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  • 1.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies. Uppsala Univ, Dept Educ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Doing good?: Interpreting teachers’ given and felt responsibilities for pupils’ well-being in an age of measurement2013In: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 419-432Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to theoretically discuss a specific aspect of teachers’ responsibilities: their responsibility for pupils’ or children’s well-being. We ask two interrelated questions: firstly, how might (Swedish) teachers’ sense of responsibilities for their pupils’ well-being be understood in relation to ethical theory? Secondly, what does this insight bring to the discussion of teachers’ professional responsibility within the global discourse of educational policy that increasingly stresses accountability and efficiency in an ‘age of measurement?’ Education can be described as an intervention in a pupil’s life, motivated by the idea that it will somehow improve it. When one implements this intervention, from a legal/political perspective, it boils down to a series of responsibilities assigned to teachers, as expressed in current policy documents. However, an exploration of empirical examples in a Swedish context of teachers’ sense of responsibility for their pupils’ or children’s well-being, expressed in everyday situations, indicates that the matter is complex. In order to find tools with which to better understand such expressions, we turn to the field of ethics. A thorough inquiry into the various reasoning regarding responsibility reveals that responsibility as socially defined and given is not sufficient to capture the intimacy and relational uncertainties of the teachers’ stories, which is why we turn to the writings of Lévinas and his ethics of responsibility. His ethical language helps to capture relational processes that cannot be predefined and that are based on an infinite sense of responsibility for the other person. We continue by discussing and problematising the increasing demands for measurability and accountability in the field of teachers’ professionalism. Here, we illuminate risks involved with the movement towards the fixed and calculable, since it overlooks the intricate ways in which teachers’ given and felt responsibilities are woven together.

  • 2.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Evidence is not enough for developing democratic values: on the role of theory in teacher education2014In: Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, ISSN 1478-8047, E-ISSN 2047-1734, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 148-155Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Moral education and the desire to counteract violence: A theoretical discussion about moral reasoning and teacher professionality2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss how teacher professionality can be understood in relation to ethics of alterity and ethics of dissensus, which both, in different ways, express a desire to oppose various forms of violence in society. Drawing on pragmatism, post-structuralism, and psychoanalysis we argue that there is a dialectical relationship between ethics and morality, conscious and unconscious deeds, between theory and practice, and between justice and moral (ethical issues). Also, we stress that the quality of a phenomenon is dependent on a specific purpose which we here formulate as follows: how can teacher professionality, as it isused in order to counteract violence, be grasped in relation to moral theory? Hence, we use the notion of uniqueness, power-relations, and importance to take into account people’s feelings when we discuss teacher professionality and the desire to counteract violence. This standpoint informs our mode of presentation, weaving together empirical examples from student and teacher perspectives with theoretical discussions.

  • 4.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Promoting social justice in Swedish Teacher Education2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Promoting Social Justice in Swedish Teacher Education2015In: International Teacher Education: Promising Pedagogies (Part B) / [ed] Lily Orland-Barak, Cheryl J. Craig, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 305-328Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the issue of social justice in teacher education (TE) is addressed from a Swedish perspective. The chapter begins by briefly describing the Swedish educational context in schools and TE, with a specific emphasis on the task of educators and teacher educators to promote social justice and as a consequence to this counteract various forms of social violence: such as violation, including bullying, harassment and discrimination. The second section introduces evidence on fruitful strategies for counteracting social violence in school, based on a national research study that takes into account international research. Following this, we exemplify how these findings are interlaced the pedagogies of TE in Sweden. The chapter ends with thoughts on such pedagogies in an international context, and a brief conclusion.

  • 6.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sensing as an ethical dimension of teacher professionality2016In: Journal of Moral Education, ISSN 0305-7240, E-ISSN 1465-3877, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 46-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the ethics of alterity and the ethics of dissensus, this study addresses how teacher professionality can be understood in relation to the notion of sensing. Both these ethics indicate a desire to oppose various forms of violence in society. The author challenges the assumption that all that is needed to oppose violence is the moulding of a proper moral character. According to Lévinas’ and Ziarek’s writings on sensing the Other, education alone will not overcome power dynamics and the unconscious distancing between people. Instead, these aspects need to be continuously addressed by teachers. Rather than trying to find the best ethical theory, we contend that theories cannot replace the critical judgement of teachers, which necessarily presumes a more widened view and more thoughtful choices in their ever-changing practices.

  • 7.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies. Uppsala Universitet.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Student teachers need more than evidence: Arguments for the place of theory in the Teacher Education curriculum2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Teacher Professionality and Sensing: Engaging in Dialogue About Professionality and Ethics Without a Foundation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Var går gränsen för lärares ansvar?2012In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Hjälmeskog, Karin
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Grappling with gender: Studying gender as educational content in teacher education2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education has been given the role to contribute to the aspiration of a socially just society, which includes countering various forms of oppression in society. Teachers are thus given the responsibility for preparing their students not only to be aware of oppressive structures and practices, such as those related to gender oppression, but also to actively counteract them. How does teacher education prepare teachers for this task? In a planned research project, we aim to inquire into teacher education practices directed towards promoting gender equality, from a curriculum perspective. As teacher educators, we share the experience with many others that introducing gender related content is far from easy, and may raise resistance from several students. Our purpose is to increase our knowledge about what actually happens when teachers and students process this content together, when teachers plan and implement education and when students encounter and process it? It is also to open up a new way of inquiring into meaning making in relation to educational content, a way that takes into account the strong emotions that are not something to be done away with through increased knowledge (cf Britzman, 1998). Our theoretical lense draws from Kristeva’s work. Inspired by psychoanalysis, the creation of identity is in Kristeva’s (2000) way of reasoning an inner process that cannot be separated from the social, but where the meaning of the social stems from a person’s way of imagining it. The way a person imagines the world influences her actions and a shift in imagination involves a shift of ‘identity’ constantly evaporating a stable identity via the inside’s encounter with the outside – united through language. She introduces the expression subject-in-process (Kristeva, 2002) which places the attention upon the cumbersum process for an individual to become conscious of her images in relation to others in order to confront them, and if needed change them. In her way of reasoning images do not only operate on a conscious level – during our process of creating meaning unflattering images of oneself as acting subjects or images generally difficult to bear become supressed to the unconscious. This creates a false image of a stabile and “good” identity which renders it difficult to change our own world view and ways of acting even though we hurt other people. The subject-in-process as an unavoidable coalition and intermingle with the social (culture) is for Kristeva the main site for change and strife for opposing social violence. In a pilot study consisting of interviews with one student and one teacher educator, the teacher educator found that for some students, a change of perspective is achieved through distancing oneself from ones experiences, using theoretical concepts. For others it is only achieved through moving from ones concrete experiences towards theory. The teacher educator is aware of that he cannot separate his physical being from the content he deals with, being a male heterosexual. However, several times he has feared that his teaching and the discussions in class, aimed at challenging dichotomies, may have ended up resulting in the opposite.

  • 11.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Highly Committed Teachers: What Makes Them Tick?: A Study of Sustained Commitment from a Longitudinal Perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on teacher commitment, and in particular teachers who display high levels of commitment throughout their long teaching careers (over 15 years). Graduates from one Teacher Education programme were interviewed on nine occasions via email about their working lives, which spanned from their graduation in 1993 to 2012. Out of the 69 who answered on all nine occasions, seven teachers stating high levels of commitment during all their years in the profession were selected. Factors contributing to their commitment were categorized into the types described by Day et al (2005): personal context, school context, system context and professional factors. For every new generation of teachers, understanding their commitment to increase teacher retention and efficiency is of great value.

  • 12.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Highly committed teachers: what makes them tick?: A study of sustained commitment2016In: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 896-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on teacher commitment, and particularly on teachers displaying sustained high levels of commitment throughout their teaching careers (over 15 years). Graduates from one Teacher Education programme responded to an open-ended questionnaire conducted on 10 occasions concerning their work as teachers, from graduation in 1993 to 2013. Out of the 72 who responded on all nine occasions, eight teachers stating high levels of commitment throughout their careers were selected for additional interviews. A framework containing four commitment factors was used as the point of departure. Content analyses of the interview and selected questionnaire data then resulted in a revised framework of five factors: personal, teaching, school context, system context and professional development. Accounts from eight teachers with sustained high commitment illustrate the framework. The article offers an extended framework for understanding and categorising the factors that contribute to teacher commitment.

  • 13.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Professional (Non-)Commitment?: Dilemmas in Teachers’ Task Perception in Relation to Documentation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For over 30 years neo-liberal currents have had a far-reaching influence on the restructuring of educational systems. The managerial consequences of this have often taken the shape of New Public Management (Grimmet, Flemming & Trotter, 2009). Some of these consequences are marketisation, increased managerialism, an increased focus on effectiveness and international comparisons. These in turn lead to demands for grades at an earlier age and extensive student testing. In all, these developments have led to the documentation of students’ results becoming a larger part of teachers’ work. The aforementioned changes are often described as things that challenge and change teachers’ professional roles and positions, as well as their autonomy and commitment (Day et al., 2005). New kinds of dilemmas for teachers emerge when regimes of accountability are enforced.

    Altogether, these trends constitute changes in teachers’ working conditions, professional roles, tasks, obligations and commitment. However, the ways in which teachers deal with these changes depend on how they make sense of them, and, especially, how they make sense of their tasks as teachers (Kelchtermans, 1993).

    In this paper we focus on the different ways in which teachers make sense of the increased amount of documentation and how this affects their commitment as teachers. By documentation we mean e.g. developing and documenting evaluation and grading criteria, documenting pupils’ progress and knowledge growth in various ways.  The theoretical framework of this study draws on the concepts of task perception and teacher commitment. Task perception is “the normative component of teachers’ self-understanding” (Kelchtermans, 2009, p. 262); i.e. how a teacher understands what the tasks and duties are and what he/she must do in order to do a good and “right” job (cf. Dall’Alba & Sandberg, 2006; Kelchtermans, 1993; 2009). It is important to acknowledge that sense-making processes could result in different task perceptions. Sandberg and Targama (2007) stress that “the same task can be understood in different ways and the more complex the task, the greater the number of possible ways of understanding it” (p. 11). For instance, the task of documentation can be understood differently when related to specific contexts, which means that the perception of the task emerges differently.

    Commitment involves an investment of time, energy, emotions, beliefs and attitudes and is a nested phenomenon that is not only located within the individual, but also in “the personal values, professional interests and micro-political, emotional, social and political context of their work” (Day et al, 2007, p. 215). In research on teacher commitment, four types of factors that either sustain or diminish commitment have been found (Day et al., 2005). Personal factors and school context were found to be the most significant for sustaining levels of commitment to teaching, while factors related to system context tended to diminish the commitment. Professional factors, such as opportunities for professional development or the introduction of teaching innovations (e.g. ICT), also affect teachers’ commitment.

  • 14.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    “You’re never finished”: Teachers on commitment, professional struggle and positioning during 15 years of change2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some preliminary results from a study inquiring into factors that contribute to teacher retention and commitment. The data presented are part of a larger project financed by the Swedish National Science Council: "Crossroads - a longitudinal study of choices and values in teachers’ work trajectories". It builds from a unique material: 87 graduates from one Teacher Education program in Sweden were interviewed by mail at eight occasions regarding their work and lives, spanning from their graduation in 1993 through their careers until 2008. The purpose of the project is to describe, understand and explain the specific circumstances, attitudes and strategies that make teachers stay, leave or return to the teaching profession. The aim of this paper is to tentatively map key characteristics of teacher experiences during 15 years.

  • 15.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring a conceptual framework for research on Induction and Mentoring: Combining Policy enactment, task perception, and agency2014In: AERA conference, digital database, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the research questions that are emerging from the current reforms with consequences for Induction and Mentoring in various countries. The implementation focus is on the interplay between the new triad formed as a consequence of a Teacher Registration Reform in Sweden: head teacher/mentor/mentee as situated in a larger context of policy development and development in/of practice. The objective of this paper is twofold; (a) to elaborate and discuss a conceptual framework based on an interplay between the theoretical contributions of policy enactment (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012), task perception (Kelchtermans, 2009) and agency (Priestley and Biesta); (b) to discuss its possibilities for research within the field of induction and mentoring, and (c) provide an example of how it could be implemented in a study on induction and mentoring.

  • 16.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring a conceptual framework to understand how principals balance the partly contradictory tasks of evaluating and supporting newly qualified teachers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries it is argued that the “quality of teachers” is the most important school-related factor in pupils’ learning (Hattie, 2009; 2012). Teacher quality has become a key argument for teachers’ professional development. When it comes to newly qualified teachers (NQTs), in many countries the call for “teacher quality” has either led to reforms that support NQTs or reforms requiring an evaluation of their competence. In some countries these approaches are combined, with induction systems and mentoring that support NQTs and an evaluation of their skills to ensure quality. However, some research suggests that if the same person performs both roles it is more difficult to create and maintain a relationship based on confidence, openness and mutual trust that promotes risk-free learning (Author 1, 201*, Jones 2009). In some countries or states mentors perform both these roles (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008), whereas in others these two roles are separated so that mentors support and principals evaluate.

    The latter kind of system was introduced in Sweden in 2011, with mentors supporting NQTs and principals performing the evaluation (Government Bill, 2010/11). However, previous research shows that when the Swedish principals performed the assessment they also supported the NQTs (Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, 201*) in that they partly applied an instructional leadership (cf. REF) and gave post-observation feedback. However, being both an evaluator and supervisor can be challenging. For instance, Hinchey (2010) claims that teachers only improve their practice in relatively non-threatening contexts and that the assessment may challenge this (cf. Author 1, 201*; Range, Young & Hvidstone, 2013).

    A review of the research literature reveals that there is an urgent need for theoretical development in order to understand how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators of NQTs and pedagogical leaders. In responding to this call, the purpose of the paper is: (a) to elaborate and discuss a conceptual framework that captures how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators and pedagogical leaders in the context of evaluating NQTs and (b) to exemplify how data can be related to the framework.

    Theoretical framework

    The emphasis on and combination of supportive and evaluative dimensions are contained in the framework of a four-way table that includes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and  “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

    The evaluation dimension is defined as the extent to which evaluations are scheduled, planned, directed by guiding formulae, how the different issues of the national standards are focused, time spent on the evaluation, the structure and focus of the follow-up discussions etc.   

    The instructional dimension is defined as how and how much guidance is given and how the NQTs professional development are facilitated. Here the focus is on guidance and feedback that contribute to developing the instructional skills or pedagogical thinking of the NQT. Positive feedback relates to the content included in the table. Positive feedback in a general sense, without connection to instruction, thinking or a situation, is not included. For instance, positive feedback heard in the corridor, such as: ‘colleagues say you perform well’, is not included in this dimension. Guidance can be absent or present, more or less extensive, or constructive and detailed.

    Methods/methodology

    The framework is developed by reviewing the research literature in the areas of teacher induction (cf. (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez, & Tomlinson, 2009), evaluation of NQTs (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008) and principals’ instructional leadership (cf. Neumerski, 2013; LaPointe Terosky, 2016). Most of the literature relating to principals’ instructional leadership focuses on teachers in general and not specifically NQTs (cf. Tuytens & Devos, 2017), but is nevertheless valuable.

    Drawing on and combining supportive and evaluative dimensions result in a four-way table framework with the following axes:  “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

    This framework is then used in explorative analyses of data from a longitudinal research project in which five principals conducting a formal evaluation of NQTs are followed in the year of the evaluation. These five principals are regarded as cases. The NQTs being evaluated teach Years 4-6.

    Each principal is interviewed at least twice during the year (in total between 73-158 minutes), which forms the main data for the analysis. The interviews and analysis explore principals’ self-reported information regarding their strategies to enact and balance their role as evaluators and the support they provide. Using the software NVivo, codes are created based on content analysis (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014).

    Self-reported data needs to be looked at critically (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003). To validate this kind of data: (i) observations and recordings of post-observation conversations (tot. 72 minutes) are performed with two of the principals (A and C) and their NQTs, (ii) joint interviews are conducted with three principals (A, C and E) and their NQTs (in total 130 minutes) and (iii) observations of three of the principals’ observations (B, C, D) are carried out. A coherent design of these validating strategies is not possible due to ethical and practical reasons. Three of the NQTs did not feel comfortable with the participation of an external researcher during the observations and/or post-observation conversations. Some of the planned observations were cancelled due to illness, the unavailability of the informant or were performed ad hoc and informally and were not observed or recorded.

    Expected outcomes/results

    Positioning the principals in the framework of the four-way table with the axes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership” enables their actions to be positioned differently. Four out of the five teachers are positioned more towards “strong instructional leadership” and “formal and structured evaluation”, albeit with different emphases on the two dimensions. The fifth principal (E) is positioned more towards “informal evaluation” and “weak instructional leadership”. This principal describes his/her leadership as ‘leadership on the run’.

    The overall conclusion is that the theoretical framework enables principals to be positioned according to how their evaluative and supportive roles vary. Also, the quality of the data, for instance with regard to quantity, focus on relevant issues and different kinds of data (e.g. self-reported narratives, narratives from other actors such as NQTs, and first-hand information from the researchers’ direct observations) gives a much more informed analysis of the positioning in the framework. However, in this small-scale study, the different kinds of data do not contradict each other, but strengthen the conclusions and the positioning.

    Thus, the framework facilitates an understanding of how principals facilitate NQTs professional development in a context in which evaluative and supportive dimensions are applied. The framework could also be used to analyse how mentors balance the supportive and evaluative dimensions.

    References

    Author 1 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Article published in international peer-reviewed journal.

    Author 1, Author 2 & Author 3 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Paper presented at an International Annual Conference.

    Government bill 2010/11:20 Legitimation för lärare och förskollärare [Registration for Teachers and Pre-School Teachers]. The Swedish Government.

     Hattie, J. 2009. Visible learning: a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: New York: Routledge.

    Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: maximizing impact on learning. London: Routledge.

    Hinchey, P.H. (2010). Getting teacher assessment right: What policymakers can learn from research. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.

    Hobson, A. J., Ashby, P., Malderez, A., & Tomlinson, P. D. (2009). Mentoring beginning teachers: what we know and what we don't. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 207-216.

    Jones, M. (2009). Supporting the supporters of novice teachers: An analysis of mentors’ needs from twelve European countries presented from an English perspective. Research in Comparative and International Education 4, no. 1: 4–21.

    LaPointe Terosky, A. (2016): Enacting instructional leadership: perspectives and actions of public K-12 principals, School Leadership & Management,

    Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

    Neumerski, C. M. (2013). Rethinking Instructional Leadership: A Review of What Do We Know About Principal, Teacher, and Coach Instructional Leadership, and Where Should We Go from Here? Educational Administration Quarterly 49 (2): 310–347.

    Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. 

    Range, B. G., Young, S. & Hvidston, D. (2013) Teacher perceptions about observation conferences: what do teachers think about their formative supervision in one US school district?, School Leadership & Management, 33:1, 61-77.

    Tuytens, M. & Devos, G. (2017) The role of feedback from the school

    leader during teacher evaluation for teacher and school improvement, Teachers and Teaching, 23:1, 6-24,

    Yusko, B., & Feiman Nemser. S. (2008). Embracing contraries: Combining assistance and assessment in new teacher induction. Teacher College Record 110, no. 5: 923–53.

  • 17.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Rektorer och lämplighetsprövningen av nyutbildade lärare: En rapport från forskningsprojektet Rektors arbete och lämplighetsprövning av nya lärare: En studie av rektorers förändrade arbetsvillkor efter införandet av lärarlegitimation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 2 mars 2011 beslutade riksdagen att införa en legitimation för lärare och förskollärare samt att nyexaminerade lärare och förskollärare skulle genomgå en introduktionsperiod. Under denna introduktionsperiod skulle de få stöd av en mentor samtidigt som rektor eller förskolechef skulle bedöma deras lämplighet för yrket.

    För rektorerna innebär lämplighetsprövningen av nyexaminerade lärare nya arbetsuppgifter och ett formaliserat uppdrag att bedöma lärares skicklighet. Detta i samband med att rektorers arbetssituation har befunnits vara intensiv med en uppsplittrad vardag där många snabba beslut måste tas väcker frågor kring hur arbetets förutsättningar påverkar lämplighetsprövningen, och hur lämplighetsprövningen påverkar arbetsförhållanden och yrkesroller.

    I juni månad 2014 inbjöds 646 rektorer att besvara en enkät rörande lämplighetsprövningen. 248 rektorer svarade vilket ger en svarsfrekvens på 39 % (n=248). 159 kvinnor (64 %) och 89 män (36 %) besvarade enkäten. Nästan 60 % av rektorerna hade varit rektor på sin nuvarande enhet i tre år eller mindre. 77 % av rektorerna var verksamma vid kommunala skolor medan 23 % var verksamma vid fristående skolor.

    Resultaten visar att rektorernas upplevelse av lämplighetsprövningen är att den i huvudsak, om än i varierade grad, upplevts meningsfull och att rektorerna känt sig tillfreds med de lämplighetsprövningar de genomfört. Det förekommer mer spriddaåsikter om i vilken mån lämplighetsprövningen varit väl investerad tid och kraft. Lämplighetsprövningen har konkurrerat med många andra arbetsuppgifter men det finns ändå en tendens att rektorerna som grupp anser att den investerade tiden och kraften varit värt utfallet.

    Det råder oenighet kring i vilken mån lämplighetsprövningen bidragit till mer positiva relationer mellan rektor och den nya läraren, men att det råder relativt stor enighet om att lämplighetsprövningen inte nämnvärt försämrat relationerna. En sammantagen tolkning av detta är att något mer positiva relationer med de nya lärarna etablerats och att båda parter lärt känna varandra såväl professionellt som privat. Endast 12 % av rektorerna anger att de har fått någon utbildning i att genomföra lämplighetsprövningen. Rektorerna har haft ett begränsat stöd av huvudman eller andra rektorer vilket skapat ett frirum att genomföra lämplighetsprövningen på sitt eget sätt. Samtalen med mentorn har varit viktiga för rektorns bedömning. Vidare framträder lärarkollegiets informella bedömning dels som en viktig komponent i rektors formella bedömning, dels som ett viktig komplement till i rektors formella bedömning. Av de 137 lämplighetsprövningar som genomförts rådde viss tveksamhet i 10 fall och i två fall uppgav rektorerna att det råddestor tveksamhet. Samtliga 137 lärare bedömdes dock efter introduktionsperiodens slutsom lämpliga.

    Rektorers tilltro till politiker har påverkats negativt av alla turer kring lärarlegitimationen och att lämplighetsprövningen slutligen avvecklades. 73 % av rektorerna anser att deras förtroende för politiker minskat, medan 6 % anser att förtroendet ökat.

  • 18.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Resources and Support for Principals’ Assessment of Newly Qualified Teachers During a Teacher Registration Reform2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    In July 2011 a teacher registration reform (TRR) and a probation year for newly qualified teachers (NQTs) came into effect in Sweden (Government Bill, 2010/11).

    It required newly qualified teachers and pre-school teachers to do a “probationary year” under the guidance of a mentor. Between July 1 2011 and July 1 2014 principals or pre-school managers were responsible for assessing whether the NQT were to be registered or not. The principals were expected to perform this assessment by following the national standards (competence profiles) developed by the Swedish National Agency for Education, the issuing authority. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss (1) sources of support for assessment and (2) to what extent these supported the principals in the assessment of the NQTs. Data is drawn from a questionnaire answered by 248 principals, completed in 2014 within the research project “Head teachers working conditions and the evaluation of newly qualified teachers (the RAOL-project)”

    The TRR is another example of travelling policies in a globalized world, in this case with origin in Scotland and Canada. Some contextual policy learning adjustments (Lingard, 2010; Waldow, 2009) were made regarding the standards, but almost no adjustments regarding the structure and focus of the reform. As a consequence, parts of the reforms have been adjusted or withdrawn at several occasions. One major policy retreat was made in June 2013 when the Minister of Education, the Presidents of two teacher unions, representatives of The Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions and The Swedish Association of Independent Schools made a joint statement to withdraw the assessment of NQTs. Hence, the implementation of the Swedish TRR and the assessment of NQTs can be viewed as an example of policy borrowing and the challenges encountered when reforms are implemented prior to a completed policy learning processes. From July2014 the assessment ceased to be part of principals’ task.

    Thus, this paper offers unique data from a specific time period with particular tasks and working conditions for principals. Swedish research on how principals assess and evaluate teachers' skills is largely absent, but similar international research indicates the need to explore how such assessments are performed. For instance, Kimball & Milanowski (2009) found that head teachers vary their evaluations over time and in relation to subjective values, and that their evaluations seem to be based on intuition and instinct rather than carefully formulated and objective criteria.

    Recent studies show that the working conditions for principals are intense with fragmented working days during which many quick decisions have to be made (Day, 2000; Nihlfors & Johansson, 2013).  Research on school leaders' working conditions (e.g. Swedish Work Environment Authority, 2011; Ludvigsson, 2009; Schools Inspectorate, 2010) raise questions on how working conditions affect the assessment of NQTs, and how the assessment affects working conditions and the principal’s role and self-image (Federici, 2013). Principals operate in the intersection of different interests, expectations, tasks and roles (Nihlfors & Johansson, 2013; Törnsén & Ärlestig, 2014), which affect the psychosocial work environment. Interestingly, changes in the professional role were being handled differently by the principals depending on their career stage (The Swedish Research Council, 2011).

    Even though the main data reported here is Swedish, in times of policy travelling the results are of importance in a wider European perspective to help understand principals’ working condition and roles.

    Methods (max 400 ord)

    In June 2014, 644 principals were invited to answer a questionnaire and 249 responded, yielding a response rate of 38,5%. This may be considered relatively low, however, at this time it was generally known that the assessment would be phased out which probably reduced responsiveness. It should be noted that a similar questionnaire of principals conducted in December 2013 in another Swedish research project had a response rate of 31% (n = 106), wherein our response rate at a later stage can be considered relatively good.

    Three clusters of principals representing different municipals located in different regions in Sweden were invited, selected to ensure a diverse sample. The web questionnaire was sent to all primary, secondary and upper-secondary schools in three regions: a metropolitan area (1 municipality), major regional centre (8 municipalities) and rural locations (15 municipalities).

    The survey focused the following areas: school context, working conditions, assessment of the NQTs, support available for the principal, cooperation, the principals’ strategies in observation and assessment, issues regarding the reform and reform implementation. A typical type of response alternatives were 5-point likert scale. Some other appropriate scaling was also used as well as open questions.  

    The analysis of the quantitative data has been performed with the SPSS-software, in a first step through crosstab analysis. The questions analysed in this paper regard sources of support for assessment and principals’ use of these sources.

     

    Findings

    The analysis focused firstly on internal resources for assessment such as degrees from the national school leadership programme, experience of evaluating work performance from other professions etc.

    Secondly, outside support included interpersonal resources such as (a)school owner/administrative level, (b)fellow principals, (c)the NQTs appointed mentors, (d)teacher staff; and material resources such as (e)national/local competence profiles.

    The analysis of support indicated, for instance, that 69% of the principals reported low or no support from owner/administrative level in the assessment of the NQTs, that is, the management of the public or private school. 71% of the principals did not cooperate with other principals regarding the design of the assessment, while 7% say that they did, to a high or very high degree.

    A slightly higher proportion of support (10%) from fellow principals was reported regarding the actual assessment practice, a higher proportion of support (36%) from school staff and the highest (69%) from experienced mentors.

    12% of the principals report some form of training in assessment, which can be related to the fact that 40% of principals report that they, to a very high degree, report sufficient knowledge of conducting lesson observations, which is mandated in the assessment.

    No significant differences appear when data is related to principals’ gender or type of school (private or public). In sum, principals receive most support from their employees, which makes them which makes their assessment practice largely free from external control, for good or bad. The issue will be analyzed further.

    In terms of TRR, the centrally distributed competency profiles seem to be of relatively low use for assessment support in comparison to local collaboration with employees. This is an example of how policy becomes enacted rather than implemented, (cf. Ball et al, 2012) depending on principals’ local work conditions and organization.

    References (max 400 ord)

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How Schools Do Policy: Policy Enactments in Secondary Schools London & New York: Routledge.

    Day, C. (2000). Leading schools in times of change. Buckingham: Open Univ. Press.

    Federici, R. A. (2013). Principals’ self-efficacy: relations with job autonomy,

    job satisfaction, and contextual constraints. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28:73–86

    Government bill 2010/11:20 Legitimation för lärare och förskollärare [Registration for Teachers and Pre-School Teachers]. The Swedish Government.

    Kimball, S.E. & Milanowski, A. (2009). Examining Teacher Evaluation Validity and Leadership Decision Making Within a Standards-Based Evaluation System. Educational Administration Quarterly. Vol. 45. No. 1. February 2009. 34–70.

    Lingard, B. (2010). Policy Borrowing, Policy Learning: Testing Times in Australian Schooling, Critical Studies in Education, 51(2), 129-147

    Nihlfors, E. & Johansson, O. (2013). Rektor - en stark länk i styrningen av skolan. [The Principal – a strong link in the Governance of School]. Stockholm: SNS förlag.

    Swedish School Inspectorate (2010). Rektors ledarskap. En granskning av hur rektorer leder skolans arbete mot ökad måluppfyllelse. [The Principals Leadership. Inspection of how priciplas leads the schools towards increased goal-fullfilment]. Skolinspektionen: Stockholm.

    SOU. 2008. Legitimation och skärpta behörighetsregler [Swedish Government Official

    Report 2008:52. Registration and stricter qualifying rules]. Stockholm: Ministry of

    Education and Research.

    Swedish Work Environment Authority (2011). Rektorers arbetsmiljö. En tillsynsinsats genomförd av Arbetsmiljöverket (AV), distriktet i Göteborg under 2009 och 2010. [Principals working condition. An inspection by the Swedish Work Environment Authority, Gothenburg region 2009-2010] ISG 2011/100102. Göteborg: Arbetsmiljöverket.

    Swedish Research Council (2011). Rektor – En forskningsöversikt 2000-2010. [Principals – a Research overview 2000-2010]. Vetenskapsrådets rapportserie. 2011:4. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

    Törnsén, M. & Ärlestig, H. (red.) (2014). Ledarskap i centrum: om rektor och förskolechef. [Leadership in the center: about principals and pre-school managers]. Malmö: Gleerup.

    Waldow, F. (2009). Undeclared imports: silent borrowing in educational policy-making and research in Sweden, Comparative Education Vol. 45, No. 4, November 2009, 477–494.

  • 19.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Att bygga undervisningsrelationer i gymnasieskolans introduktionsprogram2014In: Inkludering: möjligheter och utmaningar / [ed] Sandström, Margareta, Nilsson, Lena & Stier, Jonas, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2014, p. 91-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Om man vet att vuxna är såna som det inte går att lita på. Om man vet att det enda man är bra på i skolan, det är att misslyckas. Varför över huvud taget gå dit? Gunilla arbetar på det som nu har blivit gymnasieskolans introduktionsprogram, där hon dagligen möter ungdomar med de här tankarna. Hennes utmaning är att vända åratal av negativa erfarenheter till en positiv skolupplevelse för de här eleverna, vilket kräver ett stort mått av relationell professionalitet. Mycket av hennes arbete handlar om att bygga så kallade undervisningsrelationer, relationer som grundas i förtroende, medmänsklighet och omtanke om elevernas självbild. Gunillas praktik används som illustration till tankar kring professionellt relationsbyggande i en extra utmanande utbildningsmiljö. Här presenteras begrepp för att kunna diskutera och reflektera över den svårfångade lärarkunskapen som utövas i vardagen. Den som faktiskt – för en del elever – kan utgöra skillnaden mellan att hoppa av skolan eller slutföra en utbildning.

  • 20.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Att hantera läraryrkets komplexitet(er) – en grund för professionalitet?2013In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 7-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few would argue the notion that teachers’ work is complex. The present article seeks to disentangle and illuminate how complexity is understood within teaching, in particular how and why it is complex, and to discuss it in relation to teacher professionality. Concepts from curriculum theory and research on professionality are used to this end. Complexity in teaching can, for analytical purposes, be divided into aspects such as complexity of meaning, complexity of content, complexity of means and complexity of purposes, which teachers are to deal with. Teacher professionality is conceived as the instantiation of teacher professionalism, which is enacted by a community of professionals. Professionalization and de-professionalization tendencies are apparent in the educational context today. In a sense, the ability to deal well with complexity can be viewed as a basis of teacher professionality. However, the context may or may not contribute to the possibility to act professionally. Hence the question of the relation between professionality and complexity is everything but straightforward. 

  • 21.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Auktoritet är inte att peka med hela handen2012In: Uppdrag lärare: En antologi om status, yrkesskicklighet och framtidsdrömmar / [ed] Mathiasson, Leif, Stockholm: Lärarförbundets förlag , 2012, p. 39-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Auktoritet är inte att peka med hela handen2011In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 1, p. 16-20Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärares auktoritet ska skapa arbetsro i skolan. Men en förenklad syn på auktoritet kan leda till att eleverna får betala ett högt pris i form av utslagning, skriver Anneli Frelin.

  • 23.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Before learning: exploring the foundation of an educational relationship2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Challenging classroom situations: How teachers sustain their commitment to students against the odds2015In: EARLI 2015: Book of Abstracts, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores sources of commitment in teachers who have maintained a high level of commitment despite challenging classroom situations. Teacher commitment is important for student success, but can be challenged by negative teacher-student relationships. Eight teachers with a sustained level of commitment for over 15 years were selected for interviews. The semi-structured interviews were transcribed and accounts where the teachers reported on some kind of problem with student behaviour were analysed. Three main sources of commitment in challenging teacher-student relationships were indicated: reconceptualization of problems into intellectual challenges, a sense of professional responsibility for students in problems and confidence after student success against the odds. Learning from those teachers who have managed to maintain their commitment to students despite relational challenges provides important clues to sources of and conditions for commitment.

  • 25.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Classroom Management in the Corridor: Teacher-Student Negotiations of an Educational Authority Relationship Outside of the Classroom Context2014In: Breaking the Mold of Classroom Management: What Educators Should Know and Do to Enable Student Success / [ed] Honigsfeld, Andrea & Cohan, Audrey, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2014, p. 35-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet, Utv vet fak, Inst f Didaktik.
    Classroom Management in the Corridor?: Teacher-Student Negotiations of Educational Authority Relationships Outside of the Classroom Setting2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Classroom Relationship Management: “Maria’s MENSA-club” – Counteracting Oppressive Student Relationships Through Innovative Means2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research, especially in the field of Classroom Management, has shown that the relational context that schools provide carries importance for student learning. Thus, students ’peer relationships become part of the teacher’s responsibilities, as far from all relationships in schools are supportive of learning. A case study consisting of two interviews with the teacher Maria is analyzed using Young’s political theory of oppression. The concepts of cultural imperialism and violence are used in order to understand classroom relationships which are oppressive, and Maria’s innovative means for counteracting these relationships are described as an equalizing move in power relations in the classroom. Conclusions highlight the complexity of the classroom and the opportunities for using political theory in research the field of Classroom Management.

  • 28.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet, Utv vet fak, Inst f Didaktik.
    Classroom Relationship Management: Teacher-Student Negotiations of Educational Authority Relationships Outside of the Classroom Setting2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet, Utb vet fak, Inst f Didaktik.
    Conscious and Unconscious Forces in Democratic Relationships: Implications for the Range of Teacher Responsibility2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper Edling and Frelin strive to incorporate the features of complexity in discussions about democracy as a form of life and especially teachers’ moral responsibility for others. By placing the unconscious in relation to mainstream educational policy documents (deliberate democracy) the authors strive to illuminate the conditions these imply for teacher responses. In this paper they discuss the restrictions present in a predefined democratic model and argue for a view of responsibility and learning that takes its beginning in the complexity of the educational process in which the unconscious is a significant force.

  • 30.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Curriculum, Didaktik, and Professional Teaching: Conceptual Contributions from the Intersections of Curriculum Studies in an Age of «Crisis» in Education2016In: Curriculum: Decanonizing the Field / [ed] João M. Paraskeva & Shirley R. Steinberg, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Den relationella dimensionen av lärares arbete och professionalitet: i spänningsfältet mellan villkor och övertygelse2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läraryrket är en bland flera så kallade interpersonella professioner (se Endres, 2007) men det utövas i en särskild kontext och med särskilda syften. Professionalitet är bland annat kopplat till att framgångsrikt uppfylla vissa syften och för lärares del så är den frågan inte helt enkel, då de befinner sig i flera spänningsfält och måste använda sitt omdöme. Kravet på att göra komplexa omdömen har av flera forskare t.o.m. framställts som ett kriterium för professionalitet (se ex Hargreaves & Goodson, 1996, Carr, 2000). I min avhandling (Frelin, 2010) diskuterar jag lärares uppdragsperception vilken har betydelse för de val lärare gör och vilket ansvar de tar. Jag menar att ett ensidigt fokus på kunskaper är otillräckligt för att fullt ut diskutera lärares professionalitet – en aldrig så stor kunskapsrepertoar kan inte kompensera för en ovilja att ta ansvar för viktiga relationella villkor i undervisningssituationen, varken ur ett moraliskt eller lärandeperspektiv. Specifikt kommer jag att diskutera den relationella dimensionen av lärarprofessionalitet, vilken tar sig uttryck i relationsarbete definierat som: handlingar i syfte att etablera, upprätthålla och/eller främja relationer som är positiva ur en utbildningssynpunkt, eller i syfte att motverka motsatsen: relationer som motverkar eller undergräver elevers förutsättningar för att ta till sig utbildning (Frelin, 2010, s. 6). Samtidigt så kan krav på effektivitet bidra till att uppdragsperceptionen snävas in hos lärare på ett sätt som gör att de riskerar att förlora kontakten med viktiga delar av sitt uppdrag, och således även med möjligheten för att lyckas uppfylla utbildningens syften. Detta utgör då en de-professionalisering.

  • 32.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    (De-)Professionalized?: Complexities of the Teaching Profession in Times of Globalized Educational Reform2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few would argue the notion that teachers’ work is complex; however, most do not ask how or why it is complex. The present article seeks to disentangle and illuminate different aspects of complexity in teaching, along with the relation between complexity and teacher professionality. For this purpose I make use of curriculum theory and research on professionality. I ask, does a teacher who handles complexity well equal a professional teacher?

    In the conceptual analysis, complexity in teaching is, for analytical purposes, divided into aspects: complexity of meaning, complexity of content, complexity of means and complexity of purposes, which teachers are left to deal with. Teacher professionality is described as the instantiation of teacher professionalism, belonging to a community of professionals. The relation between the two is further discussed, as well as how teacher professionality was and is conceived in different and dynamic circumstances.

    In these times of globalized educational reform and neo-liberal educational agendas, the concept of teacher professionality is taking different shapes. Some suggest the rise of the new professional (cf Robertson 1996), an entrepreneur with eyes on the prize, loyal towards her or his employers, as opposed to the activist professional (Apple 2008;Groundwater-Smith & Sachs 2002) who considers wider human and societal aims. In conclusion, the ability to deal well with complexity can be viewed as a basis of teacher professionality. But can the teacher act professionally when possibilities for doing so are severely circumcised? And according to whom and towards which purposes are s/he supposed to act? The relation between professionality and complexity is everything but straightforward. 

  • 33.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Enacting democratic relations in everyday teaching: comparing teachers’ practices from preschool to high school2017In: Citizenship Teaching and Learning, ISSN 1751-1917, E-ISSN 1751-1925, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 341-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies fostering democratic citizens is an important goal of education and  includes experience of democratic relations. But how do teachers interpret and carry this out? Are there differences between the levels of schooling, and if so, what? In an explorative study, interviews with teachers from preschool to high school were conducted and analyzed to elicit practical arguments (Fenstermacher and Richardson, 1993). The informants described their mission as intertwined in everyday activities and teaching democracy ‘as a way of life’ in the spirit of Dewey. For example, the task of fostering quality in relations, such as empathy, was only discussed by preschool teachers, whereas the task of balancing equal relationships was addressed by all the informants at all levels. It also became clear that the progression of democratic learning runs parallel with addressing ever-present relational issues of a democratic nature.

  • 34.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring challenging teacher-student relationships in teachers’ lives and how these may elicit commitment2014In: AARE Conference Proceedings 2014 / [ed] Margaret Baguley, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on data from a larger research project conducted in a European country: a longitudinal study of choices and values in teachers' work trajectories. It is based on unique material, namely interviews on ten occasions via email with 87 graduates from a Teacher Education programme regarding their work as teachers, spanning from their graduation in 1993 up to present day. This paper reports results from one of the studies dealing specifically with teacher commitment, and focuses on the meaning of teacher-student relationships for teacher commitment. Positive teacher-student relationships are vital for student learning (Cornelius-White, 2007). Teachers invest emotionally in their work and engage in their students, and if they are to be effective in helping their students learn they must be able to deal with such challenges in a successful way (Day & Gu, 2007) and committed to student learning (Gu, in press). Even if commitment is linked to the individual, it is mediated by the context (Day, Sammons, Stobart, Kingston, & Gu, 2007; Sammons et al., 2007). This paper explores sources of teacher commitment in challenging conditions. 87 informants answered interview questionnaire on ten occasions, annually for the first four years and then at intervals. The questions related to their lives and work. For an overview of the material see (Lindqvist, Nordänger, & Carlsson, 2014). In this paper, the main focus lies on two questions asked during the third year of data collection: In question 3:3 informants were asked to describe one student that had caused them trouble during their last school year, and in the next, 3:4, to describe one student that have given them much joy during the same period. Surprisingly many described the same student in their answers to both questions. The analysis aims to explore features that elicit commitment in challenging teacher-student relationships. Preliminary results point to three sources of commitment in challenging teacher-student relationships: First, to conceptualize problems as challenges stimulates the informants' intellectual capacity. Second, to help a student in trouble is viewed as central in their professional responsibility, and third, to witness students' progress strengthens their self-confidence. Commitment is important for student success and for teacher retention, and to get a deepened understanding of sources of commitment can help all teachers teach and students learn.

  • 35.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring Relational Professionalism in Schools2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How is it that some teachers have just "got it"? They walk into a room and the atmosphere changes. They get through to students in a way that no-one else can. The author has sought answers to this question by observing and interviewing teachers from preschool to upper secondary school levels.

    Having intensively studied the highly influential but underestimated relational dimension of teaching, her contention is that these teachers successfully use relational practices to build educational relationships with their students and educational communities among them. Moreover, she finds that what may come across as a teacher’s personal traits is actually a sensible professional approach. These teachers haven’t "got it" - they "get it".

    This book explains how teachers carry out their relational practices, and contains an abundance of everyday examples from all stages of education. The deep theoretical reasoning departs from these examples to create a compelling argument for a teacher’s relational professionality that is possible to learn and teach. New relational perspectives and concepts are introduced for the purpose of facilitating professional conversations about the profound dimension of relationships in education.

  • 36.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Fostering democratic relations: Comparing teacher practices from preschool to high school2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies, an important goal of education is to foster democratic citizens, which includes experiences of democratic relations. How do teachers interpret and carry out this mission? Are there differences between the levels of schooling and if so which? In an explorative study, interviews with teachers from preschool to high school were conducted and analyzed eliciting practical arguments (Fenstermacher & Richardson, 1993). The informants described their mission as intertwined in everyday activities, teaching democracy “as a way of life” in the spirit of Dewey. Whereas e.g. empathy was only discussed by preschool teachers, balancing equal relationships was addressed by all informants from preschool to high school. Progression of democratic learning runs parallel to addressing ever-present relational issues of democratic character.

  • 37.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet, Utb vet fak, Inst f Didaktik.
    Giving voice to silenced professional concern in teaching2007In: Past, Present, Future: From Women's Studies to Post-Gender Research, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers of today face high demands for professionality and judgement in complicated issues such as fostering democratic citizens in a context where at the same time marketization and commodification of knowledge narrows the space for what education can be defined as. The prevailing transfer metaphor of knowledge where teachers constitute mere suppliers of pre-determined content and the learners become receivers of the same content may resound well with recent changes towards government by results, but it does not resound with many teachers’ experiences of what their profession, and professionality, involves. Factors such as how schools are organized, work reinforcement structures as well as narrow definitions of teaching work emphasize the practices of passing on subject matter to students. What thus is being neglected is the amount of, and nature of, work that involves setting the preconditions which allow or facilitate for such learning to occur. There is also a risk of teachers feeling pressed to disregard important pedagogical practices occurring alongside and beyond subject matter connected to school subjects such as those which aim at fostering democratic citizens.

    By conceptualizing teaching in terms of building educational relations rather than transferring pieces of knowledge this paper puts relational practices in the centre and emphasizes the teacher’s professional concern for her students. It questions the view of the professional as detached and neutral and argues that concern for the other plays an important role in professional teachers’ actions. Such dimensions of teacher professionality, due to commonsense definitions of work, have been marginalized if not made invisible as well as undertheorized. Gender regimes which separate spheres of work and home silences aspects of work associated with femininity but through listening to teacher’s stories I will try to give voice to silenced expressions of professionality which appear in the relational practices of teaching.

  • 38.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Lyhörda lärare: Professionellt relationsbyggande i förskola och skola2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet, Utv vet fak, Inst f Didaktik.
    Practical arguments – a way of studying teachers’ practice in relation to content2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet, Utb vet fak, Inst f didaktik.
    Professionality in a wide sense: In search of concepts open to complexity and ambiguity in teaching2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores some different theories concerning professionality related to the teaching profession. In European societies there are forces of professionalization as well as de-professionalization of the teaching profession in play, and there exists differing views of what teacher professionality should be described as. In some views lies the risk of instrumentalization of teaching, where teachers become mere suppliers of pre-determined content and the learners become receivers of that content. Views like these narrow the space for what education can be defined as, and in some teachers’ opinion, miss the whole idea of what their profession is about. The everyday situation for teachers in schools is often ambiguous and complex, raising high demands for professionality and judgement in complicated issues such as promoting the development of individual students into democratic citizens, which is the object of my doctoral thesis.

  • 41.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Professionally present: highlighting the temporal aspect of teachers' professional judgment2014In: Teacher Development, ISSN 1366-4530, E-ISSN 1747-5120, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 264-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novice teachers need to develop their professional judgment. Teaching isperformed in the face of imperfect, complex but above all continuously emergentsituations. These matters have not received adequate attention in theories relatingto professional judgment and professionality in teaching or in the contemporarydiscourse of education policy. The purpose of this conceptual article is thereforeto contribute to the understanding of teachers’ judgment.By discussing empirical examples that indicate how sensing and knowing guidejudgment, concepts are introduced that are intended to further the understanding of teachers’professional judgment; something that will hopefully benefit teacher education as well as practicing teachers.

  • 42.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet, Utv vet fak, Inst f Didaktik.
    Professionell närhet och distans: En dimension av lärares arbete ur ett genusperspektiv2008In: Läraren i blickpunkten: Olika perspektiv på lärares liv och arbete / [ed] Carola Aili, Ulf Blossing & Ulrika Tornberg, Stockholm: Lärarförbundets förlag , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Reclaiming teachers' professional judgment in an age of accountability2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet, Utb vet fak, Inst f Didaktik.
    Relational concern and teacher intentions: An empirical example2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a teacher’s intentions of forming and acting in relationships with students in order to fulfil different purposes of education, with an emphasis on those related to fostering democratic citizens. Education can be described as an intervention into the student’s life motivated by the idea that it will make life better in some way. Teaching is meant to allow for the student to progress rather than regress as a human being, which involves presuppositions about what this better life should be – about moral goodness. It is argued that the quality of human relationships has impact on the fulfillment of purposes of education.

    An analysis of two interviews with an intermediate-level teacher points to the central importance of different kinds of relationships in the work of the teacher: between the teacher and students, between students as well as between the students and the rest of the society. The examples provide accounts of a teacher’s concern for certain kinds of, and qualities in, relationships, and of how they motivate her to act intentionally in order to make such arise and improve. A structure is used to show to what purposes the actions are intended and how they connect.

  • 45.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Relational underpinnings and professionality: A case study of a teacher’s practices involving students with experiences of school failure2015In: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 589-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relational features of the educational environment, such as positive teacher-student relationships, are important for students’ academic success. This case study explores the relational practices of a teacher who negotiates educational relationships with students who have a history of school failure. “Gunilla”, a secondary school teacher working in the Swedish “Introduction Programme” (for students who have not been accepted in national upper secondary school programmes) and identified as a successful instructor for students who have failed at school, was selected for the study. The data consists of two semi-structured interviews eliciting the informant’s stories of practice and the researcher’s contextual observation. Results show how relational practices create an emotionally safe school climate. In the initial phase of the teacher-student relationship the main purpose of the activities is to establish trust and repair the students’ self-image so that they can view themselves as successful learners. This requires professional closeness and the teacher distancing herself from a stereotypical teaching role, in order to display humaneness and empathy. The findings contribute to understanding how relational features in the everyday school context help students to learn and how school psychologists can be part of this endeavour.

  • 46.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Teacher Educators’ Teaching of Professional Judgment – Grounds for Discussion2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this contribution is to make some grounds for discussion regarding teacher educators’ task of helping their students to enhance their professional judgment in times when calls for evidence-based practice in education tend to steer focus away from it. The first part contains some conceptual remarks regarding judgment and its relation to evidence. The second touches upon the conditions in which teachers in many countries try to practice their judgment are addressed. Thirdly, the role of teacher educators is discussed in light of a model that visualizes conflicts regarding trust and importance of issues such as social justice. In the end questions of what teacher educators committed to social justice can or should do regarding professional judgment given the circumstances concludes the text.

  • 47.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Institutionen för utbildningenvetenskap, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala Sweden.
    Teachers' Relational Practices and Professionality2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation attempts to deepen our understanding of teachers’ work and professionality, which involves not only their reasoning about what to teach and how to teach it, but also of what it is that makes education possible. This is accomplished by exploring a highly influential, if underestimated and under-researched, dimension of teacher practice and professionality: the relational dimension, involving the establishment and maintenance of educational relationships with and among students. In the imperatives and challenges of the 21st century the importance of highlighting the relational dimension seems to be a concern of increasing importance. Through interviews and observation that have generated the empirical material, the relational practices of eleven teachers are analyzed in accordance with a particular methodological scheme. Apart from providing a descriptive mapping of these practices, this study presents the practical arguments given by informants to substantiate their use. The numerous examples of relational practices and practical arguments that are herein provided serve to empirically confirm the pervasive relational character of a teacher’s work. What emerges is an understanding of an educational relationship, established and maintained by practices that seek genuine human contact with students, and that views relational attributes such as trust, social justice, benevolence, empathy and openness to the other as being of vital importance to the entirety of the educational process. In addition, the practices involving enacting educational communities among students, are shown to have significance for the educational process. What emerges as well is a conception of relational professionality as something that can be learned, meaning that teachers are made, not born. Moreover, “being professional” is here conceived, in pedagogical rather than sociological terms, as something that involves the quality of a teacher’s actions rather than the fact that s/he belongs to a particular profession. The findings of this study strongly suggest that relationships in schools often require conscious attention, rigorous work and delicate negotiations on the part of teachers in order to be (or become) educational. The process of education is sustained by an array of subtle relational conditions. The attempt of the teacher to deal with these conditions requires specific professional experience, understandings and practices.

  • 48.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Teachers’ situated professional judgment in an age of standards and measurement2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is first, to explore the role of situated judgment in emergent and recurrent situations in the classroom for teacher professionalism, and second, to contribute to the discussion of the applicability of management theories on education. Teachers’ professional judgments in the classroom are made in the face of imperfect, complex if not contradictory, but above all, continuously emergent situations, circumstances that make profound difference for the kinds of judgments that are, and can be, made. How can we further understand and discuss these as part of teacher professionalism, and how can we understand teachers’ possibilities for making professional judgments in relation the consequences of prevailing trends on policy levels in Europe today?

    Research on professions commonly use criteria for professions such as that they provide an important public service, involve a theoretically as well as practically grounded expertise and have a distinct ethical dimension which calls for expression in a code of practice (see e.g. Carr, 2000). However, some attempts to be viewed as a profession actually decrease the possibilities for acting professionally. For example, the attempt to standardize and raise status of practice in education through developing competency standards (building on the notion that complex judgments are possible to standardize), has been criticized by Carr and Skinner (2009) as a key problem that erodes or discourages more integrated perspectives on educational practice (see also Ball, 2009). Moreover, the increased relational complexity brought about by the intensification of teachers’ work may decrease the space possible for professional judgment, in several ways. This development is a reality in many Western countries of today, where the educational sector is reformed in order to mirror the private sector, as a consequence of the influence of actors such as the OECD and the World Bank (Ball, 2003). In combination with shrinking public finances this leads to an intensification of teachers’ work (e.g. Apple, 2007; Goodson & Norrie, 2005; Hargreaves, 2000). A market logic and a ‘language of learning’ (see Biesta, 2006) treats as insignificant certain complexities of teachers’ work. The ‘blame and shame’ tactics and high stakes testing produces risk management strategies where teachers may even ask for rules in order to avoid blame (Lindqvist & Nordänger, 2006). All these developments contribute to reducing the space for professional judgment. Ball (2009) even deems professionalism as an ethical-cultural practice as having no future or place in the present regime of performativity and managerialism.

    In this context, in order to contribute to the discussion on teachers’ professional judgment, I draw here on theories of complexity (Osberg & Biesta, 2010) and practical knowledge (Beckett, 1996; Beckett & Hager, 2002) in an analysis of examples of teachers’ judgments. More specifically, through a combination of theoretical elements from complexity, and the notion of hot action; action that is performed without time for reflection, I illuminate and draw attention to the significance of the present in teachers’ professional judgment. 

    Method

    A phenomenological analysis of two examples of teacher judgment illustrates the significance of the corporeal, present moment in teacher judgment. The examples were collected as part of a past qualitative study (Frelin, 2010) where 11 teachers’ experience of teaching was explored in-depth, from 22 one hour interviews. During these interviews the teachers were asked to elaborate on their practical arguments (Fenstermacher & Richardson, 1993). Some of the informants were particularly elaborate about their judgments while teaching. The accounts from two teachers, one pre-school teacher, and one secondary school Mathematics and Science teacher, both male, was re-analyzed using phenomenological methodology. The teachers’ stories about their experiences of teaching were interpreted with special attention to lived space, body, time and human relation (Van Manen, 1990). More specifically the role of the corporeal experience in the present moment, making judgments in relation to a student, was brought to the fore.

    Expected Outcomes

    The results show that the teachers draw on both their past knowledge and on their embodied presence in the present when making judgments regarding how to act in relation to a student. For example, a distinction emerged between knowing and sensing, where the first regards what is brought to the moment and the second what emerges in the moment, was shown to be of importance. The results empirically underline the situated and complex nature of teacher professionality. They also indicate what professionalism as an ethical-cultural practice (Ball, 2009) may look like. In educational policy today, education has increasingly been conceived as a preset exchange of knowledge for grades. In the discussion I bring up how one consequence of this economical view is that the present becomes bereaved of significance for professional judgment. However, teachers’ professional judgment cannot be reduced to gathering up information and making a calculation – it is about interaction between human subjects where knowing and sensing come together.

  • 49.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Alterator, Scott
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Professional border territory negotiations between teachers and social pedagogues – a case study2018In: NERA 2018 - 46th Congress: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, p. 424-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to a growing teacher shortage in most Nordic countries, and calls to “let teachers be teachers”, other professional groups with varying backgrounds and training are being introduced in schools. This measure is expected to let teachers focus primarily on core tasks, for example teaching and grading, and leave more peripheral tasks to members of other professional groups. In everyday practices, such changes in their professional work environment entails, to some extent, professional boundary negotiations. This paper examines such negotiations in a case study, in order to trace some emerging professional boundaries and potential boundary crossings between teachers and so called social pedagogues.

    Professions provide important services to the society based on discretionary work that requires university based training and licensing (e.g. Evetts, 2009). In Sweden, focus has been placed on formal grading as the most apparent task over which only teachers have jurisdiction, which is also in line with an increased focus on accountability in schools (Englund & Solbrekke, 2015). Professional action in education has been analysed using the concept of professional territory, which consists of the school staff's conceived task perception, the social transactionand the appropriated physical space where interaction takes place (Grannäs & Frelin, 2017).

    A case study was conducted in a newly built primary school (grades F-6). The staff teams consisted of three teachers and one social pedagogue responsible for around 90 students. The social pedagogues had occupational training although not a university degree. Three school visits and four interviews with two primary teachers and two social pedagogues were conducted. For this paper, interviews with a teacher and a social pedagogue working in the same team were analysed with attention to instances of negotiation and blurred boundaries, here conceptualized as professional border territories.

    Preliminary results: In the first year in operation of the school, the teachers and social pedagogues have had to negotiate continuously, as situations have emerged in the professional territory. This regards for example the matter of who should “check in” the students in the department in the morning. The time and place just before classes start can thus be viewed as one professional border territory. Another such territory is during seat work, when the social pedagogue tried to steer clear of helping students with their work and tend to matters of order. A third is during emergent conflicts, where the person who was present first, either the teacher or the social pedagogue, attended to the matter even if this was the social pedagogue’s task. When new professional groups enter schools their potential contribution to the educational environment, along with the risks that may ensue for educational relationships, need investigation.

    References:

    Englund, Tomas, & Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal. (2015). Om innebörder i lärarprofessionalism. Pedagogisk Forskning i Sverige, 20(3-4), 168-194.

    Evetts, Julia. (2009). New Professionalism and New Public Management: Changes, Continuities and Consequences. Comparative Sociology, 8(2), 247-266. doi: 10.1163/156913309x421655

    Grannäs, Jan, & Frelin, Anneli. (2017). Spaces of student support -comparing educational environments from two time periods. Improving schools, 20(2), 127-142

  • 50.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Utv vet fak, Inst f Didaktik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Do I make your life better?: Exploring Different Forms of Teachers’ Moral Responsibility2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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