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  • 1.
    Amin, Md. Khaled
    et al.
    American International University-Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Zaman, Mahmud Habib
    North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Understanding the Determinants of Technology Driven Services Adoption by the Rural Consumers in Bangladesh2018In: Journal of Business Administration, ISSN 1680-9823, Vol. 38, no 1 & 2, p. 103-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sought to ascertain the possible determinants that sway rural consumers’ behavioral intention to use technology driven services in Bangladesh. Using the self-administrated questionnaire followed by several in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) as supporting instruments, this study analyzed information gathered from one hundred and three respondents, drawn purposively from a village locally known as Dollar Bazar, situated in Manikganj district of Bangladesh.  All respondents were provided with the structured and self-administrated questionnaires and advised to quantify their responses in a 7-point Likert scale ranging from Strongly Disagree (SD) to Strongly Agree (SA). Questionnaire items were primarily adopted from prior studies, pertinent to Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) diffusion, adoption, and acceptance. Results of the study reveal that the three retained observed variables; Service Perception (SP), Perceived Interaction (PI), Intention to Use (ITU) have good degree of internal consistency. Moreover, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) results brought out the facts that the variable, namely Perceived Interaction (PI) is significantly affecting the dependent variable while Service Perception (SP) has no significant effect on the intention to use which are quite consistent with the earlier estimates in this field. Findings of this study have theoretical contributions as it directly contributes by enhancing the outlook of the literature of technology adoption, and provide managerial implications for ICT driven organizations (i.e. Telecom companies, Value Added service [VAS] providers, Financial Institutions) by enhancing knowledge regarding the rural consumers of Bangladesh and their behavior. 

  • 2.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Backlund Rambaree, Brita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science, Public Health Science.
    CSR Reporting of Stakeholders’ Health: Proposal for a New Perspective2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 1133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify and categorize disclosures from the Global Reporting Initiative Sustainability Reporting Standards (GRI Standards) that have direct or indirect influence on health of external or internal stakeholders.

    Methodology: GRI core and comprehensive disclosures (as part of universal standards and topic-specific standards related to economic, environmental and social topics) that can be used by businesses for CSR reporting were grouped as to have direct or indirect influence on external and internal stakeholders’ health.

    Findings: The study proposes a systematic way of conceiving GRI standards in terms of direct or indirect influence on the health and well-being of internal and external stakeholders.

    Originality/Value: This is the first study that provides a classification of core and comprehensive GRI disclosures that have direct or indirect influence on the health of external or internal stakeholders. This classification will allow businesses to easily report those CSR activities that might be of importance to stakeholders’ health promotion. 

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  • 3.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Mancuso, Giancarlo
    Addo, Richard
    Building Sports Brands and Fan Relationships During a Global Pandemic2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the measures taken by hockey clubs, using SM, to build their brand and fan relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden. To this end, the study looks at a variety of activities and commitments connected with SM, as well as taking into consideration the perspectives of both the hockey clubs and their fans.

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  • 4.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sukbua, Sudy
    O'Sullivan, Jane
    Resources required for internationalization of Swedish SMEs2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to identify the resources required for the internationalization process for small and medium sized enterprises (SME) s in Sweden.

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  • 5.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    American International University-Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
    Hira, Eric Lynn
    American International University-Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
    Mamun, Abdullah Al
    American International University-Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
    Kaisar, Mohammad Moshfequn
    American International University-Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
    An Empirical Study on Training, Job Satisfaction, and Corporate Brand Image Relationship to Employees Working Performance in Context of British American Tobacco, Dhaka2012In: International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics, ISSN 2160-9802, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 58-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship of training, job satisfaction, and corporate brand image with employees working performance at British American Tobacco, Dhaka. A significant relationship exists between training and employees’ performance at BAT Dhaka in Bangladesh. To produce better work efforts, it is important to note that job satisfaction influences satisfactory performance output. It is found that brand image psychologically influences and motivates employees and is strongly related to employees working effort. About 100 questionnaires were distributed among the respondents of BAT Dhaka and data were analyzed. Correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis were performed for testing hypotheses. The research showed that relationships exist between Training, Brand Image, and Job satisfaction among employees working performance.

  • 6.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul Huda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sawunda Hannadige, Sanvida Vishani
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Weerasinghe, Dona Kithmini Chiranthini
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The Contribution of Innovation Hubs Towards Strengthening the Regional Development in Sweden2023In: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), ISSN 0219-8770, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 1-20, article id 2350010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to explore the influence of innovation hubs (IHs) on innovation-based regional development.

    Methodology: This study applied a qualitative approach using a multiple case study method to collect data through 10 semi-structured interviews. A detailed analysis of the data collected was conducted using the content analysis method.

    Findings: The study shows that IHs can influence both economic and social development. An IH can attract knowledge and expertise as well as investors to the region through its activities and geographical location. The hubs support start-ups, entrepreneurs and smart specialization at the same time as they also enable sustainable development by creating social value. Regions can exchange resources through cross-collaboration via IHs.

    Research Implications: This study has important theoretical managerial and societal implications. It adds comprehensive knowledge to the existing theory on IHs and regional development by highlighting the influence of IHs on regional development. The study shows both economic and social influence in detail and points out a previously undiscussed concept in the context of the correlation between IHs and regional development.

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  • 7.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Rahman, Kazi Mahmudur
    University of Liberal Arts.
    Growth Trajectory and Developmental Impact of Ready-Made Garments Industry in Bangladesh2020In: Bangladesh’s Economic and Social Progress: From a Basket Case to a Development Model / [ed] Munim Kumar Barai, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 267-297Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two external sectors, namely the ready-made garments industry (RMG) and remittances, have hugely contributed to the development of Bangladesh. In fact, the RMG sector has become the single largest source of trade earnings by generating over 80 percent of the export total. Not only that, presently, more than 4 million employees are engaged in this sector. Indeed, the RMG industry in Bangladesh has made it possible to create paid employment opportunities for a large cohort of poor and vulnerable women. Hence, stock-taking of this sector provides not only the impetus for policy analysis perspective but also guiding notes for other emerging sectors. Against this backdrop, this chapter unpacks the story of the “development case” of the RMG sector in Bangladesh—its historical evolution, major challenges, and measures to overcome those challenges. It also discusses the growth pattern as well as the impact of the industry on employment creation, women’s empowerment in the society, the introduction of backward and forward linkage sectors, and poverty reduction in Bangladesh. The chapter also specifies the challenges of this industry and points out the measures to overcome them for the sustainability and growth of the industry. Lastly, the chapter spells out the future of this industry.

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  • 8.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    American International University – Bangladesh (AIUB).
    Rodrick, Stanley S.
    American International University – Bangladesh (AIUB).
    Ahmed, Farzana
    American International University – Bangladesh (AIUB).
    A study on BRAC Microfinance Products for rural consumers using Service Gap Model2014In: International Journal of Business & Management (Toronto), ISSN 2292-874X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 9-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All Organization needs to design their product and services according to the demand of its customers in order to be successful. If there is any package or service strategy which is right from the viewpoint of the company but is not attractive to the customers, company can face huge loss and the goodwill of the company can be hampered. The study focuses on the microfinance programs offered by BRAC and evaluates the situation from the perspective of the consumers by using the GAP Model.

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  • 9.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Sarwari, Sara
    Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Chowdhury, Waleed Khan
    MetroNet Bangladesh Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Customer Relationship Marketing Focusing on Providing Benefits to Students and Mobile Service Providers: A case Study on AIUB2013In: International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics, ISSN 2160-9802, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the extent to which communication impacts on relationship marketing and whether improved communication can result in sustainable long-term relationships. It proposes a continuing process that would not only primarily facilitate the mass student community of the university but also specifically provide aid to every individual pupil’s requirements during their term in each enrolled semesters. The solution is meant to help the student community to stay in pace with their educational calendar besides enjoying the privilege to be entertained with the most effortless and economical communicating tool within the university community. This is expected to enrich each individual’s knowledge by initiating a new route to tie with one another besides serving all other regular needs for communicating with the rest of the world. This is a quantitative descriptive study where the survey method is employed using a simple random sample by using university students of AIUB who uses cellular phone. The findings indicate that this research will enhance not only the life of its pupils but also improve the procedures and formalities that it needed to carry out to serve the students. The commencement of the service will not only ensure the simplicity of the existing students but would also facilitate those particular students who are concluding their studentship.

  • 10.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Supply Chain CSR Image Challenges - A study on Bangladesh Clothing Industry2016In: International Journal of Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2050-7399, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a deep insight into the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image scenario of the international buying firms and Bangladesh suppliers as well as identifies the challenges for building a positive supply chain (SC) CSR image for the suppliers of Bangladesh clothing industry. The contribution of this paper is that it improves knowledge of SC CSR image from the supplier’s as well as the buyer’s perspective. This paper also provides suggestions regarding improvement of Suppliers’ CSR image that can influence the SC CSR image.

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  • 11.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Improving the CSR image – A study on suppliers of Bangladesh garments industry2016In: International Journal of Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2051-3771, E-ISSN 2050-7399, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 16-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a deep insight into the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image scenario of the buying firms and Bangladesh suppliers as well as identifies the challenges for building a positive supply chain (SC) CSR image for the suppliers of Bangladesh clothing industry. The contribution of this paper is that it improves knowledge of SC CSR image from the supplier’s as well as the buyer’s perspective. This paper also makes suggestions regarding improvement of Suppliers’ CSR image that can influence the SC CSR image.

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  • 12.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Study on international marketing strategies for MNCs in emerging markets in disrupted times2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims to explore the actions related to international marketing strategies taken by MNCs during the last three years to adapt and adjust in EMs in response to the disrupted business environment because of the global pandemic Covid-19 and the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict. 

    Methodology

    To address the aim of the study the researchers will be following a qualitative approach. It is assumed that a qualitative lens will enable the researchers to obtain detailed insights, perceptions, and experiences of the respondents related to actions taken by MNCs as part of their international marketing strategies EMs in disrupted times (Easterby-Smith et al., 2018; Yin, 2009). It is planned that semi structured interviews will be conducted. Respondents will be selected based on their positions in the MNCs. Three MNCs will be selected operating in India and three MNCs will be selected in Bangladesh. The MNCs that will be chosen will have to have their head quarter in developed nations. One MNC will be chosen from service industry and two MNCs will be chosen from fast moving consumer goods industry in each of the two countries. Respondents will be selected based on their positions in the marketing department of the six MNCs.

    Initial knowledge gathered and expected results

    A pilot study was conducted by interviewing a respondent who is the Brand Manager of a popular brand marketed by a well-known British MNC in the fast-moving consumer goods industry of Bangladesh. The respondent has confirmed that the disrupted time have brought is crisis and new initiatives as part of marketing strategy have been launched to comply with the market situation. For instance, before the Covid-19 pandemic the company only used traditional wholesale and retailing channels to reach the target consumers but since the pandemic, the company is using traditional and local online stores to reach their target consumers for their nine brands that they market in Bangladesh. In response to the impact of inflation on consumers in current times, the company is following sales promotion strategies to motivate consumers. These sales promotion strategies are not similar for all consumers rather the sales promotion strategies are conceived keeping in mind the behavior of consumers of each of the six regions of Bangladesh.  The pilot study provides us the relevance of the aim of the study and ensures us that full bloom study will provide us effective knowledge related to international marketing strategies implemented by MNCs in EMS in disrupted times.

    It is expected that the study will provide knowledge on adaptation and adjustment strategies taken by MNCs to survive and grow in EMS under the influence of the global pandemic Covid-19 and Ukraine-Russia conflict.

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  • 13.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Ahmed, Sharif
    Islam, Md Tawhidul
    Influence of supply chain factors on reshoring decisions – A structured literature review2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to explore how supply chain factors that influence decisions on reshoring have been discussed in previous research. 

    Methodology: A structured literature review is used to analyze 139 peer-reviewed articles containing reliable and effective arguments and discussion related to the aim of the study, retrieved from the online research databases of EBSCOhost, Science Direct, Emerald Insight and Springer. 

    Findings: The study identifies four supply chain factors that influence reshoring decisions, namely: supply chain resources, supply chain reconfiguration, the customer-supplier relationship, and supply chain proximity. 

    Implications of the study: This study provides a novel starting point from which future researchers can initiate empirical studies to evaluate the influence of the identified supply chain factors on reshoring decisions. The findings can, in addition, help practitioners and managers to develop knowledge of the influence of supply chain factors when making reshoring decisions. 

    Originality – This structured review extends our knowledge on the link between supply chain factors and reshoring, by drawing attention to how the factors of supply chain resources, supply chain reconfiguration, the customer-supplier relationship, and supply chain proximity influence reshoring decisions.

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  • 14.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Ahmed, Sohail
    Batkhuu, Bolortuya
    Implications for multinational enterprises from emerging market subsidiaries reverse knowledge transfer2023In: Central European Management Journal, ISSN 2336-2693, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 326-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aims to understand the role of drivers, underlying challenges and, consequently, the implications of the reverse knowledge transfer (RKT) process for multinational enterprises (MNEs).

    Method: A dyadic qualitative research design was used with a cross-country design covering perspectives from both the parent companies (PCs) and subsidiaries from the United States, Denmark, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with managers in multiple sectors such as information technology, telecommunications, project management, and engineering.

    Findings: The study reveals the constraints and drivers of the RKT process, and furthermore elaborates on the implications for MNEs. RKT can lead to the development of new processes, subsidiary independence, and intra-organizational knowledge transfer. Besides, it can entail challenges such as position insecurity for subsidiaries and a blurring of the MNE market vision. The findings demonstrate several implications for the MNEs. 

    Implications: The study highlights the direct implications of RKT for the multinational enterprises. The findings serve as a practical guide for global managers seeking to improve their competitive edge.

    Originality: The study presents a framework of the RKT process from emerging market (EM) subsidiaries to PCs, that demonstrates the role of drivers, underlying challenges, and implications of the RKT process for the MNEs.

    Paper type: Research paper

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  • 15.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hartung, Kristina
    Hämäläinen, Emilia
    Enablers of international product positioning strategy – A Swedish SME’s case2022In: International Conference Proceedings: ICISET-22, ICBEN-22, LLESS-22 & IEMEL-22, 2022, Vol. 1, p. 111-112, article id H112250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify the main factors that SMEs need to consider when positioning a premium priced product in the international market. In addition, this study aims to acquire in-depth knowledge regarding the market conditions in Germany. This study follows a qualitative research method, where a Swedish SME Damasteel acts as the case company of the research. In addition to the case company, four of their German distributors were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The data were processed and presented by dividing the findings into six different categories. The empirical findings suggest that the German kitchen knife market is rather competitive, however, there is still potential for further growth and demand has been growing during the past few years. Personalisation of the products is considered one of the current trends. High quality of a product is often linked with high price, therefore, the main factors justifying premium price are the brand name, origin of the product, and customisation. This study contributes to the existing literature by adding new knowledge regarding product positioning and pricing strategies in the German market from the perspective of a Swedish SME. This study highlights the importance of premium price when positioning a high-quality product, therefore, it suggests that a premium product cannot be targeted to a mass audience. Practical recommendations offer insight to the case company Damasteel of the local market conditions in Germany, by providing an overview of the competition and customers in this segment. The focus of this study was on a niche market without offering any detailed information of the different factors influencing the market itself. Future research could supply an insight into how to better target the final customers of a specific market, and how to market a premium priced product for them. In addition, the pricing methods of the new product planned to be launched by the case company Damasteel and the impact on the current sales could be further investigated. 

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  • 16.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sjöberg, Sandra
    Sekyere, Bernard
    Critical role of cluster organisations to overcome SMEs´ liabilities of size, resources, newness, and foreignness in their internationalisation2022In: International Conference Proceedings: ICISET-22, ICBEN-22, LLESS-22 & IEMEL-22, 2022, Vol. 1, p. 111-112, article id H1122509Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to find out how clusters can assist small- and medium enterprises (SME) s to expand their business to the international market. A qualitative approach was used in this study where the primary data was collected from five cluster organizations in the region of Gävleborg in Sweden with ten semi structured interviews with key personals in the five cluster organizations. The analysis was done with the help of concepts identified in the literature as well as new themes that was found in the empirical investigation.  The findings in this study have shown that the clusters can provide support to the SMEs to overcome obstacles related to capital, learning, innovation, networking, sales and strategy. The clusters can also help the SMEs in terms of sustainability. The weakest link is to help the SMEs to gain social capital where the clusters abilities are low. Each cluster has their niche competence so a collaboration within the clusters is required to help the SMEs in their international journey. The study extends the knowledge around the support system known as clustering as the study shows that only one cluster may not be able to help the SMEs in all the given areas required for their internationalization but a collaboration between clusters can help the SMEs to overcome most of the barriers towards internationalization. Future studies can focus on longitudinal research in this area to be able to follow the journey of the SMEs between the clusters but also to be able to capture and compare if the SMEs and cluster are experiencing the same pros and cons of the support system. We also suggest replicating this study in another region of Sweden to see if the results can be generalized or if it is a very local context regarding the help the SMEs can receive for internationalization. 

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  • 17.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Rupasinghe, Lasni
    Sustainable Innovation Challenges: Study of a Swedish MNC2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore the external environment challenges that a multinational corporation (MNC) faces to adopt social innovation.

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  • 18.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The paradox of globalization: exploitation or empowerment of women?2022In: The paradox of globalization: exploitation or empowerment of women?, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the Paradox of Globalisation. We investigate if Globalisation leads to empowerment or to exploitations of women. Research show globalization contributes to higher incomes for less developed economies, democratizes institutions, cultivates cultural richness and develops employment for women. Additionally, there are negative effects of globalization if the cultural context of people is not considered and globalization is controversial. We view the paradox of globalization as twofold having consequences on women empowerment and exploitation. It is assumed gender equality can improve women conditions and opportunities, advances their careers and enhances participation in democratic decision-making, by giving freedom of speech to all about problems in factory work. Based on a study from Bangladesh garment industry we analyze the influence of globalization on women empowerment. We conducted a qualitative study and structured interviews with 39 women workers in six factories and use a grounded theory approach to analyse the data. Preliminary results of the study show contextual factors affect the working conditions of women in the factories negatively. Female workers are not satisfied with the salaries they get, they are not allowed to use the money they earn by themselves and they do not have the possibility to participate in decision-making and advance in careers. The paradox is female workers still can support their families and their children and got the possibility to buy more and healthier food. The study suggests if institutional factors are considered, globalization can make a positive contribution by empowering women and improving the quality of decision-making. 

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  • 19.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Innovative Marketing Strategy: Multinational Companies in Bangladesh2017In: ICBM 2017: International Conference on Business and Management, Dhaka: BRAC University , 2017, p. 659-659Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research deals with Marketing of products. We analyzed how adaptation/standardization and network development are achieved when marketing products in Bangladesh as an emerging market. We conducted case studies for data collection in British American Tobacco, Perfetti Van Melle, Tetrapak, and Reckitt Benckiser. Qualitative data have been collected as semi-structured interviews, direct observation and documents. It is argued that renowned global brands with global reputation are seen positively by the customers and the consumers. The study demonstrates that relationships related to the local market are to be adapted to customers´ preferences to develop emotional attachments and networks. The study suggest that a balanced combination of product quality and development of new diversity of products adapted to the needs of the market and the customers establishes trust and networks giving the possibility of success for product providers and the acceptance of products by the local customers. The research contributes to international marketing literature by developing a model of products’ marketing based on trust, network and adaptation/standardization.

  • 20.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Innovative product marketing strategy: multinational companies in Bangladesh2019In: Journal of Asia Business Studies, ISSN 1558-7894, E-ISSN 1559-2243, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 656-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to deal with international marketing of products, analyzing how adaptation/standardization and network development are achieved when marketing products in Bangladesh.

    Design/methodology/approach: By applying a qualitative method, the study was conducted at four multinationals, British American Tobacco, Perfetti Van Melle, Tetrapak and Reckitt Benckiser, operating in Bangladesh. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, direct observation and official documents. The analysis was conducted through construction of themes that were identified from the data set.

    Findings: The study demonstrates that business relationships related to a local market should be adapted to customer preferences. The research suggests that a balanced combination of product quality and development of new, innovative products adapted to the needs of the market and the customers establishes trust and networks. Cultural and market context were found to influence multinational companies (MNCs)s to standardize the quality of the products and adapt marketing mix components to the needs of consumers.

    Research limitations/implications: The paper contributes to international marketing literature with a model of product marketing based on context, trust, networks and adaptation/standardization. The model introduces the cultural dimension of femininity/ masculinity and the innovation of products and market structure. The study is limited to one emerging market. Further studies should explore other emerging market economies and MNCs.

    Practical implications: The results suggest that to meet the challenges of emerging market economies and achieve success, managers should take people and market needs into consideration.

    Originality/value: This paper extends product marketing literature by presenting a context-based model for MNCs’ product marketing.

  • 21.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    International marketing strategy of emerging market firms: the case of Bangladesh2023In: Journal of Asia Business Studies, ISSN 1558-7894, E-ISSN 1559-2243, no 4, p. 804-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims to increase understanding of factors influencing the international marketing (IM) strategy of products from emerging markets (EMs) to international markets.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This study conducted case studies by collecting qualitative data through semistructured interviews with respondents from four food product companies in Bangladesh.

    Findings

    This study finds that the firms employ local Bangladeshi people who are knowledgeable in the company culture. They strategically focus on countries where the Bangladeshi diaspora lives and initially target them, approaching natives later. They adapt and customize products to the importers’ requirements to make them visible and increase understanding between product providers and local customers. The findings show that EM firms encounter a mentality that poor countries produce poor quality products; this mindset makes the internationalization of their business difficult.

    Research limitations/implications

    This research contributes to international product marketing of EM firms by constructing a model of a modern people-oriented marketing strategy for food products. This study contributes to literature on culture by illustrating that the cultural dimensions of collectivism and uncertainty avoidance enhance the development of networks and trust and impact marketing strategy.

    Originality/value

    This study theorizes the importance of context and an innovation-driven modern people-oriented IM strategy that adapts to customers’ preferences for food products and emphasizes the contribution of diaspora. This research reveals that Bangladeshi firms face challenges both because customers link the country and the companies to low-quality products and because governmental regulations prevent them from establishing a local presence in other countries. This study analyzes challenges EM firms face in the process of IM and the factors affecting Bangladesh in particular.

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  • 22.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Why Microfinance in Rich Developed Countries?2019In: ICBM 2019 2nd International Conference on Business and Management, Dhaka: BRAC University , 2019, p. 795-, article id ICBM-19-0316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research deals with the influence of microfinance/microcredits on business development analyzing how micro finances affect establishment of small enterprises in Sweden. For the analysis, the following research questions were addressed: How do small enterprises get access to microfinances and what kind of businesses are established through microfinances? Microcredit means giving entrepreneurs access to financial resources to borrow a small amount of money to invest in income generating business activities context related. A model of microcredit was developed to lend money to the poor for business entrepreneurship. Access to microfinance can facilitate poverty reduction and incorporate economic and social development. Relationship based lending is affected by cultural and social context. Multiple case studies were applied for data collection from two small enterprises in Gothenburg, Sweden and a microfinance institution in Sweden. Qualitative data was collected in form of semi-structured interviews. Direct observation and documents were also used as data source. The study shows that microfinance contributes to development of sustainable enterprises and generates employment for people. The research shows that microfinance leads to sharing risks and financing projects in social enterprises, cooperative business and associations. It provides people with social networks, enhances their independence, empowers them and improves the quality of their life by generating incomes. It is important for the microfinance institutions to get recognition as important actors in the financial sector to succeed. The research contributes to the literature and theories of microfinances by developing a model about microfinances in developed countries. The limitation of the study is that we had studied only two small enterprises in a developed country. We suggest comparative studies on the influence of microfinance on business development and women empowerment between emerging economies and developed countries or between developed countries.

    REFERENCES [1] C. Fouillet, M. Hudon, B. Harris-White and J. Copestake, “Micorfinance studies: Introduction and overview,” Oxford Development Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2013, pp. 1-16. [2] K. Burzynska and O. Berggren,“ The impact of social beliefs on microfinance performance,” Journal of International Development, Vol. 27, No. 7, 2014, pp.1074-1097. [3] M. Yunus, “Building social business: The new kind of capitalism that serves humanity’s most pressing needs,” The University press Limited: Bangladesh, 2010. [4] M. Yunus, “banker to the poor: The autography of Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen Bank,” The University press Limited: Bangladesh, 1998.

  • 23.
    Hoq, Mohammad Ziaul
    et al.
    Jubail Industrial College, Saudi Arabia.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    American International University - Bangladesh (AIUB).
    An Empirical Study of the Antecedents and Consequences of Innovativeness2012In: World Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 1838-3785, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 184-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we address two research questions: (1) Why are some SMEs (Small Medium Enterprise) more innovative than others? (2) What effect does innovativeness has on business performance? Accordingly, we draw on various theoretical perspectives to develop hypotheses that propose social capital orientation and market orientation as key antecedents to innovativeness, as well as a direct relationship between innovativeness and business performance. A model is devised and tested that examines these relationships in general. Findings confirm the validity of the model. Lastly, implications are offered on the antecedents and consequences of organizational innovativeness

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  • 24.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Market Orientation in Service Firms - An International Comparative Study2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing (IC-SIM 2014), Amsterdam, 2015, Vol. 175, p. 16-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how market orientation is applied in service firms to resolve complexity with intangibility and heterogeneity while offering services to the customers. To conduct this study, two interest-free banks from Sweden and Bangladesh have been compared. It is argued in the paper that these niche banks will emphasize on tangibility and heterogeneity to have competitive advantage over the traditional banks. As interest-free banking is intricate and the research purpose is theory development, a case method has been used to conduct this study. A theoretical framework is developed based on trust and network which influence market orientation, tangibility and heterogeneity resulting to value creation. In the Swedish bank, value creation is found to relate with supporting ecological thinking, visible banking, customers’ friendly terms & conditions and offering normal banking facilities. Partnership, risk sharing, problem solving approach, trust and interest-free borrowing are considered value creating components in the Bangladeshi bank. Future research can include all service characteristics and also compare between pure Islamic banks focusing marketing orientation.

  • 25.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Balancing Control and Trust to Manage CSR Compliance in Supply Chains2017In: International Journal of Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2051-3771, E-ISSN 2050-7399, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how buyers and suppliers balance control and trust to manage compliance with corporate social responsibility (CSR) requirements in supply chains (SCs). Two in-depth, qualitative case studies of the Bangladesh apparel industry on two multinational companies of the same European country were conducted. This study indicates that a buyer’s need for control and trust is important in contact with other actors for managing CSR compliance. Formal control is found to generate competence trust, whereas intentional trust is achieved through informal control. Intentional trust is helpful for competence and capacity development, but for it to continue the supplier needs to fulfill the buyer’s expectations. Competence of the supplier is viewed as a prerequisite for developing competence trust. This study analyzes control and trust to fill an important gap in SC theory on relationships by stressing how these constructs interact and complement each other to manage CSR compliance in apparel industry. Firms must focus on a balanced relationship between trust and control to manage CSR compliance. Willingness to collaborate can only work when supplier competence and managerial resources are ensured. This study notes that managers need both formal and informal control to create competence and intentional trust in the supply chains. Capacity building is viewed as a complement, not an alternative to CSR compliance. With its closer attention to control and trust, this study fills an important gap in SC theory on relationships by stressing how these constructs interact and complement each other for managing CSR compliance in supply chains.

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  • 26.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Network-based market orientation knowledge for internationalization of disruptive innovation in SMEs2022In: Central European Management Journal, ISSN 2658-0845, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 36-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose: This study explores network-based market orientation (MO) knowledge development for internationalization of disruptive innovation (DI) by small and medium enterprises (SMEs).

    Methodology: To manage knowledge development for DI internationalization, a business model was applied to a single case study. The case company participated in a series of workshops and allowed on-site visits and interviews for a period of two years in a European Union funded project. The workshops helped the SME to gather MO and networking knowledge, and then apply that knowledge internally in the organization and externally, in interactions with suppliers, buyers, and other members of the buyer chain.

    Findings: Although technological and market efforts usually proceed separately, this study shows that technical and MO knowledge gathering activities can go together through external and internal networking.

    Research limitations/implications: To overcome the limitation of one case study, several SMEs can be included in a future research to make a comparative analysis. A further study can investigate how technical and market networks can be integrated in the knowledge development process to speed up internationalization. Managers can learn to internationalize DI by collaborating, knowledge sharing, and networking with other SMEs, suppliers, and firms in the buyer chain.

    Originality: The current study contributes to DI literature through highlighting knowledge generation in SMEs from a process perspective, as well as integrating technical and MO efforts for internationalization.

    Keywords: knowledge development, disruptive innovation, market orientation, network, internationalization.

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  • 27.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science, Public Health Science.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science, Public Health Science.
    Backlund Rambaree, Brita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting for Stakeholders’ Health and Wellbeing in the Food and Beverage Industry: A Case Study of a Multinational Company2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 4879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) used to be seen as a social obligation of businesses to make decisions and take responsible action in accordance with the goals and values of the society. The concept is today understood as the continuing commitment by businesses to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large. This study aimed to apply Chowdhury and co-authors’ framework to the Unilever Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Content Index 2020 to explore the feasibility of the framework as well as identify potential challenges related to its use in the field of public health. Findings show that the framework is suitable for analysing CSR reporting on activities aimed to promote internal and external stakeholders’ health and wellbeing from a public health perspective. A greater number of GRI disclosures reported by Unilever related to external stakeholders’ health and wellbeing than to activities impacting internal stakeholders. Further research should aim at testing the framework in other types of business organizations across other types of industries.

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  • 28.
    Sundström, Agneta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Market-oriented business model for SMEs' disruptive innovations internationalization2021In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 670-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a market-oriented business model (MOBM) and analyze how it contributes to internationalization of SMEs' disruptive innovation.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Based on market orientation literature, an MOBM is developed and assessed through collaboration among companies, researchers and networking partners. For the evaluation of the model, qualitative data was collected through workshops, interviews and participatory observations at four case SMEs. Methodologically, the implementation of the MOBM consists of a systematic knowledge development process by following four work packages to support the companies' market-oriented internationalization.

    Findings

    The results show that SMEs face internal barriers to developing innovativeness that hinder them from creating effective disruptive innovation for the international buyer chain. The study finds that SMEs need to work with an MOBM for developing market intelligence within the organization and seek external support for entering the international market. Practical implications The methodological strength allows application, evaluation and modification of the MOBM in close collaboration with the SMEs that directly benefit from its implementation. Modifying the principles of market orientation by practical application, SMEs can apply the MOBM to analyze their internationalization capacity for high-tech disruptive innovations.

    Originality/value

    This article contributes to new thinking by introducing market orientation to SMEs' internationalization of disruptive innovation. The study highlights the less researched field of disruptive innovation by developing the MOBM to deal with SMEs' internationalization.

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  • 29.
    Sundström, Agneta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Market-oriented CSR implementation in SMEs with sustainable innovations: an action research approach2020In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 775-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the study is to identify and analyze critical mediating and moderating market intelligence challenges faced by the SMEs when implementing corporate social responsibility (CSR) based on an applied market-oriented business model (MOBM).

    Design/methodology/approach

    Focusing on developing CSR-integrated market intelligence, this study uses an action research method by analyzing four case studies. Data is collected through interviews, interactive and knowledge-sharing meetings and on-site observations. The study is part of a larger European Union project using the developed MOBM to follow the four companies' CSR implementation and learning process over a 14-month period. The action research includes seven meetings; between these, the researchers introduced the SMEs to different business focus areas, where CSR is a vital part of the MOBM.

    Findings

    This study shows that the SMEs are too technology-focused and have little initial idea of how to integrate CSR advantages for market intelligence into their internationalization. The MOBM model offers insights and knowledge on the strength and weakness of the internal organization to meet challenges in internationalization.

    Originality/value

    Via case study and action research, this study spotlights the challenges that SMEs face in the CSR implementation process and how they deal with those challenges to develop market intelligence competence internally. Instead of following a traditional research approach, the current study applies a CSR-based method where the SMEs go through a knowledge development process that originated from a theoretically designed MOBM.

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  • 30.
    Sundström, Agneta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    CSR implementation strategy constraints in emerging market supply chain context: Bangladesh garment industry experiences2016In: International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, ISSN 0972-7302, Vol. 14, no 13, p. 9041-9062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aims to explore how SC suppliers respond to corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation strategies and deal with institutional constraints within the global supply chain. Design/Methodology/approach: This research study followed a mixed method approach. A qualitative case study was developed based on data collected through in-depth interviews, observations, workshops and seminar discussions. Findings: Two CSR strategies were identified, together with managerial, organizational, and societal constraints. Both strategies fail due to CSR ignorance and economic constraints of the suppliers. The corporate-driven strategy is constrained by limiting the supplier's margins forcing them to use less responsible subcontractors. The partnership strategy fails as it allows the suppliers to ignore compliance to CSR implementation rules and especially in economically difficult situations. Research limitations/implications: This paper has several limitations. The data illustrate a specific industry and SC companies in a specific country context which makes generalizations difficult. Practical implications: Long-term economic cooperation and negotiation between involved supply chain (SC) parties is prerequisite to improve supplier ability to act independently. This means that the corporate-driven CSR strategy in SC is so far easier to manage but elicit costs for suppliers. Originality/value: This study addresses the difficulties in managing the corporate-driven strategy and the partnership strategy in emerging market business context that traditionally has institutionalized corporate-driven SC control. With focus on two main CSR implementation strategies applied by two case corporations, this article contributes to show how institutional constraints influence on supplier ability in the studied SC context.

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