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  • 1.
    Edin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Vesterlund, PerUniversity of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Svensk television: en mediehistoria2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Edin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för medier, kommunikation och film.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för medier, kommunikation och film.
    Svensk television och mediehistoria: en inledning2008In: Svensk television: en mediehistoria / [ed] Anna Edin & Per Vesterlund, Stockholm: Statens ljud- och bildarkiv , 2008, p. 9-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Hedling, Olof
    et al.
    Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    'Why not make films for New York?': the interaction between cultural, political and commercial perspectives in Swedish film policy 1963–20132016In: The International Journal of Cultural Policy, ISSN 1028-6632, E-ISSN 1477-2833, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 743-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, film support, film policy and the public financing of audiovisual production in Scandinavia and particularly Sweden have undergone extensive change. These transformations may be seen as responses to globalisation, to increased sub-national regional independence as well as to the emergence of ideas related to the nurturing of the ‘creative industries’. They may also be seen to be a consequence of the increasing permeability of the borders of European nation-states. This article traces a history of film policy in a geographically marginal part of Europe that has been characterised by a range of tensions as a result of competing definitions of film as art and commerce. These tensions are traced back to the 1960s when film support were first introduced and the first seeds of conflict€“ – still discernible in the present situation –  were planted.

  • 4.
    Hedling, Olof
    et al.
    Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    ‘Why not make films for New York?’: The interaction between cultural, political and commercial perspectives in Swedish film policy 1963–20132017In: Film Policy in a Globalised Cultural Economy / [ed] John Hill and Nobuko Kawashima, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 55-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Snickars, Pelle
    HUMlab, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    The formation of Swedish media studies, 1960–19802018In: Media History, ISSN 1368-8804, E-ISSN 1469-9729, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 86-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 1960, the politics of the emerging media society in Sweden tended to fixate the formative functions of mass communication. The monopoly of public service broadcast media, press subsidies and new tendencies in film policy were some of the issues around which uncertainty prevailed. New methods to provide reliable data were sought by politicians, since empirical facts were required as arguments for an updated media policy. This article examines the different ways that the field of media studies was introduced in Sweden between 1960 and 1980. We argue that Swedish academic media studies departed from, and emerged within, a rather diffuse borderland between industry, politics and academia. The formation of national media research in Sweden can partly be seen as an effect of politicians and the media industry wanting to be better informed on issues such as media influence, media ownership and the habits and composition of the media audience.

  • 6.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    Arkivvärde, programvärde, marknadsvärde2012In: "Skosmörja eller arkivdokument": Om filmarkivet.se och den digitala filmhistorien / [ed] Mats Jönsson, Pelle Snickars, Stockholm: Kungliga biblioteket , 2012, p. 49-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    Arkivvärde, programvärde, marknadsvärde: Svenska filmarkiv i en medial brytningstid2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    Att värdera filmen som historisk källa2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för medier, kommunikation och film.
    Biografkultur i Gävle: de första visningarna2006In: Medierade offentligheter och identitet / [ed] Björn Hammar, Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle , 2006, p. 68-99Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Bogart och Betel: texter om film och religion2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    “…but of course we recognized ourselves”: A case study of the reception of Swedish televisual fiction in the 1970s and 1980s2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Per Vesterlund, University of Gävle

     

     

    With a starting point in the increasing amount of domestic fiction and documentaries in Swedish television after the introduction of the second national public service channel in 1969, the 1970s is domestically remembered as a decade of social issue television. This profile of national TV-production did not end until the late 1980s with another breaking point in the history of Swedish television – the introduction of cable-TV and a new commercial logic.

    In the intersection between History and Film studies, cinematic memories have frequently served as a topic of historical interest. Televisual drama has though been somewhat less discussed in this academic context, which might be regarded surprising bearing in mind the impact of the medium – especially in the late 20th century.

    The programs made during these years are thus part of a national TV-history, representing (changing) ideas of what a audiovisual fiction preferably would achieve in terms of aesthetic as well as of didactic and political means. But they are also a part of the national memory at the time, often in retrospective signifying an era of political awareness – or of public leftist repression.

    In this paper I will – as a pilot on a planned project on the Swedish TV-fiction of the time – discuss the public reception of two social issue mini-series, Lära för livet (Learning for Life, 1977) and Babels hus (The House of Babel 1981). Each of them focusing on key-areas of the welfare state - public school and health care, respectively – they were both subject of intense media debate. The discussions did not so much focus the quality of the two series, as it did the question of whether the reality the described were accurate.

     

    Theme: Television drama, public reception, social issues, memories, cultural flows,

     

     

     

    References:

     

     

    John Caughie, Television drama: Realism, modernism, and British culture (Oxford Univ. Press, 2000) Anna Edin, Den föreställda publiken (Brutus Östlings förlag, 2000) Janet Staiger, Interpreting Films (Princeton University Press, 1992) Janet Staiger, Media Reception Studies (New York University, 2005) 

  • 12.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Cinema studies in the service of liberty?: The early research on media effects by “Filmforskningsgruppen” at the Swedish Film Institute 1964–19712013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An often-neglected aspect of the Swedish film reform in 1963 is the ambition to liberalize the governmental censorship. In 1964 the founder of the Swedish Film Institute (SFI), Harry Schein, initiated a Group of scholars from different academic fields (sociology, psychology, pedagogy, political science) with the purpose to study the effects of films on audiences. The group worked with individual or collective projects, studying audiences and genres. The aim for the research from Scheins point of view was crystal clear – films cannot be proved to cause damage. For the researchers the initiative from SFI rather provided an opportunity to institute new research on media effects. In this paper I will deal with the tension between Scheins intentions and the scientific practice of the group, and I will also discuss the impact the project might have had on the Swedish film and media studies of the 1970s and 1980s.

  • 13.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    Dear Harry/Dear Paul – Selling the Concept of European Art Cinema in the 1960s2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dear Harry/Dear Paul – Selling the Concept of European Art Cinema in the 1960s 

     

    In a letter written in August 1966 to Harry Schein (1924-2006), head of the Swedish Film Institute, the prominent Hollywood agent Paul Kohner (1902 -1988) asks for advices. He wants to take over the foreign distribution of the leading Swedish film producer Svensk filmindustri (SF), and wants Schein to help him. This letter is picked out from a long-standing correspondence between Schein and Kohner (lasting from 1960 to 1984) on economical matters concerning Swedish cinema in general, especially in relation to the careers of Ingmar Bergman and Ingrid Thulin.

    The 627 letters exchanged between Schein and Kohner (deposed in the personal archive of Harry Schein) are a source not only to the life and work of ceratin filmmakers and actors. The correspondence can also shed some light on strategies for the promotion of European art cinema in the US in the 1960s. Furthermore, the dialogue between Schein and Kohner represents discourses and attitudes regarding film as an art and as a medium in a time when the different institutions of cinema (criticism, production and governmental subsidies etc.) were changing rapidly.  

     

    Key words: Film distribution, marketing strategies, national film politics, art cinema, 

     

    References:

    Citizen Schein (ed: Lars Ilshammar, Pelle Snickars & Per Vesterlund) (Stockholm: Kungliga biblioteket, 2010)

    Elsaesser, Thomas, European Cinema: Face to Face With Hollywood (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2005)

    Gomery, Douglas, Shared Pleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992)

    Kohner, Fredrick, The Magician of Sunset Boulevard: The improbable life of Paul Kohner, Hollywood Agent (Palos Verdes: Morgan Press, 1977)

    Staiger, Janet, Interpreting Films: Studies in the Reception of American Cinema (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992)

    Transnational Cinema in a Global North: Nordic Cinema in Transition, ed. Andrew Nestingen & Trevor G. Elkington (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2005) 

  • 14.
    Vesterlund, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Den glömde mannen: Erik "Hampe" Faustmans filmer2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för medier, kommunikation och film (upphört 080911).
    Den svenska modellen: arbetarrörelsen, staten och filmen2007In: Medier och politik: om arbetarrörelsens mediestrategier under 1900-talet, Stockholm: Statens ljud- och bildarkiv , 2007, p. 207-246Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för medier, kommunikation och film.
    Det televiserade cinemateket: några nedslag i svensk TV:s visningar av biograffilm2007In: Mediala hierarkier / [ed] Per Vesterlund, Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle , 2007, p. 105-136Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    Drömmen om verkligheten: Filmkritikern Harry Schein2010In: Citizen Schein / [ed] Lars Ilshammar, Pelle Snickars, Per Vesterlund, Stockholm: Kungliga biblioteket , 2010, p. 140-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    Eastern Connections: A brief overview of the film companies of the Swedish Labour Movement and their film trade over the Iron Curtain in the 1950s2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the end of the 1940s the Swedish Labour Movement (The Social Democratic Party, the major trade unions, the co-operative union, etc.) owned two film companies – Nordisk Tonefilm and Filmo. Nordisk Tonefilm was for a few years one of the majors within the Swedish film and cinema market, fully integrated with theatres, distribution and production. 

    Films from Nordisk Tonefilm also gained some international success. Hon dansade en sommar (One Summer of Happiness) directed Arne Mattsson in 1951 makes one example of a worldwide box office hit by the company. It was particular successful in DDR. This was not a coincidence. The Archive of Nordisk Tonefilm (as well as the one of Filmo) bares witness of an intense interaction with Eastern Europe. The two companies exported films to the countries behind the Iron Curtain, participated in festivals like the one in Karlo Vary, and regularly imported films from Soviet, Yugoslavia or other socialist states.

    In my paper I give examples of this international interaction during the 1950s,  related to the film policy of The Social Democracy of Sweden in general.

  • 19.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    Elsa Brita Marcussen and Gerd Osten - Two leading film critics in post-war Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Elsa Brita Marcussen and Gerd Osten - Two leading film critics in post-war Sweden

    Per Vesterlund, University of Gävle. Sweden

    In the years following World War II, the national Swedish cinema experienced an intense debate on the role that the medium of film should play in the society. Two distinct discursive practices among Swedish film critics can be identified in the period from 1945 to the early 1950s. An intriguing fact is that the two of the most explicit advocates of each camp in this public conversation were women. Gerd Osten (1914-1974, mother of hailed director Suzanne Osten) was an aesthetic and artistic ideal, concentrating her writing on style and thematic features in the work of important auteurs of the time. Elsa Brita Marcussen (1919-2006, daughter of social democratic prime minister Per Albin Hansson) was on the other hand more concerned about the function of film from a sociological point of view, pleading foremost for a national production of documentary film in the tradition of John Grierson, and of fiction films with an overt political tendency. This paper will deal with the writings of Marcusen and Osten respectively, and discuss their position in relation to the otherwise patriarchal sphere of film criticism in the 1940s.    

  • 20.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    En ohelig allians?: frikyrkorna och filmen i Sverige2008In: Bogart och Betel: texter om film och religion, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press , 2008, p. 27-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Ett steg på framåtskridandets väg? Arbetarrörelsen, filmen och historien2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Filmkrönika: filmkritik i ljud och bild2008In: Svensk television: en mediehistoria, Stockholm: Statens ljud- och bildarkiv , 2008, p. 27-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tv blev tidigt ett medium där film producerad för biografindustrin frekvent kom att visas. Ett relaterat område är televisionens funktion som ett forum för visualiserad filmkritik i olika tappning. Det i svensk television mest omedelbara exemplet på detta är programmet Filmkrönikan. Med en filmkritiker i bild som med hjälp av frekventa citat från aktuella filmer värderar och tolkar biografernas utbud har Filmkrönikan utgjort ett centralt inslag i en nationell film- och tv-kultur. Televisionens filmkritiker blev också snart offentliga celebriteter på ett annat sätt än pressens eller radions. Nils-Petter Sundgren kom exempelvis att fungera som en symbol för seriös filmkritik medan andra fått andra typer av offentliga roller: Gunnar Rehlin som den pretentiöse cineasten eller Orvar Säfström som den ungdomlige film-nörden.

    Filmkrönikan är ingen självklar del av den rundgång mellan akademi och filmkritik som kännetecknar delar av dagspressens. Ändå ger programmet oss tillträde till en viktig dimension av samtida förhållningssätt till film. Mer bestämt till det nationella filmpolitiska projekt där ”kvalitetsfilm” blir ett honnörsord. Harry Schein och andra representanter för Svenska Filminstitutet fick tidigt presentera sina visioner medan filmindustrins representanter i stället fick försvara sina publiktillvända ambitioner.

    Filmkrönikan är inte bara (eller främst) en del av den stora filmkonstens fält. Programmet är länge också ett forum för en samhällsorienterad filmsyn som vurmar för ställningstagandet och för medvetna samtidsbilder. Hollywood är ofta i skottgluggen medan europeisk film än oftare lyfts fram som ett upphöjt undantag. Under 1900-talets sista två decennier förändras så sakteliga programmet. Filmkrönikan blir i allt högre grad ett skyltfönster för premiäraktuella filmer, betyg införs och samhällsengagemanget avtar.

  • 23.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Förskingrat kulturarv: nedslag i HSB:s filmproduktion2008In: Välfärdsbilder: svensk film utanför biografen, Stockholm: Statens ljud- och bildarkiv , 2008, p. 21-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    HSB – Hyresgästernas sparkasse- och byggnadsförening – bildades 1923. I samarbete med olika filmbolag gör man från fyrtiotalets mitt en rad filmer av varierande karaktär. Dels förevigas HSB:s årliga konferenser, dels producerar man en rad filmer för att informera om (och dokumentera) bostadsbyggande och bostadspolitik.

    Grundtankarna i en socialt medveten bostadspolitik skulle spridas till det svenska folket.

    Under 1900-talets mitt hade filmmediet intagit rollen som det dominerande visuella massmediet. Detta är inte minst synligt i ett nationellt svenskt perspektiv där politiska partier och myndigheter och näringsliv intensivt samverkade med filmindustrin. Denna filmpraktik kan studeras ur ett effektperspektiv – med frågor som rör ideologi, påverkan och hegemoni i fokus. Samtidigt kan andra typer av frågor om offentlighet och retorik ställas - frågor som rör dessa filmers relation till en omgivande visuell kultur och dess retoriska och genremässiga konventioner. Ett historiska källvärde har filmerna också på ett högst manifest plan: dels i och med det faktum att de producerats (och därmed påvisar filmens status som medium i sin samtid), dels i och med de verksamheter de bokstavligen visar – i HSB:s fall som indexikala tecken för förnyelsen av det svenska urbana landskapet.

  • 24.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Institutionalized Sexploitation?: The Swedish Film Institute and Research on the Effect on Cinema in the 1960s2016In: Swedish Cinema and the Sexual Revolution: Critical Essays / [ed] Elisabet Björklund och Mariah Larsson, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2016, p. 141-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Loyalty and Betrayal in Swedish TV-fiction: The radical 1970s and contemporary Nordic Noir2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish TV-drama from the 1970s and (to lower extent) the 1980s have usually been identified with an overt social content. Societal institutions of the welfare state, like public schools or health care, were often in focus. When the Scandinavian crime fiction of today is said to contain social perspectives, and sometimes to depict the disruption of the welfare state, Swedish TV-fiction of the 1970s seems to have been just as critical towards the contemporary society.

    The paper will discuss the aesthetic and rhetorical strategies in the narrative and visual depiction of the relation between individual characters and institutions. With vulnerability as one main concept, the era of Swedish TV-fiction of the 1970s and 1980s will be related to later periods – foremost contemporary criminal fiction of the 2010s. The interplay between vulnerability of institutions and the vulnerability of citizens will be one of several tentative thematic issues discussed.

  • 26.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Medial monumentalitet: Två folkhemsskildringar2005In: Svenska historikermötet 2005, 2005, p. 9 s.-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för medier, kommunikation och film (upphört 080911).
    Mediala hierarkier2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    ”... men visst kände vi igen oss” – iakttagelser av svensk TV-dramatik och samhällsliv under 1970- och 1980-talet2017In: Kunskap, motstånd, möjlighet: Humanistisk forskning idag / [ed] Ulrika Serrander, Peter Thalén, Stockholm: Molin & Sorgenfrei, 2017, 1, p. 15-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    "... men visst kände vi igen oss" - iakttagelser av svensk TV-dramatik och samhällsliv under 1970- och 1980-talet2017In: Kunskap Motstånd Möjlighet: Humanistisk forskning i dag / [ed] Ulrika Serrander & Peder Thalén, Halmstad: Molin & Sorgenfrei, 2017, 1, p. 17-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Myglaren Media Tactics in the Wake of the New Swedish Film Policy of 19632018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish “film reform” of 1963 – when the Swedish Film Institute (SFI) was founded, and a national system of film subsidies was to be introduced – led to changes in the strategies of national film production and a general institutionalization of national film culture and art cinema values.

    In the history of Swedish cinema, a less high-lighted effect of the new system is the different kinds of temporary tactical enactments that followed the reform. These media tactics could often be recognized as temporary or singular actions. There were frequently examples of producers pre- or postponing the opening night of a film in order to have the premiere registered in the “right” year; or of producers adding scenes to film to reach the required length for a feature film to be entitled to subsidies.  

    These tactical manoeuvres were regularly reported on by the press. Not only were the long-term strategies of fitting into the “Ingmar Bergman-pattern” discussed, but also short-sighted attempts to deceive the new system gained public attention. In 1966 the film Myglaren (The Fixer) by Jan Myrdal and Rune Hassner was subject to both these discourses in the public debate. The film was an overt critique of the social democracy, but also an implicit critique of the new film policy. Originally produced for TV, the film was not entitled to any subsidy. The two directors, however, staged one single showing in a movie theatre, in order to be able to apply for funding from the SFI. The aim of their application was also to start a debate on the film reform.

    In this paper, I will make this outstanding case pivotal in a discussion of strategies and tactics in Swedish 1960s cinema.    

  • 31.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    National Film Policy as a Media Event2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    National Film Policy as a National Media Event

    The Swedish “film reform” of 1963 – i.e. the founding of the Swedish Film Institute (SFI) and the national system of film subsidies – has generally been associated with changes in the strategies of national film production, or with a more general institutionalization of national film culture and art cinema values.

    The effects and the political principles of the reform are well known. Less attention has been paid to study the overwhelming media coverage of the film reform. This was not at least due to the celebrity impact of Harry Schein, the first chief executive of the SFI and also the architect of the actual reform. The new film policy made headlines, and the doings of Schein was throughout the 1960s a recurrent topic in newspapers, radio and TV. The film policy was synonymous with Swedish modernity, but also frequently attacked. SFI was a place for elegance, scandals and political progression.

    In this paper I will discuss these hitherto less studied medial dimensions of the Swedish film reform of 1963.

    References:

    Roger Blomgren, Staten och filmen: svensk filmpolitik 1909-1993 (1998)

    Celebrity Culture Reader, ed. P.David Marshal (2006) 

    Citizen Schein, ed. Lars Ilshammar, Pelle Snickars & Per Vesterlund (2010)

    Daniel Dayan & Elihu Katz, Media events : the live broadcasting of history, (1992)

  • 32.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    När medier blev vetenskap: Om tre nordiska massmediekonferenser 1972-19742014In: Återkopplingar / [ed] Cronqvist, Marie, Lundell, Patrik & Snickars, Pelle, Lund: Mediehistoriskt Arkiv, Lunds universitet , 2014, p. 51-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    När medier blev vetenskap: tre nordiska massmediekonferenser 1972-19742013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På framsidan till foldern till konferensen Video och Nya Media 74, som hölls i Stockholm i juni 1974, presenteras en rad prominenta deltagare med bild. Marshall McLuhan, Jörn Donner, H.M. Konungen Carl XVI Gustaf, Harry Schein och Christina Jutterström tillhör de mer celebra. Mindre kända idag är kanske IBM-chefen Jim Damon, Esseltes VD Carl M:son Mannerfeldt, konsortiet Nord-Videos ordförande Arne Byskov eller Gyldendals VD Brikt Jensen. Konferensen anordnades av EBAV (Esselte Bonnier Audio Visual). Deltagarlistans mix av journalister, författare, förläggare, medieentreprenörer, forskare och politiker är högst symptomatisk för sin tid vad gäller det offentliga samtalet kring massmediernas då så snabba utveckling. Från sina olika kontexter deltog de alla i en institutionsöverskridande kamp om såväl planering som begreppsliggörande av massmediernas föreställda framtid. Denna mångfald vad gäller mediedebattens och mediepolitikens aktörer är väl långt ifrån unik för det tidiga 1970-talet, som mer uppseendeväckande framstår i efterhand snarare den intensitet och dignitet som präglade debatten. I just detta dokument främst manifesterat genom konungens närvaro.

    Vad som kanske är än mer intressant är den formativa betydelsen dessa olika aktiviteter kan ha ur ett medievetenskapligt perspektiv. Det är under 1970-talets början som grunden för det senare etablerade ämnet Medie– och kommunikationsvetenskap läggs. I offentliga utredningar, debattartiklar och även i mindre offentliga politiska sammanhang upprepas behovet av forskning om massmedier som ett ständigt mantra. Kanske kan man finna en bakgrund till den svenska medieforskningens (och medieutbildningens) praktik i dessa tvärinstitutionella ambitioner att finna vägar att förhålla sig till en osäker (hotfull, effektiv eller lukrativ) medial framtid.

    Bristen på en självreflexiv historisering inom medieämnet har påtalats både ur internationellt (David W Park & Jefferson Pooley, 2008) och nationellt svenskt perspektiv (Lars Lundgren, 2011). Både Lundgren och Park & Pooley pekar bl.a. på en slarvig historieskrivning kring användandet av teorier och begrepp över tid. I detta paper kommer jag att med utgångspunkt i material från Harry Scheins personarkiv (särskilt från hans tid som sakkunnig inom Utbildningsdepartementet 1971-1976) att reflektera över hur aktörer från politik, akademi och näringsliv samverkat vad gäller att formulera frågor och modeller för medieforskning. Jag fokuserar inte specifikt på Scheins egen roll utan låter snarare hans efterlämnade papper (inbjudningar, abstracts, konferensprogram, utredningsmaterial) utgöra ett källmaterial.

    Som fallstudie undersöker jag primärt tre mediekonferenser: Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies in Europe, Helsinki 19 -28 juni 1972; Nordisk Mediekonferens, Voksenåsen, 18-21 juni 1973; Video och Nya Media 74, Stockholm 1974. De tre konferenserna representerar var sin av de tre samverkande institutionella kontexterna. Konferensen i Helsinki anordnades av UNESCO och var en kulturpolitisk konferens med särskilt massmediefokus. Nordisk mediekonferens anordnades av Institutt for presseforskning vid Universitetet i Oslo och var ett första steg mot att samordna nordisk medieforskning (och också den första av de NORDICOM-konferenser som fortfarande ges). Konferensen i Stockholm 1974 anordnades av Esselte/Bonnier.

  • 34.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Om den förlorade sakligheten: En tendens i svenska dokumentära TV-bilder under 2000-talet2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En traditionell förståelse av dokumentärfilmen placerar den i de saklighetens diskursiva fält som utgörs av områden som vetenskap, ekonomi och politik. I de senaste decenniernas essäistiska och postmoderna dokumentärfilm är dock en tydligt relativiserande och subjektivistisk utveckling en ofta iakttagen estetisk tendens. Här argumenteras för att tendenser som utmanar dokumentära filmers objektivistiska normer inte bara är en företeelse synlig i en smal konstnärligt orienterad filmkultur, utan också tydligt präglar ett bredare utbud av samhällsorienterad TV-dokumentär.  I presentationen diskuteras hur: 1) Ett retoriskt skifte successivt kan skönjas vad gäller de estetiska idealen för breda dokumentära reportage och filmer, där ett större fokus kommit att ligga på subjektivitet och känslor. Och mindre på sakframställning. 2) Hur (fr.a.) TV-reportage och dokumentärer under 2000-talet blivit allt viktigare katalysatorer i samhällspolitiska processer, i offentliga debatter och till och med i rättsfrågor. Exempel som tas upp är de två filmerna Könskriget (2005), filmerna Experimenten om kirurgen Macchiarini (2016) samt dokumentären Älska mig för den jag är om sångerskan Josefin Nilsson (2019). 3) Hur dessa filmer samspelar med en offentlighet i omvandling där nya medier i hög grad är arenor för en känslomässigt fokuserad diskussion, och där TV-dokumentärer i flera fall blivit utgångspunkter för inte bara debatt utan också lett till beslut i rättsprocesser och påverkat politiska skeenden

  • 35.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    Pull Out the Cable!: The Public Reception of a Suggested National Politics on Audiovisual Media and Telecommunication in Sweden in 1972.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1971 the Head of The Swedish Film Institute, Harry Schein, was given the task by the Ministries of Education to make an official governmental investigation on new audiovisual technologies. Influenced by mainly contemporary Canadian research (official reports like Instant World, 1971), Schein turned the investigation to focus on new telecommunication technology, cable television, pay television and satellite broadcasting. The investigation resulted in the book Inför en ny mediepolitik (“Heading a New Media Politics”) in 1972, where Schein described advanced technical solutions for the distribution of television that already existed, but also predicted a revolving future. Audiovisual media would challenge printed media, and an upcoming broadband technology would transform interpersonal as well as official communications. Mass media was, according to Schein, a phenomenon of the 20th century. The global village described by Marshal McLuhan would be succeeded by “the city of thousand ghettos”, a metaphor borrowed from Instant World. Schein suggested in his investigation that a national media politics would have to make common solutions for film, radio, television, telecommunications and printed media.

    This paper will focus on the intense public debates over new technologies and national media politics that the book initiated. 

     

  • 36.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    Quality in the Welfare State: Some remarks on a document from the archive of Harry Schein2011In: Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, ISSN 2042-7891, E-ISSN 2042-7905, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short article is a brief introduction to a document from the archive of Harry Schein (1924-2006), without question one of the most influential Swedish film and media politicians in the late twentieth century. In the reprinted document Schein and a number of prominent filmmakers, politicians and intellectuals make an appeal for a new quality-based film subsidy. The early date of the document (1951) suggests that the process that preceded the Swedish film reform of 1963 (where Schein as head of Swedish Film Institute was pivotal) was longer and more complex than previuosly noted.

  • 37.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Samhället i medierna?: Harry Schein och medieforskningen2015In: Massmedieproblem: Mediestudiets formering / [ed] Mats Hyvönen, Pelle Snickars & Per Vesterlund, Lund: Lunds universitet , 2015, p. 349-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Schein: En biografi2018 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    Searching the origin of the Swedish “quality film”: The forgotten film critic Harry Schein and the national institution of art cinema2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Searching the origin of the Swedish “quality film” – The forgotten film critic Harry Schein and the national institution of art cinemaHarry Schein (1924-2006) was one of the most influential Swedish film and media politicians in the late 20th century. Gaining fame as the founder of the Swedish film institute (SFI) in 1963, Schein had also as leading film critic been a pivotal figure in the national film culture in the post-war years. His political work (head of SFI, head of National Investment Bank, etc.) and his frequent interaction with well-known names from the public/political sphere and the cultural field (Ingrid Thulin, Ingmar Bergman, Olof Palme etc.) strengthened his status as a celebrity, while making his achievement as a critic a forgotten part of his CV. As a major advocate of the concept ”quality film” – a central value in the discourse of national art cinema – Scheins criticism of the 1950s is a potential source when studying the official Swedish film politics from 1960 and onwards. This paper will deal with Scheins generally declared views on film criticism, as well as with his writing on contemporary films.Key words: Film criticism, national film politics, quality film, art cinema,References: Bordwell, David, Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema (Cambridge, Mass & London, England: Harvard Univ. Press, 1989) Elsaesser, Thomas, European Cinema: Face to Face With Hollywood (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2005) Staiger, Janet, Interpreting Films: Studies in the Reception of American Cinema (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992) Transnational Cinema in a Global North: Nordic Cinema in Transition, ed. Andrew Nestingen & Trevor G. Elkington (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2005) Vesterlund, Per ” Drömmen om verkligheten – filmkritikern Harry Schein” i Citizen Schein: Texter om och av Harry Schein, ed. Lars Ilshammar, Pelle Snickars & Per Vesterlund (Stockholm: Mediehistoriskt arkiv, Kungliga biblioteket, 2010)

  • 40.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Film studies.
    "Stoppa kabel-TV!": det offentliga mottagandet av Harry Scheins utredning - Inför en ny mediapolitik, 19722013In: Spår och spridning: perspektiv på internet / [ed] Bengt Bengtsson & Eva Åsén Ekstrand, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2013, p. 41-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Svensk television: en mediehistoria2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Swedish Dystopia: environmental threats in televisual fiction in the 1970s and 1980s2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With a starting point in the increasing amount of domestic fiction and documentaries in Swedish television after the introduction of the second national public service channel in 1969, the 1970s is remembered as a decade of social issue television. This profile of national TV-production did not end until the late 1980s with another breaking point in the history of Swedish television – the introduction of cable-TV and a new commercial logic.

    The programs made during these years are thus part of a national TV-history, representing (changing) ideas of what a serial or a series would achieve in terms of aesthetic as well as didactic and political means. But these fictions (and documentaries) are also a part of the national culture at the time, often in retrospective symbolizing an era of political awareness – or of leftist repression.

    In the more frequent intersection between History and Film studies, cinematic memories has often served as a source to history. Both when it comes to historical films critically discussed and analyzed as making history practice, and other/all kinds of films discussed as representations of contemporary events and zeitgeist. Television is more rarely discussed in this academic context, which might be regarded surprising bearing in mind the impact of the medium – especially in the late 20th century.

     

    In this paper I will discuss one of the many different kinds of issues (or discources) that characterized Swedish TV-fiction at the time – environmental threats and anti-modern discourses. These topics are recurrent themes – one example is the fiction serial Hem till byn (Home to the village) which during more three decades (1971-2006) described the development of a small rural district in the modernizing welfare state. Another – more striking example – is the social realistic sci-fi miniseries Sommarens tolv månader (Twelve months of summer) from 1988 where the climate change is the explicit theme.

    With a departure from these two examples I will examine the theme of environmental threats in the public discourse of these two decades. The paper will deal with aesthetical questions as well as thematic traits and reception.

  • 43.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för medier, kommunikation och film.
    Swedish film since 19902005In: Hokuoeiga-Kanzen Gaido /The Nordic Cinema Guide: Unraveling Glamourous Stories of Post-1990, Tokyo: Shinjuku-shobo. Publishers , 2005, p. 42-48Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Tablåhändelser: mediehistoriska aspekter på långfilm i svensk television2008In: Mediernas kulturhistoria, Stockholm: Statens ljud- och bildarkiv , 2008, p. 20-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Television spies, Swedish neutrality and nostalgia in the mini-seris Operation Argus and Kullamannen2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Television spies, Swedish neutrality and nostalgia in the mini-seris Operation Argus and Kullamannen

    Two of the most popular Swedish mini-series in the mid 1960s were Operation Argus (1966) and Kullamannen (“The Man from the Hill”, 1967). Operation Argus was a spy story situated in and around the Swedish navy during World War II. Kullamannen was a spy thriller produced for children (and with children as protagonists) in a contemporary, idyllic rural setting in southern Sweden, where a summer vacation turns into a dangerous game about war and peace. In the paper I use the Cold-War context of the 1960s as a point of departure, since this was of key importance for the then so popular spy genre in the strictly neutral Sweden, in order to discuss how this context is present in two generically quite different mini-series. The Cold-war is absent in both cases. In Operation Argus through the WWIi-context, in Kullamannen with both heroes and villians representing unnamned countries. I also note how the two productions relate to the concept of nostalgia - nostalgia both as represented and as retrospective reception.

  • 46.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    The body in the tower of Babel: Health care and illness in Swedish TV-fiction since 19702017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A remarkable increase of domestic production of TV-fiction was apparent in Sweden from 1970, when the second national public service television channel (TV2) was established, and onwards. Serials and single films produced by the national public service have in retrospect been regarded as a vital part of national popular memory.

    Swedish TV drama in the 1970s and (to lower extent) in the 1980s has usually been identified with realism and overt social content. Central institutions of the welfare state – like public school or health care – were often in focus. During the introduction of cable TV in the mid 1980s, the genrescape of Swedish TV drama changed rapidly. Crime fiction and melodrama/soap operas or high quality mini-series, successively replaced the dominance of contemporary social drama. With the huge success of Scandicrime/Nordic Noir during the 2000s and 2010s, further changes in Swedish TV-fiction is apparent.

    One constant theme throughout these changing conditions of genre structures and production practices surrounding TV drama in Sweden, is the representation of illness and health care. All since Jourhavande (On duty for the day, 1973 and 1975), about the working conditions and quality of care in a small hospital, health care and medical treatment have been a recurring theme in Swedish TV drama. Babels hus (The House of Babel 1981), a bleak artful drama in six episodes focusing an elderly man recovering from a heart attack, and family melodrama serial Skärgårdsdoktorn (Doctor in the Archipelago, 1997-2000), are the most successful examples concerning audience following.

    In my paper, I will examine drama series concentrating solely on health care (hospitals, retirement homes, private practitioner, etc.), as well as in other productions in different genres. My aim is to discuss aesthetic and thematic dimensions, with changing notions of the welfare state as one recurrent context.

     

  • 47.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    The Celebrity in the Archive: Schein and Memory2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Transmedia Storytelling in Early Swedish TV-drama: From Theatre, Novel and Film to Television, Radio and Press2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With overt influences from recent developments of semi-documentary narration in international – foremost British – TV-drama, Swedish public service TV Sveriges Radio radically changed the drama production policies in the late 1960s. In august 1967 head of drama department, Henrik Dyfverman, officially declared the direction of the new policy: the repertoire of the forthcoming season 1967/1968 would be “considerably Swedish” and “oriented towards society” (Dagens Nyheter, August 24, 1967)

    This new Swedish TV-drama of social commitment was not emerging in a void. Severe critique of the contemporary Swedish welfare state was already at hand in public debate spread over press, radio, debate books and TV. The new TV-drama was intertwined with a number of other genres in different media. Novels and theatre plays were adapted to TV, film directors switched between the two media, and in the press TV-drama came to be a recurrent topic for new stories on the shortcoming of welfare institutions.   

    Especially after the introduction of the second channel in December 1969, the domestic TV-drama received a privileged place in the press. Almost each new social oriented series or film caused a heavy debate. Primarily it was subject matter that was discussed, but also aesthetic questions were sometimes in focus. Debates were spontaneous as well as arranged by entangled media. A usual setup was an aired TV-play, followed by a studio debate where experts as well as concerned citizens participated. In the daily press, such a setup was usually followed with both articles by experts and public opinions. Sometimes journalists constituted panels of farmers, nurses, teachers, pupils or athletes, i.e. the group concerned by the societal problem the film/series in question concerned, to get their judgements of how well the fiction resembled their reality. The paper will be centred round couple of case studies on such collaboration between media.

  • 49.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Ur Harry Scheins arkiv: Nedslag i 1900-talets svenska mediehistoria2019Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Harry Schein är en person som har fascinerat den svenska offentligheten i decennier. Han var inte bara en omsusad celebritet utan också en av den moderna svenska mediehistoriens mest inflytelserika personer. Hans insats i inrättandet av Svenska Filminstitutet 1963 är väldokumenterad och omskriven, men han hade också en rad andra viktiga uppdrag inom filmbransch, press och etermedier. Dessutom var han en flitig skribent och samhällsdebattör. I boken Ur Harry Scheins arkiv. Nedslag i 1900-talets svenska mediehistoria framträder i ett antal fall­studier olika dimensioner av Scheins professionella livsbana. Han undersöks som filmkritiker, mediepolitiker och utredare av kommunikationsteknologi. Hans position i samhällsliv och politiska och kultu­rella nätverk är en återkommande referenspunkt.

  • 50.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Vem dödade Leif?: Sjukhuset i den svenska tvåkanalstelevisionens dramatik2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När första säsongen av den svenska TV-serien Jourhavande hade premiär den 17 mars 1974 var den på flera sätt typisk för svenska TV-dramatik av sin tid. Den kännetecknades av en realistisk estetik, den adresserade samhälleliga problem, och den blev häftigt uppmärksammad och debatterad i pressen.

    Under 1970-talet blev denna så kallade TV-teater en nationell angelägenhet av vikt. I en tid av biografkris framstår i efterhand den inhemska tv-dramatiken som en av de mest publikt centrala audiovisuella nationella produktions- och distributionsformen för sin tid. TV-serierna och pjäserna präglades av tidens politiserade anda och fungerade som projektionsytor för aktuella samhälleliga konflikter. Ofta fokuserade TV-dramatiken välfärdsstatens funktioner. Företeelser som arbetslöshet (Friställd, 1969) eller migration från landsbygden (Hem till byn, 1971-1976; Fiskeläget, 1974) och institutionella kontexter i välfärdsstaten som skola (Lära för livet, 1977) eller idrottsrörelse (Hammarstads BK, 1977) i fokus.

    Ett återkommande tema i dessa produktioner var hälso- och sjukvård. De kanske främsta exemplen är de två serierna Jourhavande (1974) och Babels hus (1981). Båda fokuserar maktmissbruk, stordrift och ekonomism i den svenska sjukvården. Båda har det stora sjukhuset som spelplats. Jourhavande regisserades av Jackie Söderman efter manus av Gunnar E. Sandgren. Den visades i två säsonger 1974 och 1975. Babels hus regisserades av Jonas Cornell, efter manus av förlagans författare P C Jersild, och hade premiär i januari 1981. Båda serierna sågs av en stor publik och ledde till häftig debatt. Det var inte så mycket själva serierna som debatterades utan den verklighet de beskrev – och kritiserade.

    I min presentation kommer jag dels att tala om hur sjukvårdens problem gestaltades och berättades i dessa serier, samt om hur sjukhuset konstrueras som dystopisk miljö. Dels kommer jag att diskutera mottagandet i pressen av serierna. Jag kommer också att anknyta till skildringar av sjukhusmiljö i andra TV-produktioner från perioden.

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