, with a minority of people (e.g., 20 percent) in the countryside and the vast majority (e.g., 80 percent) in urban areas. This heavy-tailed distribution is also called scaling, hierarchy or scaling hierarchy. This new classification scheme partitions all of the data values around the mean into two parts and continues the process iteratively for the values (above the mean) in the head until the head part values are no longer heavy-tailed distributed. Thus, the number of classes and the class intervals are both naturally determined. We therefore claim that the new classification scheme is more natural than the natural breaks in finding the groupings or hierarchy for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. We demonstrate the advantages of the head/tail breaks method over Jenks' natural breaks in capturing the underlying hierarchy of the data. Keywords: data classification, head/tail division rule, natural breaks, scaling, and hierarchy

  • 38.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Head/tail breaks for visualization of city structure and dynamics2015In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 43, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The things surrounding us vary dramatically, which implies that there are far more small things than large ones, e.g., far more small cities than large ones in the world. This dramatic variation is often referred to as fractal or scaling. To better reveal the fractal or scaling structure, a new classification scheme, namely head/tail breaks, has been developed to recursively derive different classes or hierarchical levels. The head/tail breaks works as such: divide things into a few large ones in the head (those above the average) and many small ones (those below the average) in the tail, and recursively continue the dividing process for the large ones (or the head) until the notion of far more small things than large ones has been violated. This paper attempts to argue that head/tail breaks can be a powerful visualization tool for illustrating structure and dynamics of natural cities. Natural cities refer to naturally or objectively defined human settlements based on a meaningful cutoff averaged from a massive amount of units extracted from geographic information. To illustrate the effectiveness of head/tail breaks in visualization, I have developed several case studies applied to natural cities derived from the points of interest, social media location data, and time series nighttime images. I further elaborate on head/tail breaks related to fractals, beauty, and big data.

  • 39.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Head/tail breaks for visualization of city structure and dynamics2016In: European Handbook of Crowdsourced Geographic Information / [ed] Cristina Capineri, Muki Haklay, Haosheng Huang, Vyron Antoniou, Juhani Kettunen, Frank Ostermann, Ross Purves, London: Ubiquity Press, 2016, p. 169-183Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The things surrounding us vary dramatically, which implies that there are far more small things than large ones, e.g., far more small cities than large ones in the world. This dramatic variation is often referred to as fractal or scaling. To better reveal the fractal or scaling structure, a new classification scheme, namely head/tail breaks, has been developed to recursively derive different classes or hierarchical levels. The head/tail breaks works as such: divide things into a few large ones in the head (those above the average) and many small ones (those below the average) in the tail, and recursively continue the division process for the large ones (or the head) until the notion of far more small things than large ones has been violated. This paper attempts to argue that head/tail breaks can be a powerful visualization tool for illustrating structure and dynamics of natural cities. Natural cities refer to naturally or objectively defined human settlements based on a meaningful cutoff averaged from a massive amount of units extracted from geographic information. To illustrate the effectiveness of head/tail breaks in visualization, I have developed some case studies applied to natural cities derived from the points of interest, and social media location data. I further elaborate on head/tail breaks related to fractals, beauty, and big data.

  • 40.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    How many turns? It is smaller than we thought2004In: Geoinformatics, Vol. Oct./Nov., p. 27-27Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    IJGIS International Journal of Geographical Information Science: Special issue on data-intensive geospatial computing2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Is living structure beauty's temperature?2020In: Urban Design, ISSN 2096-1235, Vol. 5, p. 32-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Living structure is a physical phenomenon and mathematical concept, through which the quality of buildings or artifacts can be judged objectively. Living structure is to beauty what temperature is to warmness. Just like a tree, a living structure has two distinguishing properties: “far more small things than large ones” (so called scaling law) across all scales from the smallest to the largest, and “more or less similar things” (so called Tobler’s law) on each scale. Living structure can be only generated in some step by step fashion by two design principles (differentiation and adaptation) through the 15 structural properties.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Line simplification2016In: International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology / [ed] Douglas Richardson, Wiley-Blackwell, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Living Structure Down to Earth and Up to Heaven: Christopher Alexander2019In: Urban Science, ISSN 2413-8851, Vol. 3, no 3, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discovered by Christopher Alexander, living structure is a physical phenomenon, through which the quality of the built environment or artifacts can be judged objectively. It has two distinguishing properties just like a tree: "Far more small things than large ones" across all scales from the smallest to the largest, and "more or less similar things" on each scale. As a physical phenomenon, and mathematical concept, living structure is essentially empirical, discovered and developed from miniscule observation in nature- and human-made things, and it affects our daily lives in some practical ways, such as where to put a table or a flower vase in a room, helping us to make beautiful things and environments. Living structure is not only empirical, but also philosophical and visionary, enabling us to see the world and space in more meaningful ways. This paper is intended to defend living structure as a physical phenomenon, and a mathematical concept, clarifying some common questions and misgivings surrounding Alexander's design thoughts, such as the objective or structural nature of beauty, building styles advocated by Alexander, and mysterious nature of his concepts. For this purpose, we first illustrate living structure-essentially organized complexity, as advocated by the late Jane Jacobs (1916-2006)-that is governed by two fundamental laws (scaling law and Tobler's law), and generated in some step by step fashion by two design principles (differentiation and adaptation) through the 15 structural properties. We then verify why living structure is primarily empirical, drawing evidence from Alexander's own work, as well as our case studies applied to the Earth's surface including cities, streets, and buildings, and two logos. Before reaching conclusions, we concentrate on the most mysterious part of Alexander's work-the luminous ground or the hypothesized "I"-as a substance that pervasively exists everywhere, in space and matter including our bodies, in order to make better sense of living structure in our minds.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Making GIScience research more open access2011In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1217-1220Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Natural Cities Generated from All Building Locations in America2019In: Data, ISSN 2306-5729, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authorities define cities-or human settlements in general-through imposing top-down rules in terms of whether buildings belong to cities. Emerging geospatial big data makes it possible to define cities from the bottom up, i.e., buildings determine themselves whether they belong to a city using the notion of natural cities and based on head/tail breaks, which is a classification and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. In this paper, we used 125 million building locations-all building footprints of America (mainland) or their centroids more precisely-to generate 2.1 million natural cities in the country (see the URL as shown in the note of Figure 1). In contrast to government defined city boundaries, these natural cities constitute a valuable data source for city-related research.

  • 47.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    New Paradigm in Mapping: A Critique on Cartography and GIS2019In: Cartographica, ISSN 0317-7173, E-ISSN 1911-9925, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 193-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As noted in the epigraph, a map was long ago seen as the map of the map, the map of the map, of the map, and so on endlessly. This recursive perspective on maps, however, has received little attention in cartography. Cartography, as a scientific discipline, is essentially founded on Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, which deal respectively with regular shapes and more or less similar things. It is commonly accepted that geographic features are not regular and that the Earth's surface is full of fractal or scaling or living phenomena: far more small things than large ones are found at different scales. This article argues for a new paradigm in mapping, based on fractal or living geometry and Paretian statistics, and – more critically – on the new conception of space, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, as neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living. The fractal geometry is not limited to Benoit Mandelbrot's framework, but tends towards Christopher Alexander's living geometry and is based upon the third definition of fractal: A set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times. Paretian statistics deals with far more small things than large ones, so it differs fundamentally from Gaussian statistics, which deals with more or less similar things. Under the new paradigm, I make several claims about maps and mapping: (1) the topology of geometrically coherent things – in addition to that of geometric primitives – enables us to see a scaling or fractal or living structure; (2) under the third definition, all geographic features are fractal or living, given the right perspective and scope; (3) exactitude is not truth – to paraphrase Henri Matisse – but the living structure is; and (4) Töpfer's law is not universal, but the scaling law is. All these assertions are supported by evidence, drawn from a series of previous studies. This article demands a monumental shift in perspective and thinking from what we are used to in the legacy of cartography and GIS. 

  • 48.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    New ways of thinking for maps and mapping2017In: Kart och Bildteknik, ISSN 1651-8705, E-ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. -, no 3, p. 9-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    On Spatiotemporal Thinking: Spatial heterogeneity, scale, and data character2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scaling law should become the first law of geography, for it is universal and global. Topology should be defined among meaningful geographic features together with among geometric primitives such as pixels, points, lines and polygons. Data character, or the underlying wholeness – living structure, is more important than data quality. A paradigm shift is expected from Tobler’s law to scaling law, from Euclidean geometry to fractal geometry, from Gaussian statistics to Paretian statistics, and from Descartes’ mechanistic to Alexander’s organic thinking.

  • 50.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Ranking spaces for predicting human movement in an urban environment2009In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 823-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city can be topologically represented as a connectivity graph, consisting of nodes representing individual spaces and links if the corresponding spaces are intersected. It turns out in the space syntax literature that some defined topological metrics can capture human movement rates in individual spaces. In other words, the topological metrics are significantly correlated to human movement rates, and individual spaces can be ranked by the metrics for predicting human movement. However, this correlation has never been well justified. In this paper, we study the same issue by applying the weighted PageRank algorithm to the connectivity graph or space-space topology for ranking the individual spaces, and find surprisingly that: (1) the PageRank scores are better correlated to human movement rates than the space syntax metrics, and (2) the underlying space-space topology demonstrates small world and scale free properties. The findings provide a novel justification as to why space syntax, or topological analysis in general, can be used to predict human movement. We further conjecture that this kind of analysis is no more than predicting a drunkard's walking on a small world and scale free network.

123 1 - 50 of 142
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • sv-SE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • de-DE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf