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  • 1.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University and Department of Sports and Medicine, University of Dalarna, Sweden .
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Acoustical conditions in the classroom: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios2014In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Education, Health and Social Studies, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pekkola, Elina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Children’s recall of words spoken in their first and second language: Effects of signal-to-noise ratio and reverberation time2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 2029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception runs smoothly and automatically when there is silence in the background, but when the speech signal is degraded by background noise or by reverberation, effortful cognitive processing is needed to compensate for the signal distortion. Previous research has typically investigated the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reverberation time in isolation, whilst few have looked at their interaction. In this study, we probed how reverberation time and SNR influence recall of words presented in participants’ first- (L1) and second-language (L2). A total of 72 children (10 years old) participated in this study. The to-be-recalled wordlists were played back with two different reverberation times (0.3 and 1.2 sec) crossed with two different SNRs (+3 dBA and +12 dBA). Children recalled fewer words when the spoken words were presented in L2 in comparison with recall of spoken words presented in L1. Words that were presented with a high SNR (+12 dBA) improved recall compared to a low SNR (+3 dBA). Reverberation time interacted with SNR to the effect that at +12 dB the shorter reverberation time improved recall, but at +3 dB it impaired recall. The effects of the physical sound variables (SNR and reverberation time) did not interact with language.

  • 3.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Education, Health and Social Science, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Student's second-language grade may depend on classroom listening position2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students’ score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants’ baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores—and hence students’ grade in English—may depend on students’ classroom listening position.

  • 4.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ökat brus i klassrum ger sämre inlärning hos elev2011In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, no 7, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Keus, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Acoustical conditions in the classroom II: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios2013In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life, 2013, p. 5091-5098Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment will be reported which assessed speech intelligibility and free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and with/without the spoken words being repeated back orally directly after presentation (shadowing). All participants encountered all experimental conditions. Twelve wordlists with 12 words each were generated in English as well as in Swedish. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. Blocks of counter balanced presentation orders, S/N-ratios and shadowing/no shadowing were generated. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were taken. The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the S/N-ratio was low, there was no shadowing and when the language was English. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further enhance these effects. While writing this abstract data collection is still in progress but results will be presented at the conference.

  • 6.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Dålig akustik i klassrum ger sämre inlärning2012In: Vi hörs, ISSN 0787-9520, Vol. 2, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Israelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Acoustical conditions in the classroom I: Speech intelligibility and recall of spoken material heard at different signal-to-noise ratios.2013In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life, 2013, p. 4957-4964Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored speech intelligibility and free recall of word lists heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity (WMC) were taken to explore individual susceptibility to the disruptive effects of noise. The thirty-five participants first completed a WMC-operation span task in quiet and later listened to spoken word lists containing 11 one-syllable phonetically balanced words presented at four different S/N ratios (+12, +9, +6, and +3). Participants repeated (shadowed) each word aloud immediately after its presentation and performed a free recall task of the words after the end of the list. The speech intelligibility function decreased linearly with increasing S/N levels for both the high-WMC and low-WMC groups. Recall and memory of the words decreased with increasing S/N levels only for the low-WMC group. Recall and memory for the high-WMC individuals was not affected by increased S/N levels. Our results suggest that impoverished acoustical conditions impair speech intelligibility and memory, but also that a high WMC may counteract some of the negative effects of speech noise.

  • 8.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Disruption of writing by background speech: a classroom experiment2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Irrelevant background speech impairs cognitive capabilities such as writing. Laboratory studies wherein participants were tested alone in sound attenuated rooms, showed that ordinary speech, even with relatively low intelligibility (Keus van de Poll, Ljung, Odelius, Sörqvist, 2014), is more distracting than meaningless speech (Sörqvist, Nöstl, & Halin, 2012). Yet, so far research has paid little attention to the manifestation of these effects in classroom environments. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of irrelevant background speech on writing in a realistic classroom setting. The hypothesis was that irrelevant background speech would have distracting effects on text production, especially on writing fluency and typing errors. In an experimental within-subjects design, college students (in groups of 10-12 participants), sitting in a classroom, were asked to write short essays (5 minutes per essay) in the software program scriptlog. One essay was written in silence and one in the presence of background speech. As expected, background speech had a (slight) effect, although more participants are needed to increase the experimental power. Comparisons with previous studies on the effects of speech on writing are made and future directions are discussed.

  • 9.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden.
    The effect of heat stress on writing performance in a classroom2014In: Indoor Air 2014 - 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2014, p. 183-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that heat stress impairs performance. This depends on the mental loading capacity of the task performed and the exposure time. This is a study of a common task in schools and offices: writing task. It also analyses the occupants’ perceived thermal comfort. The experiment was done in two heat conditions: 20 and 25 centigrade. The between participant design was used. ScriptLog was used to perform the writing task, while questionnaires and a Sudoku task were paper based tasks. The results show that the predicted mean vote (PMV) between conditions was significant (p<0.02) and participants perceived the 20 º C condition to be draughty. They however preferred a little more air movements in both conditions. Writing performance only showed a significant difference (p = 0.03) on deleted characters but the other variables considered did not show any significant differences but showed a strong tendency that with a long exposure time it would eventually be impaired.  This shows that writing despite being a complex task is not a high mental loading task and is not quickly impaired by heat stress.

  • 10.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley CA, USA.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    The influence of heat, air jet cooling and noise on performance in classrooms2015In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 321-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of indoor environments influences satisfaction, health, and work performance of the occupants. Additional understanding of the theoretical and practical value of individual indoor parameters in relation to health and performance aids indoor climate designers to obtain desired outcomes. This also results in expenditure savings and increased revenue: health care and improved productivity. Here, we report two experiments that investigated how heat, cooling strategy and background noise influence performance in a full-scale classroom mockup setting. The results show that heat and background noise are detrimental to logic-based tasks and to writing, whilst cooling manipulations can protect performance. Implications for indoor environment design are discussed.

  • 11.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sorqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Perception of intermittent air velocities in classrooms2014In: Indoor Air 2014 - 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2014, p. 189-191Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classrooms normally host a large number of people and the heat generated provides a challenge cool. Traditional cooling methods by increased low temperature supply airflow rate or use of heat sinks are expensive and mostly inefficient. The strategy of controlled air movements in the occupied zone may prove cheaper and desirable. This research investigates recirculation of room air to provide intermittent velocity cooling in classrooms. The objective of this experiment was to assess how occupants perceive the recirculated intermittent air velocity conditions in classrooms and when the variations should be introduced in the room for optimal results. This was done with a between participant design, accessing how they perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) and the thermal comfort in two velocity conditions: constant low air velocity condition (< 0.15 m/s) and intermittent air velocity condition (0.4 m/s). As shown here; intermittent air velocity has a positive effect on the perceived thermal comfort (p < 0.04) and perception of air quality: less draughty and improved humid perception. The participants perceived the conditions with intermittent velocity to give comfortable feelings and better air quality.  The variations also showed better performance if they were provided at the start of occupancy as opposed to during or after a temperature build up. This strategy can be used in environments where it is rather uneconomical to provide cooling like spaces hosting a group of people: movie theatres, auditoriums, classrooms and perhaps in restaurants.

  • 12.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Experimental evaluation of an intermittent air supply system – Part 2: Occupant perception of thermal climate2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 108, p. 99-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A newly proposed intermittent air jet strategy (IAJS) provides satisfactory indoor climate while promising a substantial energy saving potential, as shown in technical (objective) measurements. The strategy creates non-uniform airflow and non-isothermal conditions critical for sedentary operations at elevated temperatures. The current study explored human perception of thermal environment under an IAJS. Assessment of thermal sensation, thermal comfort, and thermal acceptability were collected based on responses from 36 participants. Participants sat in a classroom setup and performed sedentary work. Their clothing had an insulation of 0.51 clo (T-shirt on upper body). Participants were exposed to homogeneous (v < 0.15 m/s) and nonhomogeneous (0.4 m/s < v < 0.8 m/s) velocity conditions across three temperature conditions: 22.5 °C, 25.5 °C and 28.5 °C. The participants found air speeds to be undesirable at lower temperatures, but reported an improved thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability at higher temperatures. As shown here, IAJS generated neutral operable conditions between 24.8 °C and 27.8 °C, within an air speed range of 0.4 m/s to 0.8 m/s. Additionally, air movements induced thermal alliethesia resulting in improved comfort and acceptance of the thermal climate even at lower air speeds in warm temperature conditions. Hence, the current study supports the energy saving potential with IAJS in view of the human perception of the indoor environment.

  • 13.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Human perception of room temperature and intermittent air jet cooling in a classroom2017In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 528-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environments with high temperatures and under steady conditions are perceived poor. The introduction of airflow variations in such environments improves the perception. However the risk of draught is high and to avoid this, variations in high velocity supply is used. This method is far more energy efficient than cooling the entire space as only the occupants are cooled. This paper discusses two studies on occupant cooling conducted at the University of Gävle.  The experiments were performed in a full scale mockup classroom and a total of 85 students participated. In Study 1, students sat in a classroom for about 60 minutes in one of two heat conditions: 20 and 25 º C. In Study 2, the indoor parameters of 25 º C were maintained but airflow variation in the sitting zone was manipulated. In both studies, the participants performed various tasks and answered questionnaires on their perception of the indoor climate. As shown here, higher room temperature deteriorates human perception of the indoor climate in classrooms, and the use of intermittent air jet cooling improves the perception of indoor climate just like cooling by reducing the room air temperature. This study contributes to further knowledge of how convective cooling can be used as a method of cooling in school environments so as to improve on building energy use. 

  • 14.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Carlsson, Johannes
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Marsh, John
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Schlittmeier, Sabine
    Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Eichstätt, Germany .
    Sundin, Gunilla
    Norconsult AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Unmasking the effects of masking on performance: the potential of multiple-voice masking in the office environment2015In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 807-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadband noise is often used as a masking sound to combat the negative consequences of background speech on performance in open-plan offices. As office workers generally dislike broadband noise, it is important to find alternatives that are more appreciated while being at least not less effective. The purpose of experiment 1 was to compare broadband noise with two alternatives—multiple voices and water waves—in the context of a serial short-term memory task. A single voice impaired memory in comparison with silence, but when the single voice was masked with multiple voices, performance was on level with silence. Experiment 2 explored the benefits of multiple-voice masking in more detail (by comparing one voice, three voices, fivevoices, and seven voices) in the context of word processed writing (arguably a more office-relevant task). Performance (i.e., writing fluency) increased linearly from worst performance in the one-voice condition to best performance in the seven-voice condition. Psychological mechanisms underpinning these effects are discussed.

  • 15.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The Effects of Irrelevant Background Speech Masked by Noise on Writing Performance2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown impairing effects of irrelevant speech on cognitive capabilities as, for example, reading and listening comprehension. Yet, so far research has paid little attention to how these distracters can influence text production. The aim of this study is to investigate how speech intelligibility in terms of different Speech Transmission Index (STI) values influence writing performance. The expectation is that background sound with higher STI values (i.e., when it is easier to hear what is said in the speech signal) will be more detrimental to the writing process. Moreover, the expectation is that persons with high working memory capacity (WMC) will be less distracted than persons with low WMC. In an experimental within-subjects design college students (N ~ 48) are asked to write short essays (5 minutes per essay) in the software program ScriptLog in 5 different STI conditions. Across the conditions, irrelevant background speech masked by white noise is manipulated in terms of different STI values. The essays are based on different pictures presented on a computer screen. At the beginning the participants are asked to do a working memory task (size-comparison span). The results will be presented at the conference. This study contributes to further knowledge of how different acoustical conditions influence cognitive language production processes, which is important in schools and office environments.

  • 16.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linköpings universitet.
    Disruption of writing by background speech: the role of speech transmission index2014In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682x, Vol. 81, p. 15-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech transmission index (STI) is an objective measure of the acoustic properties of office environments and is used to specify norms for acceptable acoustic work conditions. Yet, the tasks used to evaluate the effects of varying STIs on work performance have often been focusing on memory (as memory of visually presented words) and reading tasks and may not give a complete viewof the severity even of low STI values (i.e., when speech intelligibility is low). Against this background, we used a more typical office-work task in the present study. The participants were asked to write short essays (5 min per essay) in 5 different STI conditions (0.08; 0.23; 0.34; 0.50; and 0.71). Writingfluency dropped drastically and the number of pauses longer than 5 s increased at STI values above 0.23. This study shows that realistic work-related performance drops even at low STI values and has implications for how to evaluate acoustic conditions in school and office environments. 

  • 17.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Höra, förstå och minnas2007In: Audio-nytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dåliga lyssningsförhållanden innebär att en stor del av den tillgängliga kognitiva kapaciteten måste användas för att höra vad som sägs, och att en mindre del därför skulle kunna användas för att tolka och lagra informationen. Detta borde gälla även då lyssningsförhållandena inte är sämre än att allt som sägs kan uppfattas med en viss ansträngning. Detta har prövats i en en serie försök vars resultat stöder denna hypotes. Resultaten tyder också på att effekten blir större ju sämre arbetsminneskapacitet man har.

  • 18.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Recall of words heard in noise2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1088-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if recall of words and recognition of sentences orally presented was affected by a background noise. A further aim was to investigate the role of working memory capacity in performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recognition test. They repeated each word to ensure that they had heard them. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance on the word recall task was impaired by the background noise. A high reading span score was associated with a smaller noise effect, especially on recall of the last part of the word list.

  • 19.
    Lindegren, David
    et al.
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå Sweden.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    The AMR-NB voice codec reduces the listener’s capacity to recall speech2018In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 381-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern telecommunication services generally use digital speech encoding. Speech encoding degrades the audio with compression and filters to make the data transmission more efficient. To keep conversations and on-line meetings productive and creative it is important that these digital services do not increase the cognitive load. Measuring effects on working memory is one way to estimate cognitive load of the listener. A test with 25 participants was performed to investigate the effects of using the AMR-NB codec, a standardized codec for mobile communication. The memory performance for spoken 12-word lists was measured and AMR-NB encoded speech was compared with unprocessed speech (LPCM 16 bit, 44.1 kHz). A within-subject analysis showed 9% lower recall rate for the AMR-NB coded speech. © 2018 The Author(s).

  • 20.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Free Recall of Auditory Stimuli Presented in Degraded Listening Conditions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine if degraded listening conditions affect free recall of auditory presented stimuli. The result showed that a long reverberation time (RevT) decreases free recall performance. More detailed analyses revealed that memory of words presented in the beginning of the list were more impaired by the unfavorable listening conditions, which is in agreement with earlier findings. In addition, the relationship between working memory capacity and the effects of degraded listening conditions was studied. People who made many invention errors in the operation span test performed significantly more false recall in low S/N. These findings give support for the hypothesis that degraded stimuli activate more candidate words, and people who make those specific errors have problem to suppress those candidates.

  • 21.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Overheard cell-phone conversation is more disturbing than consistent irrelevant speech, when performing office work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how work performances of 58 participants at an upper secondary school in Sweden were affected by exposure of an overheard cell-phone conversation and a traditional conversation respectively. The main hypothesis of the study was that the cell-phone conversation was likely to disturb the subjects more than the regular conversation, and that the distraction would be more noticeable when the participants performed tasks of greater complexity.

    The results confirmed the hypothesis that overheard cell-phone conversations disturbs people more than regular conversations. The study could not demonstrate that the distraction is greater when people perform tasks of more complex character even if the result went in that direction. The author argues that studies like this should have an important scientific value in the debate about open plan office environment, where employees are constantly exposed to other people’s conversations.

  • 22.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Israelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Speech Intelligibility and Recall of Spoken Material Heard at Different Signal-to-noise Ratios and the Role Played by Working Memory Capacity2013In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 198-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Long reverberation time decreases recall of spoken information2009In: Building Acoustics, ISSN 1351-010X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 301-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if a long reverberation time has the same effect on recall of spoken words as background noise was shown to have in a previous study. A further aim was to study the influence of working memory capacity on performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recognition test. They repeated each word to ensure correct identification. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance of the word recall task was impaired by the long reverberation time. The effect was most evident in the primacy part of the word list. No correlation was found between reading span score and recall performance.

  • 24.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Recall of spoken words presented with a prolonged reverberation time2008In: ICBEN 2008: Machantucket Connecticut, USA, July 21-25, 2008 : the 9th Congress of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise : Noise as a Public Health Problem : Proceedings (edited by Barbara Griefahn), Dortmund: IfADo , 2008, p. 403-409Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if a long reverberation has the same effect on recall of spoken words as background noise was shown to have in a previous study. A further aim was to study the role of working memory capacity for performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recog-nition test. They repeated each word to ensure correct identification. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance of the word recall task was impaired by the long reverberation time. The effect was most evident in the pri-macy part of the word list. The reading span score was unrelated to recall perform-ance.

  • 25.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Green, Anne-Marie
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Memory of a text heard in noise2008In: ICBEN 2008: Machantucket Connecticut, USA, July 21-25, 2008 : the 9th Congress of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise : Noise as a Public Health Problem : Proceedings (edited by Barbara Griefahn), Dortmund: IfADo , 2008, p. 450-453Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When spoken information is presented in unfavourable listening conditions a larger part of the available and limited information processing resources must be allocated to the identification of the words spoken. This leaves fewer resources for the further processing of the speech (the interpretation and storing of the information). In such circumstances understanding and memory of speech might be impaired although each word has been correctly heard. This hypothesis was confirmed in two previous studies where memory of a word list was shown to be impaired when presented in unfavourable listening conditions: unfavourable signal/noise ratio (Kjellberg, Ljung & Hallman, 2008) and a too long reverberation time (Ljung & Kjellberg, in press). Kjellberg et al. also found that the noise effect was weaker the better the working memory capacity (as measured with a reading span task).

  • 26.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Lené, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Background noise means process interference in counting performance2011In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 2011, Vol. 33, p. 540-545Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper examined the effects of different background sounds on counting performance. Two experiments were carried out to test how counting performance was affected by four background noise conditions: spoken numbers, numbers played backwards, names of occupations and a silent control condition. The hypothesis was that the condition with spoken number noise should have strongest negative effect on counting performance. The results from Experiment 1 gave no support for the hypothesis, since no significant difference between conditions was found. Experiment 2 used a more complex counting task and a faster presentation rate of the background sounds. The condition with spoken number noise showed largest effect on counting performance, and performance in the control condition was better than all background sound conditions. The results are in line with the theory of interference by process.

  • 27.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Maccutcheon, Douglas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    RWTH Aachen Institut für Technische Akustik, Aachen, Tyskland.
    Fels, Janina
    RWTH Aachen Institut für Technische Akustik, Aachen, Tyskland.
    Top-Down Cognitive Factors Influence Second-Language Word Identification in Noise2017In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 2017, Vol. 22, p. 291-291, article id 5109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty-four sequential bilingual children aged fifteen underwent assessments of speech-in-noise perception, first and second language vocabulary and auditory working memory (forward digit span). In order to investigate the signal driven processes might affect bilinguals’ “spatial release from masking” (SRM) a listening in spatialized noise paradigm was adapted for the bilingual context. A simple number and colour identification task presented in English and Swedish, and the talker was masked adaptively by speech-shaped noise and eight-talker babble under two spatialized conditions in simulated room acoustics; targets and maskers were either collocated at zero degrees azimuth or spatially separated at ninety degrees azimuth to either side. The resulting language and noise conditions were contrasted with existing research on bilingual adults and native-language speaking children, extending findings to a younger sample of sequential bilingual children. The results indicating a significant relationship between cognitive ability and second-language speech reception threshold.

  • 28.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire UK .
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Distraction of Counting by the Meaning of Background Speech: Are Spatial Memory Demands a Prerequisite?2015In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 584-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reexamines the effects of background speech on counting. Previous studies have shown that background sound disrupts counting in comparison with silence, but the magnitude of disruption is no larger for spoken numbers compared with that for non-number speech (there is no effect of the meaning of background speech). The typical task used previously has been to count the number of sequentially presented visual events. We replicated the general finding in Experiment 1—that there is no effect of the meaning of background speech—in the context of the classic sequence counting task. In Experiment 2, the task was changed by having to-be-counted dots presented simultaneously and randomly across the visual field. Here, an effect attributable to the meaning of background speech emerged. Background speech that is similar in meaning to the focal task process contributes to the magnitude of disruption, but apparently only when spatial memory processes are a task prerequisite.

  • 29.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of Road Traffic Noise and Irrelevant Speech on Children’s Reading and Mathematical Performance2009In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 11, no 45, p. 194-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Irrelevant speech in classrooms and road traffic noise adjacent to schools have a substantial impact on children's ability to learn. Comparing the effects of different noise sources on learning may help construct guidelines for noise abatement programs. Experimental studies are important to establish dose-response relationships and to expand our knowledge beyond correlation studies. This experiment examined effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading speed, reading comprehension, basic mathematics, and mathematical reasoning. A total of 187 pupils (89 girls and 98 boys), 12-13 years old, were tested in their ordinary classrooms. Road traffic noise was found to impair reading speed (P < 0.01) and basic mathematics (P < 0.05). No effect was found on reading comprehension or on mathematical reasoning. Irrelevant speech did not disrupt performance on any task. These findings are related to previous research on noise in schools and the implications for noise abatement guidelines are discussed.

  • 30.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Green, Annemarie
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Poor Listening Conditions Impair Memory for Intelligible Lectures: Implications for Acoustic Classroom Standards2009In: Building Acoustics, ISSN 1351-010X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports two experiments on the effects of degraded speech signals on memory for spoken lectures. Experiment 1 showed that broadband noise impairs university students’ memory for a spoken lecture, even though the participants heard what was said. Experiment 2 showed that reverberation has detrimental effects to school adolescents’ memory for spoken lectures, similar to broadband noise. The results suggest that poor listening conditions (resulting from background noise and/or long reverberation time) impair memory and learning, even if the conditions allow the listeners to hear what is said. Since the goal for students and pupils attending to lectures is to remember the lecture rather than just hearing what is said, the results presented here indicate that standards for acceptable signal-to-noise ratios and reverberation times in buildings designed for learning should consider the distinction between speech intelligibility and memory. Standards should be based on memory criteria instead of intelligibility criteria.

  • 31.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Fels, Janina
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    The effect of language, spatial factors, masker type and memory span on speech-in-noise thresholds in sequential bilingual children2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considers whether bilingual children listening in a second language are among those on which higher processing and cognitive demands are placed when noise is present. Forty-four Swedish sequential bilingual 15 year-olds were given memory span and vocabulary assessments in their first and second language (Swedish and English). First and second language speech reception thresholds (SRTs) at 50% intelligibility for numbers and colors presented in noise were obtained using an adaptive procedure. The target sentences were presented in simulated, virtual classroom acoustics, masked by either 16-talker multi-talker babble noise (MTBN) or speech shaped noise (SSN), positioned either directly in front of the listener (collocated with the target speech), or spatially separated from the target speech by 90° to either side. Main effects in the Spatial and Noise factors indicated that intelligibility was 3.8 dB lower in collocated conditions and 2.9 dB lower in MTBN conditions. SRTs were unexpectedly higher by 0.9 dB in second language conditions. Memory span significantly predicted 17% of the variance in the second language SRTs, and 9% of the variance in first language SRTs, indicating the possibility that the SRT task places higher cognitive demands when listening to second language speech than when the target is in the listener's first language.

  • 32.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Fels, Janina
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    The relationship between working memory and second language speech reception thresholds in sequential bilingual children2017In: APCAM 2017: 16th Annual Auditory Perception, Cognition, and Action Meeting, 2017, p. 14-14Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considers whether or not bilingual school children listening and learning in a second language are among those on which higher perceptual processing and cognitive demands are placed when classroom noise is present. Empirical substantiation for this theory would include elevated speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for second language speech in noise, and native or second language-specific correlations between SRTs and cognitive measures such as working memory (WM) or factors such as the age at which the second language was acquired (age of second language acquisition). Forty-four Swedish sequential bilingual children with no sensory or learning deficits took part in this study. Working memory and vocabulary assessments were conducted and language background data were collected. SRTs at 50 % intelligibility were obtained using an adaptive procedure under Language, Spatial and Noise conditions. The target sentence was presented in simulated room acoustics in Swedish and English, masked by either 8-talker babble or speech shaped noise (SSN) with identical long-term average speech spectra, and noise maskers were positioned either directly in front of the listener or spatially separated from the target at 90° azimuth to either side. Main effects in the Spatial and Noise conditions indicated that spatial release from masking favoured spatially separated conditions and a noise release from masking advantage for SSN conditions, indicated by significantly lower thresholds for those conditions. There were no significant interactions with Language. The age of second language acquisition did not significantly predict second language SRTs and was excluded from the regression model. However, WM significantly predicted 21% of the variance in the second language SRTs, and 9% of the variance in native language SRTs. WM predicted more of the variance in second language SRTs than first language SRTs, suggesting that cognition plays more of a role in second language perceptual processes than native language ones.

  • 33.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    Institute of Technical Acoustics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK 3.
    Vachon, François
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Why are background telephone conversations distracting?2018In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 222-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telephone conversation is ubiquitous within the office setting. Overhearing a telephone conversation-whereby only one of the two speakers is heard-is subjectively more annoying and objectively more distracting than overhearing a full conversation. The present study sought to determine whether this "halfalogue" effect is attributable to unexpected offsets and onsets within the background speech (acoustic unexpectedness) or to the tendency to predict the unheard part of the conversation (semantic [un]predictability), and whether these effects can be shielded against through top-down cognitive control. In Experiment 1, participants performed an office-related task in quiet or in the presence of halfalogue and dialogue background speech. Irrelevant speech was either meaningful or meaningless speech. The halfalogue effect was only present for the meaningful speech condition. Experiment 2 addressed whether higher task-engagement could shield against the halfalogue effect by manipulating the font of the to-be-read material. Although the halfalogue effect was found with an easy-to-read font (fluent text), the use of a difficult-to-read font (disfluent text) eliminated the effect. The halfalogue effect is thus attributable to the semantic (un)predictability, not the acoustic unexpectedness, of background telephone conversation and can be prevented by simple means such as increasing the level of engagement required by the focal task. 

  • 34.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Threadgold, Emma
    City University London, UK.
    Campbell, Tom A.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Failing to get the gist of what’s being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a “gap” between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a “critical” lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  • 35.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Personalrestaurangen som måltidsarena: uppfattningar om och attityder till maten och måltiden på arbetsplatsen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary in EnglishLennernäs M, Nyberg M Jahncke H, Ljung R. Staff Restaurant as a meal arena – perceptions of and attitudes towards food and meal at work. Kristianstad University and Gävle University in cooperation with the National Centre for Meals, Sweden, 2012.BackgroundWorking life and family life has changed in many ways during the last 50 years. Rules of the Organization of working hours are examples of such changes. Also more meals are eaten outside the home. Food choice and timing of meals affect health and well-being, and probably also work performance. Other factors than individual preferences are known to influence food choice and meal context at work. It might be structural factors such as working hours, meal breaks, the supply of food and also opportunities for self storage and cooking of food. Also the physical environment that surrounds the meal in the staff restaurant and staff place might affect the catering experience, social relations and the possibility of recovery during meal breaks.Aim and designA cross-sectional study was carried out to examine meal experiences at three different work places including attitudes to, and satisfaction with, staff restaurant and dining room (staff room). Other questions concerned the degree of own control over working meals. The overall objective of the study was to gain knowledge-base for the training of catering staff and unions and employers that influence over the breaks (timing and duration), place, space and atmosphere in connection with meals at work. This report also provides a brief literature review of safety legislation (physical meal environment and breaks) and also public health aspects in relation to meals at work.Work places and subjectsThree companies participated, a manufacturing base, a regiment (armed forces), as well as a regional hospital. The intention was to study the meal at work in different social environments and different activities. A total of 724 completed questionnaires were collected, the response rate was 78 %.MethodsQuestionnaires were distributed to persons who were in place at the time of the questionnaire's award, or distributed by contact persons internally. Physical measurements of noise and light conditions were done in staff restaurants when they were empty and also when they had most meals guests during the day. The questionnaire's 20 question areas included multiple choice questions, scales with seven increments as well as open questions. Survey questions concerning the physical meal place also stress and experiences in relation to the meals at work originates from established questionnaires in environmental psychology. Catering questions were designed inspired by FAMM (Five Aspect Meal Model), the Association Key hole criteria document for caterers (service types/categories and basic concepts), the National Food Administration's administrative report "good food at work", as well as Tellström & Jönsson definition of gastronomy. General questions about working times, meal times, lifestyle and health were added. A question about Diurnal Type was included. Attitudes and experiences were assessed by using9scaled questions from 1 to 7 with the endpoints “Are not at all satisfied to Very satisfied”; “Not at all” to “A very high degree”, “No control at all to Completely self-monitoring”. Low value is interpreted as a negative attitude, high value as a positive attitude.AnalysisData from the survey and the results from light and noise measurements in the staff room was imported to the statistical programme SPSS for in-depth analyses of statistically significant differences for any selected questions. Data is organized and interpreted according to the thematic analysis which includes seven aspects:Time (working hours, meal breaks, pauses); Room (where to eat – staff restaurant or staff room, physical environment, including the measurement of light and noise, planning in relation to the room); Product – food (including self-monitoring, values and planning in relation to the product). Meeting (colleagues, catering and service personnel). Logistics and planning. Atmosphere (subjective catering experience) and finally, Food, lifestyle and health.ResultsEmployees in industry and Defense (Regiment) worked during the day and a full-time basis, at the hospital had 69% work daytime, 6% had scheduled work night, 25% of circadian cycles, night hours. The majority (95%) had meal breaks with an opportunity to leave the work place (the rest had a meal pause). 13% spent less than 20 minutes at a working meal. 20-30 minutes was most common in the Industry, more than 45 minutes was the most common to the armed forces and 31-45 minutes at the hospital. One third of all had low control over the duration of their meal break. The shortest food breaks and minimum control was reported by industry.SummaryThe natural meal environment has a major impact on the choice of place to eat and catering experience. In the survey, staff experienced better recovery in staff rooms. Staff felt more happy, bright and has "loaded battery" better after a meal in the staff room compared to Staff Restaurant. Flavors and variety in the menu is more important than e.g. local or eco-labelled food. The taste is the most important factor for satisfaction in the staff restaurant. There was a large discrepancy between how important taste was estimated to be, and how tasty the food was perceived in staff restaurants. Participants have low self-control over the possibility to eat in desirable society or in isolation or when they are hungry. Environmental factors and culinary sensations, with the greatest impact on satisfaction with the meal, need to be improved, as well as service and friendliness from the catering staff. The cooperation between meal researchers and environmental psychologists resulted in a broader analysis of how the catering environment affects meal experiences and satisfaction with working meals.Conclusions and future recommendationsPeople need food and rest to hurricane work. Energy from foods and meals, as well access to psychological detachment from work probably counteracts stress disorders and also promotes health and cognitive performance. The most striking outcome of the study was the lack of recovery during meal pauses, and especially in the staff restaurant ambience. The study also shows that employees have a relatively low control over the opportunity to eat in privacy or in10desirable companion, and even low control over the length of the meal and the opportunity to eat when hungry. Other concerns were the queues and poor logistics in the staff restaurant, but also in the staff room at the hospital.Food in the workplace is an important issue for the company because as the lack of recovery might lead to poor work performance and contribute to long term stress disorders. Furthermore, inappropriate eating habits leading over time to ill health and reduced work performance.Keywords: Workplace, meals, staff restaurant, atmosphere, recovery, detachment, stress, noise, dining room, food service, restitution

  • 36.
    Nykänen, Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Lindegren, David
    LM Ericsson AB-Ericsson Research, Luleå, Sweden .
    Wruck, Louisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Möller, Sebastian
    Quality and Usability Lab., Telekom Innovation Labs., TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany .
    Memory of AMR coded speech distorted by packet loss2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that free recall of spoken word lists is impaired if the speech is presented in background noise, even if the signal-to-noise ratio is kept at a level allowing full word identification. The objective of this study was to examine recall rates for word lists presented in noise and word lists coded by an AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) telephone codec distorted by packet loss. Twenty subjects performed a word recall test. Word lists consisting of ten words were played to the subjects. The subjects repeated each word immediately after it had been played, to ensure that the words were heard correctly. After the complete list had been played the subjects wrote down all words remembered. In this way, both word identification and recall rates were measured. Three distorted conditions were compared with an undistorted control condition using a within-subject design: speech spectrum weighted noise at 4 dB SNR, and AMR coded speech with two levels of packet loss, one mild and one severe. The results confirmed the disruptive effect of noise on free recall of words, while no significant impairment was found for the AMR distortions. The noise and the AMR coding with mild packet loss gave approximately the same impairment of word identification. The AMR coding with severe packet loss gave a larger impairment of word identification, even though the word recall rate was unaffected. This result suggests that packet loss in AMR coded speech causes distortions which disrupt recall of words less than noise at levels resulting in the same change of word identification rates. Since impairment of word identification rates did not correlate with impairment of word recall rates models for quality prediction of speech reproductions should not be based on identification rates alone.

  • 37.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linköping University.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linköping University; Dalarna University.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University.
    High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed.

  • 38.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    A sub-process view of working memory capacity: Evidence from effects of speech on prose memory2010In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 310-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we outline a "sub-process view" of working memory capacity (WMC). This view suggests that any relationship between WMC and another construct (e.g., reading comprehension) is actually a relationship with a specific part of the WMC construct. The parts, called sub-processes, are functionally distinct and can be measured by intrusion errors in WMC tasks. Since the sub-processes are functionally distinct, some sub-process may be related to a certain phenomenon, whereas another sub-process is related to other phenomena. In two experiments we show that a sub-process (measured by immediate/current-list intrusions) is related to the effects of speech on prose memory (semantic auditory distraction), whereas another sub-process (measured by delayed/prior-list intrusions), known for its contribution to reading comprehension, is not. In Experiment 2 we developed a new WMC task called "size-comparison span" and found that the relationship between WMC and semantic auditory distraction is actually a relationship with a sub-process measured by current-list intrusions in our new task.

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