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  • 1.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete - Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Delområde Färjerederiet2017Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete - Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Delområde Förarprov2017Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete - Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Delområde Trafikledning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete: Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Kartläggning hösten 20162017Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bestämningsfaktorer i flexibelt arbete som bidrar till upplevd balans mellan arbete och fritid 2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet - problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö? Gävle 10-12 juni 2018: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 78-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexible work: Occupational determinants of work-life balance2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bosch, Tim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    De Looze, Michiel
    TNO Work & Employment.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visser, Bart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Amsterdam.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Amsterdam.
    Fatigue, timing strategy and performance during prolonged repetitive work with interposed breaks2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bosch, Tim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    De Looze, Michiel
    TNO, Work& Employment, the Netherlands.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visser, Bart
    Amsterdam School of Health Professions, the Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    VU Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, the Netherlands.
    Temporal strategy and performance during a fatiguing short-cycle repetitive task2012In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 55, p. 863-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated temporal changes in movement strategy and performance during fatiguing short-cycle work. Eighteen participants performed six 7-minutes work blocks with repetitive reaching movements at 0.5 Hz, each followed by a 5.5-minute rest break for a total duration of one hour. Electromyography (EMG) was collected continuously from the upper trapezius muscle, the temporal movement strategy and timing errors were obtained on a cycle-to-cycle basis, and perceived fatigue was rated before and after each work block. Clear signs of fatigue according to subjective ratings and EMG manifestations developed within each work block, as well as during the entire hour. For most participants, timing errors gradually increased, as did the waiting time at the near target. Changes in temporal movement strategy were negatively correlated with changes in the level and variability of EMG, suggesting that an adaptive temporal strategy offset the development of unstable motor solutions in this fatiguing, short-cycle work

  • 9.
    Clays, Els
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oakman, J.
    Department of Public Health, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured occupational physical activities in blue collar jobs: do psychosocial resources matter?2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 2017, Vol. 24(2S)Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van der Beek, Allard J.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Straker, Leon M
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Differences in heart rate reserve of similar physical activities during work and in leisure time - A study among Danish blue-collar workers2018In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 185, p. 45-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies suggest that while leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) promotes general health, engaging in occupational physical activity (OPA) may have negative health consequences. It has been hypothesized that the different health effects from OPA and LTPA can be explained by differences in physical activity (PA) intensity in these two domains. To assess the intensity of OPA and LTPA, we aimed to study the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) during similar types of OPA and LTPA during workdays. Data from the NOMAD study on Danish blue-collar workers (n=124) with objective measurements of PA (using accelerometers) and heart rate (using heart rate monitors) for 4 workdays were analysed. Activities of sitting, standing, moving, walking, and stair climbing were identified and %HRR in each of these activities was determined for work and leisure. %HRR was significantly higher during OPA than LTPA. These differences were more pronounced in men than in women. Although not statistically significant in the fully adjusted model, we found indications that these differences were more pronounced in those with low compared to high fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study with objective measurements showing that %HRR is higher during the same gross-body postural activities when performed at work compared to leisure-time during workdays. This elevated intensity may help explaining the negative health consequences of engagement in high levels of OPA. Future guidelines should distinguish OPA from LTPA, possibly by advising workers to remain active during their leisure time, in particular when they are highly active at work.

  • 11.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Differences in heart rate reserve during occupational and leisure time physical activity in Danish blue-collar workers2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology / [ed] European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Sage Publications, 2017, Vol. 24(2S), p. 7-53Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Elcadi, Guilherme
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    5 Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fahlström, Martin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation and Department of Clinical Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Crenshaw, Albert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oxygenation and hemodynamics do not underlie early muscle fatigue for patients with work-related muscle pain2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, p. e95582-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients suffering from work-related muscle pain (WRMP) fatigue earlier during exercise than healthy controls. Inadequate oxygen consumption and/or inadequate blood supply can influence the ability of the muscles to withstand fatigue. However, it remains unknown if oxygenation and hemodynamics are associated with early fatigue in muscles of WRMP patients. In the present study we applied near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and trapezius (TD) muscles of patients with WRMP (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 17). Our objective was to determine if there were group differences in endurance times for a low-level contraction of 15% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) – sustained for 12-13 min, and to see if these differences were associated with differences in muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics. At baseline, oxygen saturation (StO2%) was similar between groups for the ECR, but StO2% was significantly lower for TD for the WRMP patients (76%) compared to controls (85%) (P < 0.01). Also, baseline ECR blood flow was similar in the two groups. For both muscles there were a larger number of patients, compared to controls, that did not maintain the 15% MVC for the allotted time. Consequently, the endurance times were significantly shorter for the WRMP patients than controls (medians, ECR: 347 s vs. 582 s; TD: 430 s vs. 723 s respectively). Responses in StO2% during the contractions were not significantly different between groups for either muscle, i.e. no apparent difference in oxygen consumption. Overall, we interpret our findings to indicate that the early fatigue for our WRMP patients was not associated with muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics.

  • 13.
    Fani, A
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Oral Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Tzemparilidis, N
    Department of Clinical Oral Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Utterström, K
    Department of Clinical Oral Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wanman, A
    Department of Clinical Oral Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, P O
    Department of Clinical Oral Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Physical activity and cardiovascular regulation during clinical work in female students with and without musculoskeletal pain. Method study. (Poster)2010In: Proceedings of the Premus 2010 conference (Seventh International Conference on Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders), 2010, p. 283-283Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Gold, Judith E
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umeå Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Piligian, George
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology and Prevention, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Great Neck, NY, USA.
    Barbe, Mary F.
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia, PA, USA..
    Systematic review of biochemical biomarkers for neck and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 103-124Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:  This study systematically summarizes biochemical biomarker research in non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs).  Two research questions guided the review:  1) Are there biochemical markers associated with neck and upper extremity MSDs? and, 2) Are there biochemical markers associated with the severity of neck and upper extremity MSDs? 

    Methods:  A literature search was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS.  Eighty-seven studies met primary inclusion criteria.  Following a quality screen, data were extracted from 44 sufficient quality articles.

    Results:  Most of the 87 studies were cross-sectional and utilized convenience samples of patients as both cases and controls.  A response rate was explicitly stated in only 11 (13%) studies.  Less than half of the studies controlled for potential confounding through restriction or in the analysis.  Most sufficient quality studies were conducted in older populations (mean age in one or more analysis group > 50 yrs).

    In sufficient quality articles, 82% demonstrated at least one statistically significant association between the MSD(s) and biomarker(s) studied.  Evidence suggested that: a) the collagen repair marker TIMP-1 is decreased in fibroproliferative disorders, b) 5-HT (serotonin) is increased in trapezius myalgia, and c) triglycerides are increased in a variety of MSDs.  Only five studies showed an association between a biochemical marker and MSD severity.

    Conclusion: While some MSD biomarkers were identified, limitations in the articles examined included possible selection bias, confounding, spectrum effect (potentially heterogeneous biomarker associations in populations according to symptom severity or duration) and insufficient attention to co-morbid conditions. A list of recommendations for future studies is provided.

  • 15.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Gold Standard Research Consulting, Bryn Mawr, PA, USA.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Barbe, Mary
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Temple University Medical School,.
    Ali, Sayed
    Department of Radiology, Temple University Medical School,.
    Systematic review of quantitative imaging biomarkers for neck and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, article id 395Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study systematically summarizes quantitative imaging biomarker research in non-traumatic neck and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). There were two research questions: 1) Are there quantitative imaging biomarkers associated with the presence of neck and shoulder MSDs?, 2) Are there quantitative imaging biomarkers associated with the severity of neck and shoulder MSDs?

    Methods

    PubMed and SCOPUS were used for the literature search. One hundred and twenty-five studies met primary inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from 49 sufficient quality studies.

    Results

    Most of the 125 studies were cross-sectional and utilized convenience samples of patients as both cases and controls. Only half controlled for potential confounders via exclusion or in the analysis. Approximately one-third reported response rates. In sufficient quality articles, 82% demonstrated at least one statistically significant association between the MSD(s) and biomarker(s) studied. The literature synthesis suggested that neck muscle size may be decreased in neck pain, and trapezius myalgia and neck/shoulder pain may be associated with reduced vascularity in the trapezius and reduced trapezius oxygen saturation at rest and in response to upper extremity tasks. Reduced vascularity in the supraspinatus tendon may also be a feature in rotator cuff tears. Five of eight studies showed an association between a quantitative imaging marker and MSD severity.

    Conclusions

    Although research on quantitative imaging biomarkers is still in a nascent stage, some MSD biomarkers were identified. There are limitations in the articles examined, including possible selection bias and inattention to potentially confounding factors. Recommendations for future studies are provided.

  • 16.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Piligian, George
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology and Prevention, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Great Neck, NY.
    Barbe, Mary F.
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia.
    Biochemical biomarkers for MSDs: systematic review results2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Although the potential for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) biomarkers to detect subclinical disease and monitor MSD severity was discussed more than 20 years ago, only one review on biochemical biomarkers exclusive to humans has been published (Saxton 2000). The aim of this study was to systematically summarize biochemical biomarker research in neck and upper extremity MSDs that could appear in a work-related context. Two research questions guided the review: (1) Are there biochemical markers associated with neck and upper extremity MSDs? (2) Are there biochemical markers associated with the severity of neck and upper extremity MSDs?

    Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS. 87 studies met primary inclusion criteria. Following a quality screen, data were extracted from 44 sufficient-quality articles.

    Results. Most of the 87 studies were cross-sectional and utilized convenience samples of patients as both cases and controls. A response rate was explicitly stated in only 11 (13%) studies. Less than half of the studies controlled for potential confounding through restriction or in the analysis. Most sufficient-quality studies were conducted in older populations (mean age in one or more analysis group > 50 yrs). In sufficient-quality articles, 82% demonstrated at least one statistically significant association between the MSD(s) and biomarker(s) studied. Evidence suggested that: (a) the collagen repair marker TIMP-1 is decreased in fibroproliferative disorders, (b) 5-HT (serotonin) is increased in trapezius myalgia, and (c) triglycerides are increased in a variety of MSDs. Only five studies showed an association between a biochemical marker and MSD severity.

    Discussion. While some MSD biomarkers were identified, limitations in the articles examined included possible selection bias, confounding, spectrum effect (potentially heterogeneous biomarker associations in populations according to symptom severity or duration) and insufficient attention to co-morbid conditions. A list of recommendations for future studies is provided.

  • 17.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Aadahl, Mette
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup Hospital, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jørgensen, Marie Birk
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Are Temporal Patterns of Sitting Associated with Obesity among Blue-Collar Workers?: A Cross Sectional Study Using Accelerometers2016In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Little is known about the association of objectively measured temporal patterns of sitting (i.e., how sitting is distributed across time) with obesity indicators. We aimed to investigate the extent to which temporal patterns of sitting (time spent in long, moderate and brief uninterrupted sitting periods) are associated with obesity indicators (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fat percentage), independently from moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total sitting time among blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    Workers (n=205) wore Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the thigh and trunk for 1-4 working days. The time-line of sitting on working days was computed using the validated Acti4 software. Total sitting time and time spent sitting in brief (≤5 mins), moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins), and long (>30mins) periods were determined for the whole day, and for leisure and work separately. Obesity indicators, i.e. BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm) and fat percentage were objectively measured. Associations between duration of sitting periods and each obesity indicator were determined using linear regression analysis adjusted for several potential confounders including objectively measured MVPA and total sitting time.

    Results

    Sitting time in brief periods was negatively associated with obesity indicators for the whole day (BMI, P<0.01; fat percentage, P<0.01; waist circumference, P<0.01) and work (BMI, P<0.01; fat percentage, P<0.01; waist circumference, P<0.01), but not for leisure time. Sitting time in long periods was positively associated with obesity indicators for the whole day (waist circumference, P=0.05) and work (waist circumference, P=0.01; BMI, P=0.04), but not for leisure time. Sitting in moderate periods was not associated with obesity indicators for any domain.

    Conclusion

    Time spent in brief and long periods of sitting during the whole day and at work were inversely associated with obesity indicators when adjusting for MVPA and total sitting time, while sitting during leisure time did not show these associations. Thus, the temporal distribution of sitting seems to influence the relationship between sitting and obesity.

  • 18.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Association between Body Mass Index and objectively measured sitting patterns at work and during leisure among blue-collar workers2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    1National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gender differences in time spent sedentary and in physical activity during leisure: A comparison of data analyzed using a traditional approach and compositional data analysis2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mateu-Figueras, Gloria
    Department of Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of Girona.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    A comparison of standard and compositional analysis in studies addressing group differences in sedentary behavior and physical activity2018In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Data on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep during a day is compositional in nature, i.e. they add up to a constant value, typically 100% time. Compositional data have fundamentally different properties from unconstrained data in real space, and require other processing and analysis procedures, referred to as compositional data analysis (CoDA). Most physical activity and sedentary behavior studies, however, still apply analytical procedures adapted to data in real space, which can lead to misleading results. The present study describes a comparison of time spent sedentary and in physical activity between age groups and sexes, and investigates the extent to which results obtained by CoDA differ from those obtained using standard analytical procedures.

    Methods. Time spent sedentary, standing, and in physical activity (walking/running/stair climbing/cycling) during work and leisure was determined for 1-4 days among 677 blue-collar workers using accelerometry. Differences between sexes and age groups were tested using MANOVA, using both a standard approach and a CoDA approach based on isometric log-ratio transformed data.  

    Results. When determining differences between sexes in time used for different activities at work, the effect size using standard analysis (η2=0.045, p<0.001) was 15% smaller than that obtained with CoDA (η2=0.052, p<0.001), although both approaches suggested a statistically significant difference. When determining corresponding differences between age groups, CoDA resulted in a 60% larger, and significant, effect size (η2=0.012, p=0.02) than that obtained with the standard approach (η2=0.008, p=0.07). During leisure, results with standard (age; η2=0.007, p=0.09; sex; η2=0.052, p<0.001) and CoDA (age; η2=0.007, p=0.09; sex; η2=0.051, p<0.001) analyses were similar.

    Conclusion. Results and, hence, inferences concerning differences by age and sex in time spent sedentary and in physical activity at work differed between CoDA and standard analysis. We encourage researchers to use CoDA in similar studies, in order to adequately account for the compositional nature of data on physical activity and sedentary behavior

  • 21.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Storda Christiansen, Caroline
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Gomes Carneiro, Isabella
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Is Objectively Measured Sitting Time Associated with Low Back Pain?: A Cross-Sectional Investigation in the NOMAD study2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0121159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on the association between sitting time and low back pain (LBP) have found contrasting results. This may be due to the lack of objectively measured sitting time or because socioeconomic confounders were not considered in the analysis.

    Objectives: To investigate the association between objectively measured sitting time (daily total, and occupational and leisure-time periods) and LBP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods: Two-hundred-and-one blue-collar workers wore two accelerometers (GT3X+ Actigraph) for up to four consecutive working days to obtain objective measures of sitting time, estimated via Acti4 software. Workers reported their LBP intensity the past month on a scale from 0 (no pain) to 9 (worst imaginable pain) and were categorized into either low (≤5) or high (>5) LBP intensity groups. In the multivariate-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis, total sitting time, occupational and leisure-time sitting were both modeled as continuous (hours/day) and categorical variables (i.e. low, moderate and high sitting time).

    Results: The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association between total sitting time (hours) and high LBP intensity (odds ratio; OR=1.43, 95%CI=1.15-1.77, P=0.01). Similar results were obtained for leisure-time sitting (OR=1.45, 95%CI= 1.10-1.91, P=0.01), and a similar but non-significant trend was obtained for occupational sitting time (OR=1.34, 95%CI 0.99-1.82, P=0.06). In the analysis on categorized sitting time, high sitting time was positively associated with high LBP for total (OR=3.31, 95%CI= 1.18-9.28, P=0.03), leisure (OR=5.31, 95%CI= 1.57-17.90, P=0.01), and occupational (OR=3.26, 95%CI= 0.89-11.98, P=0.08) sitting time, referencing those with low sitting time.

    Conclusion: Sitting time is positively associated with LBP intensity among blue-collar workers. Future studies using a prospective design with objective measures of occupational sitting time are recommended.

  • 22.
    Haapakangas, Annu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Self-rated productivity and employee well-being in activity-based offices: the role of environmental perceptions and workspace use2018In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 145, p. 115-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based offices are increasingly popular. However, productivity and well-being in these work environments have been little researched. The aims of this study were to quantitatively determine perception and use of the activity-based office environment in relation to self-rated productivity and well-being at work, and to identify important predictors of these outcomes. Four activity-based offices in a large Swedish government agency were surveyed 12 months after implementation.Two hundred and thirty-nine respondents were included in the analyses. Linear regression models, adjusted for relevant covariates, were constructed separately for predictors measuring satisfaction with different aspect of the environment (physical environment, privacy, communication, personalization, personal storage, IT functions and cleaning) and office use (the number of daily workspace switches, different workspaces used and the time spent looking for a workspace). Satisfaction with the physical environment, privacy and communication had the strongest positive association with self-rated productivity and well-being at work. Increased workspace switching was associated with higher productivity, while an increase in self-reported time spent searching for a workspace was associated with lower productivity and well-being. However, predictors related to office use generally explained only a small proportion of variance in the two outcomes. The results suggest that office developers should focus particularly on privacy needs but also on communication, personalization, smooth workspace switching and minimization of work time spent looking for available workspaces.

  • 23.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Grooten, Wim
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    A holistic approach in measuring occupational physical activity: challenges and potentials2015In: / [ed] University of Limerick, 2015, p. 11-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that adults spend a considerable proportion of their day at work, employment is a key determinant for daily PA. However, specifics of how and under what circumstances occupational PA (OPA) influences total PA, including other PA domains (e.g. leisure time PA, transport), are unclear. Little is also known about OPA patterns in different occupational groups and how OPA patterns can be changed, among for example those who have mostly sedentary occupations. One important issue concerns if working in a standing position and the use of dynamic chairs has any effect on OPA levels, for instance among office workers. This despite the fact that ergonomists advocate sedentary workers to work in a standing position or use an “active sitting” approach using “dynamic” chairs. To be able to give recommendations regarding PA to employees with different OPA, more insight is needed on how to optimally measure OPA. To move the field forward, knowledge should be combined from different disciplines involved in measuring OPA. Therefore, we want to initiate an interdisciplinary discussion on appropriate measurements of OPA. The aim of the symposium is to present a holistic approach to measuring OPA by combining our expertise in the field of PA and health, measurement of PA using objective measures and self-reported measures, ergonomics, occupational health and public health science.

  • 24.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Autonom reglering, fysisk aktivitet och stress hos personer med långvarig smärta i nacke-skuldra2013In: Best Practice Smärta, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Autonomic nervous system regulation in chronic neck-shoulder pain: Relations to physical activity and perceived stress2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck-shoulder pain (NSP) is a highly prevalent musculoskeletal disorder with unclear causes, and effective prevention and treatment require a further understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Aberrant autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation is a hypothesized causal element in the development and maintenance of chronic muscle pain.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate possible differences in ANS regulation between chronic NSP and healthy control (CON) groups using both laboratory assessment and ambulatory monitoring in daily life.

    Four papers are included in this thesis, based on data from three groups with chronic NSP. Autonomic responses to laboratory stressors were assessed using heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, trapezius muscle activity and blood flow measurements (Study І) in NSP and CON. Long-term ambulatory monitoring of HRV, physical activity and perceived symptoms were assessed in Studies ІІ and IV to investigate group differences in real-life conditions. Finally, the effects of a ten-week intervention (using individually adjusted HRV biofeedback) to reinstating ANS balance in subjects with chronic NSP were evaluated using self-reported symptoms and health ratings, as well as autonomic regulation testing (i.e., evaluating HRV at rest and in response to stress) (Study ІІІ).

    The main findings from the four studies demonstrated aberrant ANS regulation in the NSP group compared to CON, which was predominantly characterized by diminished parasympathetic cardiac activity during rest and sleep, and altered sympathetic reactivity to laboratory stressors (Studies І, ІІ and IV). Different patterns in physical activity were observed between the NSP and CON groups, with reduced physical activity during leisure time in the NSP group (Studies ІІ and IV). Physical activity was found to be positively associated with HRV. Positive effects of HRV-biofeedback were found on perceived health, including social function, vitality and bodily pain, and improved HRV (Study ІІІ).

    In conclusion, imbalanced ANS regulation was demonstrated among persons with chronic NSP at both the systemic and local levels. Diminished parasympathetic activity in NSP was modulated by lower levels of physical activity in leisure time. Interventions targeting ANS functions might benefit persons with chronic NSP.

  • 26.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Contrasting effect of objectively measured physical activity during work and leisure on heart rate variability during sleep2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Sage Publications, 2017, Vol. 24(2S)Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    On the health paradox of occupational and leisure-time physical activity using objective measurements: effects on autonomic imbalance2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0177042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has considerable benefits for cardiovascular health and longevity, while occupational physical activity (OPA) is associated with an elevated cardiovascular risk. This “health paradox” may be explained by different effects on the autonomic nervous system from OPA and LTPA. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether objectively measured OPA and LTPA are differentially associated with autonomic regulation among workers.

    Methods

    The study comprised 514 blue-collar workers from the Danish cohort DPHACTO. Physical activity (i.e. walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was assessed objectively using accelerometers worn on the thigh, hip and trunk over multiple working days. During this period, a heart rate monitor was used to sample heart period intervals from the ECG signal. Heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) indices were analyzed during nocturnal sleep as markers of autonomic regulation. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the main effects of OPA and LTPA and their interaction on heart rate and HRV, adjusting for multiple confounders.

    Results

    Statistically significant interaction was found between OPA and LTPA on heart rate (adjusted p<0.0001) and HRV indices in time (rMSSD, adjusted p = 0.004) and frequency-domains (HF, adjusted p = 0.022; LF, adjusted p = 0.033). The beneficial effect of LTPA on nocturnal heart rate and HRV clearly diminished with higher levels of OPA, and high levels of both OPA and LTPA had a detrimental effect.

    Conclusion

    We found contrasting associations for objectively measured OPA and LTPA with heart rate and HRV during sleep. Differential effects of OPA and LTPA on autonomic regulation may contribute to the physical activity health paradox.

  • 28.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is prolonged sitting at work associated with the time course of neck-shoulder pain?: A prospective study in Danish blue-collar workers2016In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 11, article id e012689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which objectively measured sitting time at work is associated with the course of neck-shoulder pain across one year in blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    Data was analyzed from 625 blue-collar workers in the Danish DPHACTO cohort study (2012-2013). Objective data on sitting time were collected at baseline using accelerometry. Self-reported pain intensity (numeric rating scale 0-10) in the neck-shoulder region was registered for one year using repeated text messages (14 in total). Linear Mixed Models were used to determine the relationship between percent time in sitting at work and trajectories of neck-shoulder pain, with and without adjustment for demographic, occupational and lifestyle factors, and baseline pain intensity.

    Results

    More sitting time at work was associated with a faster decline in pain intensity over 12-months, as indicated by a statistically significant effect of sitting on pain trajectories in the crude (p=0.020) and fully adjusted models (p=0.027).

    Conclusion                             

    In blue-collar workers, more sitting time at work was associated with a favorable development of pain intensity over time. The relationship between sitting at work and pain needs further investigation before explicit recommendations and guidelines on sedentary behavior among blue-collar workers can be developed.

  • 29.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Center for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Center for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Association between objectively measured sitting time and neck-shoulder pain among blue-collar workers2015In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 88, no 8, p. 1031-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Prolonged sitting has been suggested as a risk factor for neck-shoulder pain (NSP). Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the extent to which objectively measured time sitting is associated with NSP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods Sitting time was measured during multiple working days on male (n=118) and female (n=84) blue-collar workers (n=202) using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph) placed on the thigh and trunk. Workers were categorized into having, on average, a low, moderate, or high sitting time, with mean values (SD between subjects) of 4.9 (1.0), 7.3 (0.5), and 9.6 (1.1) hours in total per day. Workers rated their largest NSP intensity during the previous month on a numerical scale (0-9), and were subsequently dichotomized into a low and high NSP intensity group (ratings 0-4 and >4, respectively). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for several individual and work-related factors were used to investigate the association between average sitting time per day (work, leisure and total) and NSP intensity.   

    Results For total sitting time, workers in the high sitting category were more likely (adjusted OR 2.97, CI 1.25-7.03) to report high NSP intensity than those who sat moderately (reference category). Low sitting during work was associated with a reduced NSP intensity, but only for males (adjusted OR 0.26 CI 0.07-0.96). No significant association was found between sitting during leisure and NSP intensity.

    Conclusion These findings suggest an association between sitting time, in total per day and specifically during work, and NSP intensity among blue-collar workers. We encourage studying the structure and explanation of this association further in prospective studies on larger populations.

  • 30.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is there an association between objectively measured occupational sitting and intense neck-shoulder pain among blue-collar workers?2015In: / [ed] University of Limerick, 2015, p. 74-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Prolonged occupational sitting has been suggested to be a risk factor for neck-shoulder pain (NSP). However, studies using valid and precise methods for assessing sitting are lacking. We investigated the extent to which objectively measured sitting time is associated with intense NSP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    In a cross-sectional study, sitting time was measured for two working days on male (n=118) and female (n=84) blue-collar workers using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph) placed on the thigh and trunk. Workers were categorized in tertiles having low, moderate, or high sitting time at work. Workers rated their NSP intensity during the previous month on a numerical scale (0-9), and were then dichotomized into a low (0-4) and high (>4) NSP intensity group. Binary logistic regression analyses, with multiple adjustments for individual and occupational risk factors besides sitting, were performed to investigate the association between occupational sitting time and intense NSP, separately for males and females.  

    Results

    We found that low occupational sitting was associated with a reduced NSP intensity compared to moderate sitting among males (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.08-0.98). This association remained significant after adjustment for individual and occupational covariates (adjusted OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.07-0.96). We found no such relationship among females (OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.28-3.59), and high sitting was not associated with pain.

    Conclusion

    Our findings suggest a gender-specific association between occupational sitting time and intense NSP among blue-collar workers. We encourage further studies to investigate the nature of this association, using prospective designs in larger, gender-stratified populations.

  • 31.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Temporal patterns of physical activity during work and leisure: exposure variation analysis of accelerometer recordings processed by the ACTI4 software2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Previous studies have found substantial differences in the health effects of occupational (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA): LTPA is generally beneficial to health, while OPA may be detrimental. Why these differences occur is, however, so far not clear. Different time patterns of OPA and LTPA may be an explanation. Thus, we aimed to investigate the extent to which time patterns of OPA and LTPA differ in a population of blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    This study was conducted on a cross-sectional sample of 191 blue-collar workers from seven workplaces in Denmark. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using the Acti4 method on recordings from accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk for four consecutive days. Time patterns of OPA and LTPA were retrieved separately for work and leisure using Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA), and expressed in terms of percentage time spent in uninterrupted periods of different durations (<1min, 1-5 min, 5-10 min, 10-30 min, 30-60 min and > 60 min) of sitting, standing, and walking. Differences between OPA and LTPA in selected EVA derivatives were tested using repeated measures ANOVA with adjustments for differences between work and leisure in total time for each activity.

    Results

    We found significant differences between work and leisure time for several EVA derivatives, with OPA showing a larger percentage time walking and standing in short periods (<5 min), and less percent time in prolonged sitting (>30 min) than LTPA. Apart from standing (p=.10), these differences remained significant even after adjusting for the difference between work and leisure in total time spent in each activity.

    Conclusion

    We found, among blue-collar workers, that the time patterns of OPA and LTPA were markedly different even after adjustment for total PA time. We suggest using EVA derivatives in future studies investigating potential associations of OPA and LTPA with health outcomes.

  • 32.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hed Ekman, Annika
    Manpower Hälsopartner, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Changes in physical activity and heart rate variability in chronic neck-shoulder pain: monitoring during work and leisure time2014In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 735-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Neck-shoulder pain (NSP) is a common work-related musculoskeletal disorder with unclear mechanisms. Changes in physical activity and autonomic nervous system regulation may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic NSP. The aim of the current study was to investigate autonomic regulation in relation to physical activity and perceived symptoms during work and leisure time among workers with chronic NSP (n = 29) as compared to a healthy control group (CON, n = 27).

    METHODS: Physical activity was objectively monitored for 7 days using accelerometry. Beat-to-beat heart rate was collected continuously for 72 h, with simultaneous momentary ratings of pain, stress, and fatigue. Duration of sitting/lying, standing and walking, number of steps, and energy expenditure were used as measures of physical activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) indices were extracted in time and frequency domains as reflecting autonomic regulation. Data were divided into work hours, leisure time, and sleep.

    RESULTS: The NSP group rated higher levels of stress and fatigue at work and leisure, and reduced sleep quality as compared to CON. Elevated heart rate and reduced HRV were found in NSP compared with CON, especially during sleep. The NSP group demonstrated a different pattern of physical activity than CON, with a lower activity level in leisure time. Higher physical activity was associated with increased HRV in both groups.

    CONCLUSION: Changes in HRV reflected an autonomic imbalance in workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. This can be explained by reduced physical activity in leisure time. Intervention studies aimed at increasing physical activity may shed further light on the association between autonomic regulation and physical activity in work-related NSP.

  • 33.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Association between sitting time at work and favorable changes in neck-shoulder pain among blue-collar workers2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Previous studies suggest that prolonged sitting at work is a risk-factor for neck-shoulder pain (NSP). However, a majority of studies on the association between occupational sitting and NSP have relied on cross-sectional designs and self-reported measurements of sitting time. Our aim was to determine the extent to which occupational sitting time, assessed using accelerometry, is associated with the 1-year time course of NSP intensity among blue-collar workers.

    Methods. Our study included 494 Danish workers (female n=220) from three occupational sectors: cleaning (n=96), manufacturing (n=356) and transportation (n=42). At baseline, sitting was monitored continuously for several working days (mean (SD) wear time: 2.6 (0.9) days) using accelerometers attached to the thigh and trunk. During the following 12 months, data on self-reported NSP intensity (NRS scale, range 0-10) were collected on a monthly basis using SMS tracking. Repeated measures ANOVA adjusted for gender, occupational sector, seniority, and pain at baseline was used to examine the association between per cent time spent sitting (at work and leisure) and changes in NSP across time.

    Results. We found a significant interaction between occupational sitting at baseline and the time course of NSP (F(11,491)=6.37, p=0.01), which remained significant with adjustment for covariates (F(11,464)=6.64, p=0.01). We found no main effect of occupational sitting on NSP (p>0.05). Categorizing sitting time revealed that more sitting at work was accompanied by larger reductions in NSP over time. The effect of time on NSP was stronger in the high sitting group (F(11,162)=30.4, p<0.0001) than in the low (F(11,162)=4.9, p=0.05) and moderate (F(11,167)=5.10, p=0.02) sitting groups. We found no association between leisure-time sitting and NSP (p>0.05).

    Discussion. In contrast to previous studies, our results indicate that prolonged sitting is associated with a favourable prognosis of NSP across one year in workers. The clinical significance of this result needs to be examined further

  • 34.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jorgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Longitudinal trajectories of neck‒shoulder pain in workers:Influence on self-reported sick leave and work ability over 1 year2017In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Søgaard, Karen
    Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kristiansen, Jesper
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on cardiac autonomic regulation: A worksite RCT among cleaners2017In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 169, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether aerobic exercise during work hours affects cardiac autonomic regulation in cleaners characterized by high levels of occupational physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Method

    Eligible cleaners (n=116) were randomized to an aerobic exercise group (n=59) or a reference group (n=57) with lectures. The intervention group received two 30-min sessions per week of supervised aerobic exercise over 4 months. Diurnal measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity (accelerometry) were obtained at baseline and at 4-month follow-up. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were derived during work, leisure time and sleep to evaluate cardiac autonomic regulation. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effect of the intervention on HRV indices, with adjustment for age, gender and daily use of antihypertensive and/or heart medication.

    Results

    Compared with the reference group, the exercise group increased all HRV indices apart from a reduction in LF/HF ratio from baseline to follow-up both during work (p<0.05) and leisure (p<0.05). In contrast, during sleep, the HRV indices tended to decrease in the exercise group compared with the reference group from baseline to follow-up, being significant for the HF spectral component (p=0.03).

    Conclusion

    Among cleaners, a worksite aerobic exercise intervention improved cardiac autonomic regulation during work and leisure, but not during sleep. The health effect of this contrasting change in autonomic regulation needs further investigation.

  • 36.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jørgensen, Marie Birk
    Holtermann, Andreas
    Har fysisk aktivitet på arbete och fritid betydelse för återhämtning från nacksmärta hos arbetare?: En prospektiv studie med objektiva mätningar2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Syfte

    Kunskapen om vilka faktorer som påverkar förloppet av smärta i nacke/skuldra hos personer med manuella arbeten är mycket begränsad. Syftet med föreliggande prospektiva studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan objektivt registrerad fysisk aktivitet på arbetet och fritiden med förloppet av smärta över ett år hos kvinnor och män med manuellt arbete.

    Metod

    Data samlades in från 625 arbetare inom industri, städning och transport sektorerna från den Danska kohorten DPHACTO. Fysisk aktivitet mättes objektivt vid baslinje med 4 accelerometrar (Actigraph GT3X+) under 1-5 arbetsdagar. Mjukvaran Acti4 användes för att klassificera olika typer av fysisk aktivitet (gå, gå i trapport, cykla, springa). Andel tid i fysisk aktivitet beräknades separat för arbete och fritid. Textmeddelanden (SMS) med frågor om smärtintensitet i nacke/skuldra (skala 0-10) sändes ut till deltagarna med fyra veckors intervall under 12 månader. Linear mixed models användes för att fastställa samband mellan fysisk aktivitet på arbete och fritid med nivå och förändring av smärta över tid, med justering för potentiella konfounders.

    Resultat

    Fysisk aktivitet på arbetet var inte associerat med genomsnittlig smärtnivå, men fysisk aktivitet på fritiden var associerat med lägre smärta både hos kvinnor (B=-0.71, 95 % CI -1.31‒-0.11) och män (B=-0.85, 95 % CI -1.57‒-0.13). Vi fann en signifikant interaktion mellan fysisk aktivitet och kön på förändring av smärta. Fysisk aktivitet på arbetet var relaterat till långsammare återhämtning av smärta hos män (B=0.03, 95 % CI 0.01‒0.05), medan fysisk aktivitet på fritiden var associerat med långsammare återhämtning hos kvinnor.

    Slutsatser

    Resultaten indikerar att fysisk aktivitet på fritiden har en skyddande effekt på smärta i nacke/skuldra hos personer med manuellt arbete. Betydelsen av fysisk aktivitet på arbetet och fritiden för återhämtning av smärta tycks skilja sig mellan kvinnor och män, vilket kan bero på skillnader i exponering, vila och återhämtning. 

  • 37.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Lars Göran
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Systemic and local responses to stress in subjects with chronic muscle pain and healthy controls2009In: Fifth international conference on work environment and cardiovascular diseases, Krakow, Poland: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Lars-Göran
    Dept of biomedical engineering, Linköping University.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    division of public health and caring sciences, Uppsala university.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Effects of static contraction and cold stimulation on cardiovascular autonomic indices, trapezius blood flow and muscle activity in chronic neck-shoulder pain2011In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 8, p. 1725-1735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate reactions in trapezius muscle blood flow (MBF), muscle activity, heart rate variability (HRV) and systemic blood pressure (BP) to autonomic tests in subjects with chronic neck-shoulder pain and healthy controls. Changes in muscle activity and blood flow due to stress and unfavourable muscle loads are known underlying factors of work-related muscle pain. Aberration of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is considered a possible mechanism. In the present study, participants (n = 23 Pain, n = 22 Control) performed autonomic tests which included a resting condition, static hand grip test (HGT) at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, a cold pressor test (CPT) and a deep breathing test (DBT). HRV was analysed in time and frequency domains. MBF and muscle activity were recorded from the upper trapezius muscles using photoplethysmography and electromyography (EMG). The pain group showed reduced low frequency-HRV (LF) and SDNN during rest, as well as a blunted BP response and increased LF-HRV during HGT (∆systolic 22 mm Hg; ∆LF(nu) 27%) compared with controls (∆systolic 27; ∆LF(nu) 6%). Locally, the pain group had attenuated trapezius MBF in response to HGT (Pain 122% Control 140%) with elevated trapezius EMG following HGT and during CPT. In conclusion, only HGT showed differences between groups in systemic BP and HRV and alterations in local trapezius MBF and EMG in the pain group. Findings support the hypothesis of ANS involvement at systemic and local levels in chronic neck-shoulder pain.

  • 39.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Autonomic Regulation in Musculoskeletal Pain2012In: Pain in Perspective / [ed] Subhamay Ghosh, InTech, 2012, p. 35-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Autonomic regulation, physical activity and perceived stress in subjects with musculoskeletal pain: 24-hour ambulatory monitoring2012In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 276-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate autonomic nervous system regulation, physical activity (PA) and perceived stress and energy during daily activities in subjects with chronic muscle pain in the neck-shoulders (trapezius myalgia) (n = 23) and symptom-free controls (n = 22). Subjects underwent 24-h objective ambulatory monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV) and PA, and reported their perceived stress and energy in a diary. Standard HRV measures were extracted in time and frequency domains. The volume and pattern of different types of activities were quantified in terms of intensity and duration of walking, and time spent sitting, standing and lying during the 24-h measurement. Results showed shortened inter beat-intervals (higher heart rate) and reduced HRV in the pain group, most pronounced during sleep (p < 0.05). For overall PA, the pain group showed increased lying time, compared to controls (p < 0.05). A different activity pattern was found in the pain group, with reduced leisure time PA and increased PA during morning hours, in comparison with controls (p < 0.05). Both groups demonstrated low levels of perceived stress, whereas reduced energy was observed in the pain group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, monitoring of 24-h HRV demonstrated diminished HRV among persons with chronic neck-shoulder pain. This reflected aberration in autonomic regulation, suggesting reduced parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic tone as an element in maintenance of chronic muscle pain.

  • 41.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Different levels of physical activity and 24-hour heart rate variability in persons with neck-shoulder pain2011In:  , 2011, p. 117-117Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Monitoring of autonomic regulation and physical activity in workers with musculoskeletal pain2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purposes

    Neck-shoulder pain (NSP) is a common work-related musculoskeletal disorder (1). The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a potential element in the pathogenesis of regional muscle pain (2). Altered cardiovascular regulation has been observed in chronic NSP at rest and in response to stressors (3, 4). Importantly, the ANS control of the cardiovascular system is strongly influenced by daily physical activity. Thus, the observed aberrations in ANS regulation in chronic NSP may be due to pain-related changes in daily physical activity. The present study aimed at investigating ANS regulation and physical activity in workers with chronic NSP (N = 29) and symptom-free controls (N = 27) during work and leisure time.

     

    Methods

    Ambulatory monitoring of physical activity (seven days) and ANS cardiac activity (72-hours) were performed using accelerometry and electrocardiography, respectively. Time walking, sitting/lying and standing, as well as number of steps were calculated for each hour and averaged for work and leisure time. Heart rate variability indices were calculated in both time and frequency domains, and averaged over work, leisure time and sleep.

     

    Results

    The results indicated a reduced level of leisure time physical activity in NSP compared to controls (p<0.05), while no differences were observed for sedentary time. NSP demonstrated diminished HRV during sleep (p<0.05). Positive correlations were found between leisure time physical activity and HRV during sleep (p<0.05).

     

    Conclusions

    Reduced leisure time physical activity and diminished nocturnal HRV were seen in persons with chronic muscle pain. Correlations between leisure time physical activity and HRV may indicate that ANS regulation was partly modulated by physical activity in leisure time

  • 43.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Monitoring of heart rate variability, physical activity and perceived stress and energy in daily life among persons suffering from neck-shoulder pain2010In: Nordic Conference 2010 - Interdisciplinary perspectives on health, participation and effects of sport and exercise, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Seven Days Activity Monitoring in Workers with Musculoskeletal Pain: Daily Patterns, Associations with Symptoms2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    Musculoskeletal pain is highly common among the working population. It has been assumed that chronic pain may reduce the activity level in daily life, which in turn may aggravate pain and associated symptoms. However, it is not known whether pain impacts on daily activities among workers. Commonly accepted and validated protocols are needed to gain objective information about possible deviations in physical activity patterns in subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

     

    PURPOSE:

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the volume and time-pattern of daily physical activity in workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain compared with healthy controls.

     

    METHODS:

    Twenty-seven workers with chronic muscle pain primarily in the neck-shoulder region, and 27 age- and gender- matched controls participated in the study. Both groups were recruited from the same global manufacturing company within the industrial sector at a site in Sweden. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were monitored for seven days, both during work and leisure time, using a single tri-axial accelerometer (PAL Technologies Ltd, Glasgow). Time spent walking, standing and sitting/lying and steps were calculated for each hour. The mean metabolic equivalent (MET) was estimated and used as a measure of energy expenditure. The coefficient of variation (CV) between daytime hours was calculated as a measure of variation.

     

    RESULTS:

    For overall daily activity, the mean standing time was significantly higher in the pain group (263 min/day) compared with controls (209 min/day) (p=0.04), whereas no difference was found in energy expenditure or sedentary time. The analyses of time patterns revealed lower energy expenditure in the evening and morning hours among those with pain (mean 1.6 MET/h) compared with the control group (mean 1.8 MET/h) (p<0.05). The pain group showed on average a smaller CV in MET (9%) than the control group (11%) (p=0.02), which indicated a reduced variation in physical activity. There were no significant associations between pain intensity and physical activity.

     

    CONCLUSION:

    Despite a normal level of total physical activity, workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain had an altered activity pattern in terms of reduced variation and a lower activity level in leisure time.

  • 45.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stress och muskelsmärta - mekanismer och behandling2013In: Stress: Gen, Individ, Samhälle / [ed] Bengt Arnetz, Rolf Ekman, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 3, p. 181-193Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Lars Göran
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Circulatory and electromyographic responses to physical effort an experimental pain in subjects with trapezius myalgia2010In: Proceedings of the Premus 2010 conference (Seventh International Conference on Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders), Angers, France, 2010, p. 122-122Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Objectively measured physical activity and 12-month trajectories of neck-shoulder pain in workers: a prospective study in DPHACTO2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 288-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity at work and leisure and the intensity (mean level and time course) of neck–shoulder pain (NSP) over 12 months among male and female blue collar workers. Methods: Data were obtained from 625 blue collar workers from the Danish cohort DPHACTO. Physical activity was measured objectively at baseline using accelerometers. The percentage of time spent in physical activity (walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was calculated for both work and leisure time. Longitudinal data on the intensity of NSP (numerical rating scale 0–10) were collected using text messages every fourth week over 12 months. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the associations between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the trajectories of the intensity of NSP, adjusted for individual, biomechanical and psychosocial factors, and baseline pain. Results: OPA was not associated with the mean intensity of NSP over 12 months. LTPA was negatively associated with the mean intensity of NSP both among men (B=−0.71, 95% CI −1.31 to −0.11) and women (B=−0.85, 95% CI −1.57 to −0.13). Sex interactions on the 12-month trajectories of NSP showed that higher physical activity was associated with a slower reduction in NSP among men for OPA only (B=0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.05) and women for LTPA only (B=0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.09). Conclusions: We found that more time in LTPA was associated with a lower overall intensity of NSP over 12 months among blue collar workers. However, depending on sex and domain, high physical activity had an unfavourable effect on the course of NSP over 12 months.

  • 48.
    Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Temporal patterns of sitting at work are associated with neck-shoulder pain in blue-collar workers: a cross-sectional analysis of accelerometer data in the DPHACTO study2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 823-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Our aim was to examine the extent to which temporal patterns of sitting during occupational work and during leisure-time, assessed using accelerometry, are associated with intense neck–shoulder pain (NSP) in blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    The population consisted of 659 Danish blue-collar workers. Accelerometers were attached to the thigh, hip, trunk and upper dominant arm to measure sitting time and physical activity across four consecutive days. Temporal sitting patterns were expressed separately for work and leisure by the proportion of total time spent sitting in brief bursts (0–5 min), moderate (>5–20 min) and prolonged (>20 min) periods. The peak NSP intensity during the previous 3 months was assessed using a numerical rating scale (range 0–10) and dichotomized into a lower (≤4) and higher (>4) NSP score. Logistic regression analyses with multiple adjustments for individual and occupational factors were performed to determine the association between brief, moderate and prolonged sitting periods, and NSP intensity.

    Results

    Time in brief bursts of occupational sitting was negatively associated with NSP intensity (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.48–0.98), while time in moderate periods of occupational sitting showed a positive association with NSP (adjusted OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.04–1.69). Time in prolonged periods of occupational sitting was not associated with NSP (adjusted OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.78–1.09). We found no significant association between brief, moderate or prolonged sitting periods during leisure, and NSP.

    Conclusion

    Our findings indicate that the association between occupational sitting time and intense NSP among blue-collar workers is sensitive to the temporal pattern of sitting.

  • 49.
    Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Long-term monitoring of physical behavior reveals different cardiac responses to physical activity among subjects with and without chronic neck pain2015In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2015, article id 907482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV) responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain.

    Method Twenty-nine subjects (13 women) with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry), HRV (heart rate monitor) and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS)) were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work, and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated, and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking). ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV.

    Results The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p=.001), according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low and high frequency power), even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p=.02). The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups.

    Conclusions Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain.

  • 50.
    Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte D.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jørgensen, Marie Birk
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Time course of neck-shoulder pain among workers: A longitudinal latent class growth analysis.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 47-57, article id 3690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aims of this study were to (i) identify trajectories of neck-shoulder pain (NSP) over one year in an occupational population and (ii) determine whether these trajectories are predicted by NSP characteristics as well as personal and occupational factors at baseline.

    Methods

    This longitudinal study was conducted among Danish workers (N=748) from 2012-2014. Text messages were used to collect frequent data on NSP over one year (14 waves in total). Peak NSP intensity in the past month was rated on a 0-10 numeric scale. A baseline questionnaire covered NSP characteristics (pain intensity, duration, comorbidity, pain medication, and pain interference) as well as personal (age, gender, body mass index) and occupational (seniority, work type, physical strain at work) factors. Latent class growth analysis was used to distinguish trajectories of NSP. Multivariate regression models with odds ratios (OR) were constructed to predict trajectories of NSP.

    Results

    Six distinct trajectories of NSP were identified (asymptomatic 11%, very low NSP 10%, low recovering NSP 18%, moderate recovering NSP 28%, strong fluctuating NSP 24% and severe persistent NSP 9% of the workers). Female gender, age, physical strain at work, NSP intensity and duration, pain medication, and pain interference in daily work at baseline were positively associated with severe persistent NSP and strong fluctuating NSP (all P<0.05). Altogether, personal and occupational factors accounted for 14% of the variance, while NSP characteristics accounted for 54%.

    Conclusions

    In an occupational sample, six distinct trajectories of NSP were identified. Physical strain at work appears to be a pertinent occupational factor predicting strong fluctuating and severe persistent NSP.

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