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  • 1.
    Almaz Eriksen, Elisabet
    et al.
    Oslo University College.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Nordqvist, Ingrid
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Björklund, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    The ASSIST course plan2008Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring a conceptual framework for research on Induction and Mentoring: Combining Policy enactment, task perception, and agency2014In: AERA conference, digital database, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the research questions that are emerging from the current reforms with consequences for Induction and Mentoring in various countries. The implementation focus is on the interplay between the new triad formed as a consequence of a Teacher Registration Reform in Sweden: head teacher/mentor/mentee as situated in a larger context of policy development and development in/of practice. The objective of this paper is twofold; (a) to elaborate and discuss a conceptual framework based on an interplay between the theoretical contributions of policy enactment (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012), task perception (Kelchtermans, 2009) and agency (Priestley and Biesta); (b) to discuss its possibilities for research within the field of induction and mentoring, and (c) provide an example of how it could be implemented in a study on induction and mentoring.

  • 3.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring a conceptual framework to understand how principals balance the partly contradictory tasks of evaluating and supporting newly qualified teachers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries it is argued that the “quality of teachers” is the most important school-related factor in pupils’ learning (Hattie, 2009; 2012). Teacher quality has become a key argument for teachers’ professional development. When it comes to newly qualified teachers (NQTs), in many countries the call for “teacher quality” has either led to reforms that support NQTs or reforms requiring an evaluation of their competence. In some countries these approaches are combined, with induction systems and mentoring that support NQTs and an evaluation of their skills to ensure quality. However, some research suggests that if the same person performs both roles it is more difficult to create and maintain a relationship based on confidence, openness and mutual trust that promotes risk-free learning (Author 1, 201*, Jones 2009). In some countries or states mentors perform both these roles (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008), whereas in others these two roles are separated so that mentors support and principals evaluate.

    The latter kind of system was introduced in Sweden in 2011, with mentors supporting NQTs and principals performing the evaluation (Government Bill, 2010/11). However, previous research shows that when the Swedish principals performed the assessment they also supported the NQTs (Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, 201*) in that they partly applied an instructional leadership (cf. REF) and gave post-observation feedback. However, being both an evaluator and supervisor can be challenging. For instance, Hinchey (2010) claims that teachers only improve their practice in relatively non-threatening contexts and that the assessment may challenge this (cf. Author 1, 201*; Range, Young & Hvidstone, 2013).

    A review of the research literature reveals that there is an urgent need for theoretical development in order to understand how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators of NQTs and pedagogical leaders. In responding to this call, the purpose of the paper is: (a) to elaborate and discuss a conceptual framework that captures how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators and pedagogical leaders in the context of evaluating NQTs and (b) to exemplify how data can be related to the framework.

    Theoretical framework

    The emphasis on and combination of supportive and evaluative dimensions are contained in the framework of a four-way table that includes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and  “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

    The evaluation dimension is defined as the extent to which evaluations are scheduled, planned, directed by guiding formulae, how the different issues of the national standards are focused, time spent on the evaluation, the structure and focus of the follow-up discussions etc.   

    The instructional dimension is defined as how and how much guidance is given and how the NQTs professional development are facilitated. Here the focus is on guidance and feedback that contribute to developing the instructional skills or pedagogical thinking of the NQT. Positive feedback relates to the content included in the table. Positive feedback in a general sense, without connection to instruction, thinking or a situation, is not included. For instance, positive feedback heard in the corridor, such as: ‘colleagues say you perform well’, is not included in this dimension. Guidance can be absent or present, more or less extensive, or constructive and detailed.

    Methods/methodology

    The framework is developed by reviewing the research literature in the areas of teacher induction (cf. (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez, & Tomlinson, 2009), evaluation of NQTs (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008) and principals’ instructional leadership (cf. Neumerski, 2013; LaPointe Terosky, 2016). Most of the literature relating to principals’ instructional leadership focuses on teachers in general and not specifically NQTs (cf. Tuytens & Devos, 2017), but is nevertheless valuable.

    Drawing on and combining supportive and evaluative dimensions result in a four-way table framework with the following axes:  “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

    This framework is then used in explorative analyses of data from a longitudinal research project in which five principals conducting a formal evaluation of NQTs are followed in the year of the evaluation. These five principals are regarded as cases. The NQTs being evaluated teach Years 4-6.

    Each principal is interviewed at least twice during the year (in total between 73-158 minutes), which forms the main data for the analysis. The interviews and analysis explore principals’ self-reported information regarding their strategies to enact and balance their role as evaluators and the support they provide. Using the software NVivo, codes are created based on content analysis (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014).

    Self-reported data needs to be looked at critically (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003). To validate this kind of data: (i) observations and recordings of post-observation conversations (tot. 72 minutes) are performed with two of the principals (A and C) and their NQTs, (ii) joint interviews are conducted with three principals (A, C and E) and their NQTs (in total 130 minutes) and (iii) observations of three of the principals’ observations (B, C, D) are carried out. A coherent design of these validating strategies is not possible due to ethical and practical reasons. Three of the NQTs did not feel comfortable with the participation of an external researcher during the observations and/or post-observation conversations. Some of the planned observations were cancelled due to illness, the unavailability of the informant or were performed ad hoc and informally and were not observed or recorded.

    Expected outcomes/results

    Positioning the principals in the framework of the four-way table with the axes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership” enables their actions to be positioned differently. Four out of the five teachers are positioned more towards “strong instructional leadership” and “formal and structured evaluation”, albeit with different emphases on the two dimensions. The fifth principal (E) is positioned more towards “informal evaluation” and “weak instructional leadership”. This principal describes his/her leadership as ‘leadership on the run’.

    The overall conclusion is that the theoretical framework enables principals to be positioned according to how their evaluative and supportive roles vary. Also, the quality of the data, for instance with regard to quantity, focus on relevant issues and different kinds of data (e.g. self-reported narratives, narratives from other actors such as NQTs, and first-hand information from the researchers’ direct observations) gives a much more informed analysis of the positioning in the framework. However, in this small-scale study, the different kinds of data do not contradict each other, but strengthen the conclusions and the positioning.

    Thus, the framework facilitates an understanding of how principals facilitate NQTs professional development in a context in which evaluative and supportive dimensions are applied. The framework could also be used to analyse how mentors balance the supportive and evaluative dimensions.

    References

    Author 1 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Article published in international peer-reviewed journal.

    Author 1, Author 2 & Author 3 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Paper presented at an International Annual Conference.

    Government bill 2010/11:20 Legitimation för lärare och förskollärare [Registration for Teachers and Pre-School Teachers]. The Swedish Government.

     Hattie, J. 2009. Visible learning: a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: New York: Routledge.

    Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: maximizing impact on learning. London: Routledge.

    Hinchey, P.H. (2010). Getting teacher assessment right: What policymakers can learn from research. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.

    Hobson, A. J., Ashby, P., Malderez, A., & Tomlinson, P. D. (2009). Mentoring beginning teachers: what we know and what we don't. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 207-216.

    Jones, M. (2009). Supporting the supporters of novice teachers: An analysis of mentors’ needs from twelve European countries presented from an English perspective. Research in Comparative and International Education 4, no. 1: 4–21.

    LaPointe Terosky, A. (2016): Enacting instructional leadership: perspectives and actions of public K-12 principals, School Leadership & Management,

    Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

    Neumerski, C. M. (2013). Rethinking Instructional Leadership: A Review of What Do We Know About Principal, Teacher, and Coach Instructional Leadership, and Where Should We Go from Here? Educational Administration Quarterly 49 (2): 310–347.

    Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. 

    Range, B. G., Young, S. & Hvidston, D. (2013) Teacher perceptions about observation conferences: what do teachers think about their formative supervision in one US school district?, School Leadership & Management, 33:1, 61-77.

    Tuytens, M. & Devos, G. (2017) The role of feedback from the school

    leader during teacher evaluation for teacher and school improvement, Teachers and Teaching, 23:1, 6-24,

    Yusko, B., & Feiman Nemser. S. (2008). Embracing contraries: Combining assistance and assessment in new teacher induction. Teacher College Record 110, no. 5: 923–53.

  • 4.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Rektorer och lämplighetsprövningen av nyutbildade lärare: En rapport från forskningsprojektet Rektors arbete och lämplighetsprövning av nya lärare: En studie av rektorers förändrade arbetsvillkor efter införandet av lärarlegitimation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 2 mars 2011 beslutade riksdagen att införa en legitimation för lärare och förskollärare samt att nyexaminerade lärare och förskollärare skulle genomgå en introduktionsperiod. Under denna introduktionsperiod skulle de få stöd av en mentor samtidigt som rektor eller förskolechef skulle bedöma deras lämplighet för yrket.

    För rektorerna innebär lämplighetsprövningen av nyexaminerade lärare nya arbetsuppgifter och ett formaliserat uppdrag att bedöma lärares skicklighet. Detta i samband med att rektorers arbetssituation har befunnits vara intensiv med en uppsplittrad vardag där många snabba beslut måste tas väcker frågor kring hur arbetets förutsättningar påverkar lämplighetsprövningen, och hur lämplighetsprövningen påverkar arbetsförhållanden och yrkesroller.

    I juni månad 2014 inbjöds 646 rektorer att besvara en enkät rörande lämplighetsprövningen. 248 rektorer svarade vilket ger en svarsfrekvens på 39 % (n=248). 159 kvinnor (64 %) och 89 män (36 %) besvarade enkäten. Nästan 60 % av rektorerna hade varit rektor på sin nuvarande enhet i tre år eller mindre. 77 % av rektorerna var verksamma vid kommunala skolor medan 23 % var verksamma vid fristående skolor.

    Resultaten visar att rektorernas upplevelse av lämplighetsprövningen är att den i huvudsak, om än i varierade grad, upplevts meningsfull och att rektorerna känt sig tillfreds med de lämplighetsprövningar de genomfört. Det förekommer mer spriddaåsikter om i vilken mån lämplighetsprövningen varit väl investerad tid och kraft. Lämplighetsprövningen har konkurrerat med många andra arbetsuppgifter men det finns ändå en tendens att rektorerna som grupp anser att den investerade tiden och kraften varit värt utfallet.

    Det råder oenighet kring i vilken mån lämplighetsprövningen bidragit till mer positiva relationer mellan rektor och den nya läraren, men att det råder relativt stor enighet om att lämplighetsprövningen inte nämnvärt försämrat relationerna. En sammantagen tolkning av detta är att något mer positiva relationer med de nya lärarna etablerats och att båda parter lärt känna varandra såväl professionellt som privat. Endast 12 % av rektorerna anger att de har fått någon utbildning i att genomföra lämplighetsprövningen. Rektorerna har haft ett begränsat stöd av huvudman eller andra rektorer vilket skapat ett frirum att genomföra lämplighetsprövningen på sitt eget sätt. Samtalen med mentorn har varit viktiga för rektorns bedömning. Vidare framträder lärarkollegiets informella bedömning dels som en viktig komponent i rektors formella bedömning, dels som ett viktig komplement till i rektors formella bedömning. Av de 137 lämplighetsprövningar som genomförts rådde viss tveksamhet i 10 fall och i två fall uppgav rektorerna att det råddestor tveksamhet. Samtliga 137 lärare bedömdes dock efter introduktionsperiodens slutsom lämpliga.

    Rektorers tilltro till politiker har påverkats negativt av alla turer kring lärarlegitimationen och att lämplighetsprövningen slutligen avvecklades. 73 % av rektorerna anser att deras förtroende för politiker minskat, medan 6 % anser att förtroendet ökat.

  • 5.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Resources and Support for Principals’ Assessment of Newly Qualified Teachers During a Teacher Registration Reform2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    In July 2011 a teacher registration reform (TRR) and a probation year for newly qualified teachers (NQTs) came into effect in Sweden (Government Bill, 2010/11).

    It required newly qualified teachers and pre-school teachers to do a “probationary year” under the guidance of a mentor. Between July 1 2011 and July 1 2014 principals or pre-school managers were responsible for assessing whether the NQT were to be registered or not. The principals were expected to perform this assessment by following the national standards (competence profiles) developed by the Swedish National Agency for Education, the issuing authority. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss (1) sources of support for assessment and (2) to what extent these supported the principals in the assessment of the NQTs. Data is drawn from a questionnaire answered by 248 principals, completed in 2014 within the research project “Head teachers working conditions and the evaluation of newly qualified teachers (the RAOL-project)”

    The TRR is another example of travelling policies in a globalized world, in this case with origin in Scotland and Canada. Some contextual policy learning adjustments (Lingard, 2010; Waldow, 2009) were made regarding the standards, but almost no adjustments regarding the structure and focus of the reform. As a consequence, parts of the reforms have been adjusted or withdrawn at several occasions. One major policy retreat was made in June 2013 when the Minister of Education, the Presidents of two teacher unions, representatives of The Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions and The Swedish Association of Independent Schools made a joint statement to withdraw the assessment of NQTs. Hence, the implementation of the Swedish TRR and the assessment of NQTs can be viewed as an example of policy borrowing and the challenges encountered when reforms are implemented prior to a completed policy learning processes. From July2014 the assessment ceased to be part of principals’ task.

    Thus, this paper offers unique data from a specific time period with particular tasks and working conditions for principals. Swedish research on how principals assess and evaluate teachers' skills is largely absent, but similar international research indicates the need to explore how such assessments are performed. For instance, Kimball & Milanowski (2009) found that head teachers vary their evaluations over time and in relation to subjective values, and that their evaluations seem to be based on intuition and instinct rather than carefully formulated and objective criteria.

    Recent studies show that the working conditions for principals are intense with fragmented working days during which many quick decisions have to be made (Day, 2000; Nihlfors & Johansson, 2013).  Research on school leaders' working conditions (e.g. Swedish Work Environment Authority, 2011; Ludvigsson, 2009; Schools Inspectorate, 2010) raise questions on how working conditions affect the assessment of NQTs, and how the assessment affects working conditions and the principal’s role and self-image (Federici, 2013). Principals operate in the intersection of different interests, expectations, tasks and roles (Nihlfors & Johansson, 2013; Törnsén & Ärlestig, 2014), which affect the psychosocial work environment. Interestingly, changes in the professional role were being handled differently by the principals depending on their career stage (The Swedish Research Council, 2011).

    Even though the main data reported here is Swedish, in times of policy travelling the results are of importance in a wider European perspective to help understand principals’ working condition and roles.

    Methods (max 400 ord)

    In June 2014, 644 principals were invited to answer a questionnaire and 249 responded, yielding a response rate of 38,5%. This may be considered relatively low, however, at this time it was generally known that the assessment would be phased out which probably reduced responsiveness. It should be noted that a similar questionnaire of principals conducted in December 2013 in another Swedish research project had a response rate of 31% (n = 106), wherein our response rate at a later stage can be considered relatively good.

    Three clusters of principals representing different municipals located in different regions in Sweden were invited, selected to ensure a diverse sample. The web questionnaire was sent to all primary, secondary and upper-secondary schools in three regions: a metropolitan area (1 municipality), major regional centre (8 municipalities) and rural locations (15 municipalities).

    The survey focused the following areas: school context, working conditions, assessment of the NQTs, support available for the principal, cooperation, the principals’ strategies in observation and assessment, issues regarding the reform and reform implementation. A typical type of response alternatives were 5-point likert scale. Some other appropriate scaling was also used as well as open questions.  

    The analysis of the quantitative data has been performed with the SPSS-software, in a first step through crosstab analysis. The questions analysed in this paper regard sources of support for assessment and principals’ use of these sources.

     

    Findings

    The analysis focused firstly on internal resources for assessment such as degrees from the national school leadership programme, experience of evaluating work performance from other professions etc.

    Secondly, outside support included interpersonal resources such as (a)school owner/administrative level, (b)fellow principals, (c)the NQTs appointed mentors, (d)teacher staff; and material resources such as (e)national/local competence profiles.

    The analysis of support indicated, for instance, that 69% of the principals reported low or no support from owner/administrative level in the assessment of the NQTs, that is, the management of the public or private school. 71% of the principals did not cooperate with other principals regarding the design of the assessment, while 7% say that they did, to a high or very high degree.

    A slightly higher proportion of support (10%) from fellow principals was reported regarding the actual assessment practice, a higher proportion of support (36%) from school staff and the highest (69%) from experienced mentors.

    12% of the principals report some form of training in assessment, which can be related to the fact that 40% of principals report that they, to a very high degree, report sufficient knowledge of conducting lesson observations, which is mandated in the assessment.

    No significant differences appear when data is related to principals’ gender or type of school (private or public). In sum, principals receive most support from their employees, which makes them which makes their assessment practice largely free from external control, for good or bad. The issue will be analyzed further.

    In terms of TRR, the centrally distributed competency profiles seem to be of relatively low use for assessment support in comparison to local collaboration with employees. This is an example of how policy becomes enacted rather than implemented, (cf. Ball et al, 2012) depending on principals’ local work conditions and organization.

    References (max 400 ord)

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How Schools Do Policy: Policy Enactments in Secondary Schools London & New York: Routledge.

    Day, C. (2000). Leading schools in times of change. Buckingham: Open Univ. Press.

    Federici, R. A. (2013). Principals’ self-efficacy: relations with job autonomy,

    job satisfaction, and contextual constraints. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28:73–86

    Government bill 2010/11:20 Legitimation för lärare och förskollärare [Registration for Teachers and Pre-School Teachers]. The Swedish Government.

    Kimball, S.E. & Milanowski, A. (2009). Examining Teacher Evaluation Validity and Leadership Decision Making Within a Standards-Based Evaluation System. Educational Administration Quarterly. Vol. 45. No. 1. February 2009. 34–70.

    Lingard, B. (2010). Policy Borrowing, Policy Learning: Testing Times in Australian Schooling, Critical Studies in Education, 51(2), 129-147

    Nihlfors, E. & Johansson, O. (2013). Rektor - en stark länk i styrningen av skolan. [The Principal – a strong link in the Governance of School]. Stockholm: SNS förlag.

    Swedish School Inspectorate (2010). Rektors ledarskap. En granskning av hur rektorer leder skolans arbete mot ökad måluppfyllelse. [The Principals Leadership. Inspection of how priciplas leads the schools towards increased goal-fullfilment]. Skolinspektionen: Stockholm.

    SOU. 2008. Legitimation och skärpta behörighetsregler [Swedish Government Official

    Report 2008:52. Registration and stricter qualifying rules]. Stockholm: Ministry of

    Education and Research.

    Swedish Work Environment Authority (2011). Rektorers arbetsmiljö. En tillsynsinsats genomförd av Arbetsmiljöverket (AV), distriktet i Göteborg under 2009 och 2010. [Principals working condition. An inspection by the Swedish Work Environment Authority, Gothenburg region 2009-2010] ISG 2011/100102. Göteborg: Arbetsmiljöverket.

    Swedish Research Council (2011). Rektor – En forskningsöversikt 2000-2010. [Principals – a Research overview 2000-2010]. Vetenskapsrådets rapportserie. 2011:4. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

    Törnsén, M. & Ärlestig, H. (red.) (2014). Ledarskap i centrum: om rektor och förskolechef. [Leadership in the center: about principals and pre-school managers]. Malmö: Gleerup.

    Waldow, F. (2009). Undeclared imports: silent borrowing in educational policy-making and research in Sweden, Comparative Education Vol. 45, No. 4, November 2009, 477–494.

  • 6.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Dilemmatic Spaces in Educational Contexts: Towards a conceptual framework for dilemmas in teachers work2013In: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 4-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the concept of introducing and analytically using the concept of dilemmatic space in an educational context offers a potential to elucidate and deepen the understanding of the complexity of teachers’ everyday practise in work. Traditional ways of looking upon dilemmas is that they are related to specific situations where people react to conflicting values, obligations or commitments, ending up in situations where there often is no right way to act. However, the idea of a dilemmatic space, introduced by Honig (1996), offers a more complex understanding of dilemmas and their positioning and relations. Instead of being considered as specific events or situations, dilemmas are regarded as ever-present in peoples’ living space, as in a dilemmatic space. As seen as a relational category wherein one object is related to another(s), the spatial dimensions of dilemmatic space highlight the dynamics of dilemmas and dilemmatic spaces. These dynamics are important to recognize, for instance in relations to changeable boundaries of the space or issues dealt with that conjure up the dilemmas both on an individual and social level. These changing conditions of values, decision, responsibility and authority change the rules for relations, negotiations, and positioning, and thus the boundaries for the dilemmatic space and the dilemmas. In this article, the theoretical base for the idea of dilemmatic space is elaborated and connected to conditions for teachers’ work. Some conclusions are that new concepts force us to challenge pre-conceptions and involve us in new kinds of sense making processes. As such, the idea of dilemmatic space offers a broad theoretical framework to conceptualise dilemmas as well as the complexity of the educational contexts.

  • 7.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Dilemmatic Spaces in Teachers Work: Towards a Conceptual Framework for Dilemmas in Teachers Work2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Mentors and mentoring in a dilemmatic space: Analysis of changed preconditions for mentoring due to a Teacher Registration Reforms2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this conceptual article, we argue that there is a need for a more elaborated theoretical perspective when discussing dilemmas in teachers’ work. Thus, we introduce the conceptual frame of dilemmatic space in educational settings and argue that introducing and analytically using the conceptual frame in an educational context offers a potential to elucidate and deepen the understanding of the complexity of teachers’ everyday work practices. Traditional ways of looking at dilemmas infer that they are related to specific situations in which people react to conflicting values, obligations or commitments and where there is often no right way to act. However, the idea of a dilemmatic space offers a more complex understanding of dilemmas and their positioning and relations. Instead of being regarded as specific events or situations, dilemmas are considered as ever-present in people’s living space, as in a dilemmatic space. As space is seen as a relational category wherein one object is related to another or others, the spatial dimensions of dilemmatic space highlight the dynamics of dilemmas and dilemmatic spaces. These dynamics are important to recognise, for instance, in relation to the changeable boundaries of the space or issues that conjure up the dilemmas at an individual and social level. These changing conditions of values, decisions, responsibilities and authority change the rules for relations, negotiations and positioning, and thereby the boundaries of the dilemmatic space and the dilemmas themselves. In this article, the theoretical base for the idea of dilemmatic space is elaborated on and connected to conditions for teachers’ work. Some conclusions are that new concepts force us to challenge pre-conceptions and involve us in new kinds of sense-making processes. As such, the conceptual frame of dilemmatic space offers a broad theoretical framework with which to conceptualise dilemmas and the complexity of educational contexts.

  • 9.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Mentors, Mentoring and Dilemmatic Spaces: A contribution to theoretical renewal for understanding mentoring 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to theoretical renewal in mentoring research by using the conceptual framework of dilemmatic space to analyze and discuss how Swedish mentors’ roles, positions and relations change as a result of the Swedish government’s recent implementation of a teacher registration reform and a probation year for newly qualified teachers. The paper builds on an existing content analysis of the policy document concerning the teacher registration reform. The results of this study’s relational analysis show that mentoring emerges as tensions between central and local governments as policies construct boundaries that lead to political acts that become part of everyday practices through roles, negotiations and positioning, which ultimately have an effect on mentors and mentorship.

  • 10.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    New Regimes of Assessment, Grading and Accountability: Analysing Reform-based Dilemmas in Educational Settings2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a meta-analysis of earlier research relating to how the last decade’s reforms in Sweden concerning national tests, earlier grading and an increased focus on criterion-referenced grading changes the prerequisites for teachers’ work and their professional development, identity and relations, and, more specifically, how such reforms lead to dilemmas that affect their everyday work. Ironically, rather than solving a certain kind of problem or dilemma, inconsiderate political proposals and “easy-fix” whims at policy level that are not always applicable to teachers’ work sometimes cause new dilemmas (cf. Biesta, 2007; Convery, 2009; Kubler LaBoskey, 2006; Norwich, 2010). The difference between a problem and a dilemma is that the former can be solved to satisfaction, whereas the latter cannot be satisfactorily solved but leaves some kind of reminder (Denicolo, 1996; Berlak & Berlak, 1981).

    The theoretical framework draws on the concept of dilemmatic space and aims to offer a more complex understanding of dilemmas and their positioning and relations (cf. Honig, 1996). Approaching educational settings through the lens of dilemmatic space implies always considering teachers’ work in relation to the dynamics of individual, social, political and contextual factors. Seen as a wider system, the concept of dilemmatic space analytically opens additional dimensions, such as possibilities to connect the dilemmas of teachers’ everyday work with the influences, constraints and considerations of the local community and with reforms, intentions or statements at different policy levels.

    We argue that dilemmas should not be regarded as specific events or situations, but as being ever present in people’s living “spaces”. That is, people do not just acknowledge dilemmas as specific situations to react to, but always “react” in relation to “dilemmatic spaces.” As a consequence, dilemmas are not “out there” per se, but are social constructions resulting from political decisions that underlie contextual conditions. The concept of dilemmatic space makes it possible to approach what individuals construe as dilemmatic. Such an analytical move also makes it possible to visualise how dilemmas emerge in a space between individuals and a specific context (Fransson & Grannäs, submitted). For teachers, it means that in their work they sometimes find themselves in dilemmatic situations that are characterised by micro-political manoeuvres and where their judgment forms the basis for relational work expressed e.g. through negotiations and the positioning of others (cf. Frelin, 2010).

    In this paper we analyse how the last decade’s reforms of national tests and earlier grading and an increased focus on criterion-referenced grading in a goal-oriented approach have changed the prerequisites for teachers’ work, professional development, identity and relations.

    The findings showed that educational reforms change boundaries and positions, e.g. between teachers, pupils, head teachers and parents. Criterion-referenced grading increases the power of pupils to scrutinise the grading, which then causes dilemmas for teachers as to how to find an appropriate balance between learning activities and administrative issues related to assessment and grading (Vetenskapsrådet, 2010). Furthermore, the emergence of “extremely credit-focused pupils” leads to conflicts between teachers, pupils and head teachers over non-graded school tasks (Fransson & Grannäs, forthcoming).

    National tests reveal some imbalance between the grading that teachers do and national test scores (Skolverket, 2009). This leads to teachers’ professionalism being questioned and the establishment of groups of national experts to re-examine teachers’ grading. Research indicates that politicians change the assessment system to demonstrate efficiency (Lundahl, 2006). Micro political negotiations also lead to aspects other than achievement influencing the grading process (Klapp Lekholm & Cliffordson, 2008) and external pressure like this can result in grade inflation (Wikström, 2006) – all of which results in a call for teachers’ professional development.

    Teachers and head teachers are thus expected to manoeuvre in dilemmatic space and deal with dilemmas like learning activities, assessment, grading, public reputation and professional autonomy.

  • 11.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Gershon, Walter S
    Kent State University, Ohio, USA.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Marknadsstyrning skapar oönskade elever2014In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När skolor drivs som företag, börjar de också göra riskanalyser enligt samma ekonomiska principer. Resultatet blir att vissa elever ses som ekonomiska risker och därmed blir oönskade eller i värsta fall bortvalda.

  • 12.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Changing school environments through the eyes of the students2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on socio-material and spatial theories to open up new possibilities for understanding how school practices are in play: the interior of the school buildings, the outside playground and different artefacts being part of the school environment. The purpose of this case study is to enhance our understanding of different students’ views of their educational environment, inside and outside of the classroom. The focus lies on their experiences of safe and unsafe places, along with spaces that supports and impede their learning. More specifically, we have used a spatial perspective for analyzing students’ photo stories in a newly opened school.

  • 13.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Changing school environments through the eyes of the students2018In: AERA abstract repository, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Purpose This paper draws on socio-material and spatial theories to open up new possibilities for understanding how school practices are in play: the interior of the school buildings, the outside playground and different artefacts being part of the school environment. More specifically, we have used a spatial perspective for analyzing students’ photo stories describing spaces that supports and impede their learning as well as safe and unsafe spaces in a newly opened school.

    2. Theoretical framework In discussions about educational practices, cognitive, social and cultural concepts tend to dominate. These concepts are often based on notions about humans using various kinds of tools and that social interaction is played out in a context. Notions like this can easily obscure the significance of material objects (Fenwick, Edwards, & Sawchuk, 2011). A sociomaterial perspective entails viewing interactions in school as more than social processes, but materializing processes in and with material objects. This involves envisioning, enacting and experiencing education in relation to its material, social and discursive aspects (Mulcahy, Cleveland, & Aberton, 2015). Stables (2015) argues that there is a need to regard the school environment as “part of the life story of its users”. School environments are appropriated by their users who respond to their environment in different ways.

    3. Methods The case school, Maple Grove, is a newly opened secondary school. The fieldwork was conducted over the course of one school year (Yin, 2009). The main data used in this paper consists of students’ photo stories. According to Banks (2007), visual research methods are appropriate for the study of youth and their contexts.

    4. Data sources Digital stories (using the software Sway) was collected by means of classroom assignments. Combinations of images (photographs, screenshots etc.) and texts supported the socio-material analysis.

    5. Results Preliminary results show variations in both the areas that students view as safe and unsafe, and the reasons for their choice of area. This means that one area may be depicted as safe by one student, but unsafe by another. They also pointed to various social and physical features that affected their learning environment. Students also point out vital places in school buildings that neither architects nor school staff could foresee in the original design.

    6. Conclusion A conclusion that can be drawn is that the school administration and staff need to be sensitive to the views of the students in the transition from design to dynamic practice.

  • 14.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Compensatory conditions in the corridor: comparing staff work in (secondary) schools designed in two different time periods2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we set out to explore how the physical, social and conceived conditions in schools can facilitate or disrupt support work aimed at improving student learning and preventing social exclusion (cf. Frelin & Grannäs, 2013). This is accomplished by comparing student support practices in the common areas of two newly renovated secondary schools built in two different time periods. The focus is on teachers’ and other school staff’s enactment of curriculum and policy reforms in their endeavours to improve students’ learning conditions and well-being (cf. Ball, Maguire, & Braun, 2012; Mulcahy, 2016). This enactment takes place in a designed school environment, where teachers and support staff appropriate spaces for educational purposes in different ways (cf. Stables, 2015). The interview and observational data come from two qualitative case studies, one complete (2012-14) and one ongoing (2015-16), using a spatial analysis perspective. Physical, social and conceived aspects of space are considered (Frelin & Grannäs, 2014, 2015). The case schools, located in two municipalities, were originally built in the 1910s (Lönnhaga) and the 1960s (Tallvik). Both schools serve mixed to low SES communities and have organized student support functions in the schools’ corridors, cafeterias, recreation areas and other common spaces. These functions are for example school host, student coach and student welfare officer. The organization, function and physical layout of the schools differ and represent the pedagogical and architectural ideas of the periods in which they were built. Preliminary results show variations in the physical conditions for support work in terms of number of storeys, transparency (e.g. stone or glass walls) and layout (enclosed or open spaces), how the staff respond to these conditions (e.g. stationary in offices or mobile in corridors) and the kind of contact staff have with the management (e.g. whether or not they are used as substitute teachers). In contrast, the task perception among the support staff as a whole is similar in both schools. It is interesting to see how the staff respond creatively to the physical school environments, designed in different time periods and rebuilt in response to policy reform, in order to carry out their tasks (cf. Blackmore et al, 2011; Mulcahy, 2016; Stables, 2015).

  • 15.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Direct and indirect educational relationships: Developing a typology for the contribution of different categories of school staff in relation to students’ educational experiences2015In: Improving Schools, ISSN 1365-4802, E-ISSN 1475-7583, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 56-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents results from a research project exploring the relational interplay between school staff and students, its functions and complexity in the secondary school context. School relationships (between students and different kinds of staff) are more or less indirectly related to educational content: subject matter as well as norms and values. In the teacher–student relationship, the teaching and learning of subject matter largely defines the relationship, whereas for school support staff, the relationship to such content is fairly distant. However, they all have in common that these assigned functions are created for the purpose of enabling the education of our youth. In this article, a case study from a secondary school is used to develop a typology for understanding the relevance that content may have in these different types of relationships. We also explore the sometimes unpredictable ways in which content can emerge as relevant. A year-long case study was conducted during the 2012–2013 school year at a secondary school that had recently been renovated and in which work had been done to improve the educational environment. Multiple data sources were used, including document analysis, mapping, contextual observations and interviews. Official statistics, newspaper articles and school quality reports were used to contextualize the case. In this article, interviews with different categories of school staff and students formed the main source of data. The different assigned functions of the staff were categorized as: educators, education professionals (e.g. counsellors) and education support professionals (e.g. caretakers). Although the latter were often indirectly connected to content, they could also have relevance through the relationships that they developed with students. Here, there is a point in separating the staff´s assigned function as officially described and their relation to students as played out in practice. Two examples illustrate how members of staff diverge somewhat from their assigned functions in informal places and spaces to facilitate the educational experience of the students. It is argued that in a school for all students, this flexibility in school relationships can improve students’ relations to content and school success.

  • 16.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Direct and Indirect Educational Relationships: the Varying Significance of Content in School Relationships2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring the Support Function ”School Host” as Equalizer of Educational Opportunity in the School Environment2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a spatial perspective is used to explore the support work of school hosts in the common areas of the school environment aimed at equalizing educational opportunities and preventing social exclusion. Recent investments in student support staff are aimed at improving student care and boosting students’ academic performances. Interviews from two case schools, complemented by observations and documents, were compared in order to determine how the hosts relate to physical, conceived and social spaces in schools. Results show ways in which spatial aspects such as the physical layout of the school enable or limit their work. Their actions are the outcome of the relations between the school environment and their task perceptions. Moreover, they draw upon established relationships.

  • 18.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Highlighting indirect functions: implications of using an ecological understanding for exploring safe educational environments2015In: Abstract book, 2015, p. 10-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an ecological whole-school perspective different parts of the educational environment are viewed as in constant relation to others. This means that everyone involved condition, and are conditioned by, each other’s actions in multiple continuous processes. If one function fails the consequences affects others who share their environment. The purpose of this presentation is to use an ecological approach to understand ways in which staff who is only indirectly involved in education can contribute to the educational environment. In discussions of educational environments the teachers, students and content often take center stage. Hansen’s examination of Dewey’s educative environment focuses on the classroom, however, education is underpinned by indirect functions such as care takers, cleaners and canteen staff that facilitate students’ educational experiences by attending to students’ need of nutrition and a clean and safe school environment. Dewey argued that the environment consists of relevant features for the given situation, discriminating it from the surroundings that are irrelevant. Thus, the indirect functions cannot be viewed as surroundings, but constitute part of the educational environment albeit often overlooked or viewed as peripheral. As illustrated by a case study in a Swedish secondary school these staff members, by their presence alone as adults in the corridors and other places in the school, contributed to a safe environment. Moreover, at times they collaborated with other professions, as well as went beyond their intended functions, for the best of the students. For example, cleaners who witnessed bullying reported it to the teachers. The care takers took some students under their wings and asked them to help mend broken things around the school, thus providing them with meaningful relationships that strengthened the students’ bond with the school. However, the municipal management cut back on costs for care takers, despite protests from the principal, and the care takers were replaced by a weekly service visit operated centrally. This can be framed as an atomistic logic of schooling, disregarding the actual function of support staff in the educational environment. We argue that an ecological perspective can provide fruitful insights that can be used for promoting safe educational environments.

  • 19.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Navigating middle ground: a spatial perspective on the borderlands of teacher-student relationships in secondary school2014In: Interpersonal Relationships in Education: From Theory to Practice / [ed] David Zandvliet, Perry den Brok, Tim Mainhard and Jan van Tartwijk, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2014, p. 57-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Navigating Middle Ground: A Spatial Perspective on the Borderlands of Teacher-Student Relationships in Secondary School2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive teacher-student relationships are important for student learning. One factor that promotes such relationship is closeness. Yet, the teacher-student relationship is a professional one and there are limits to how close teachers and students can get without crossing this professional boundary. The purpose of this paper is to use spatial theories in order to explore how teachers and students in secondary education view and navigate border territories of positive and professional teacher-student relationships. Data is drawn from a combined case study where teachers and students were interviewed. Spatial theory aids the analysis, where we ask: Where, when and how are positive teacher-student relationships negotiated in schools, how do teachers and students reason regarding the borderlands of teacher-student relationships, and how do they navigate them? Preliminary results include instances when teachers intentionally work at attaining closeness, and when they back off to distance themselves in order to keep a professional distance. Students, although they appreciate closeness, are very sensitive to teachers trying to overstep the boundary. Both teachers and students point to informal situations and places in schools as significant for building positive relationships. The scientific significance includes the novel use of spatial theory that is fruitful for shedding new light on interpersonal processes in schools, and the results are of value for teachers as well as for future research on understanding and improving professional teacher-student relationships. 

  • 21.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Department of Curriculum Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Negotiations left behind: in-between spaces of teacher-student negotiation and their significance for education2010In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 353-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues against a view of curriculum as a means for moulding students into, and making teachers accountable for, something pre-determined and singularly governed by qualification demands of the labour market. It makes a case for the value of inter-subjective teacher–student relationships in education and addresses the significance of negotiations and their open-endedness. This paper draws its empirical material from case studies for which interviews were the main source for gathering data. The data analyses were made using the AtlasTi software designed for qualitative analysis. In the empirical material were found instances of negotiations in which inter-subjective relationships are established and maintained; negotiations that are rendered obscured or even invisible from a qualification purpose but that influence the educational processes. The results show that teachers and students creatively use potentials within contextual conditions to attain relationships which sometimes constitute a precondition for education.

  • 22.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Professional territories in open learning environments: – examining collaborations between teachers and social pedagogues2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Questioning the modern conception of time: The politics of complexity reduction in education2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Relationell pedagogik i korridoren?: ett rumsligt och relationellt perspektiv på skolans relationsarbete2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Results and accountability: Marginalization of the educational interpersonal space2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo.
    Skolans mellanrum: Ett relationellt och rumsligt perspektiv på utbildningsmiljöer2017In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 22, no 3-4, p. 198-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Studying relational spaces in secondary school: applying a spatial framework for the study of borderlands and relational work in school improvement processes2014In: Improving Schools, ISSN 1365-4802, E-ISSN 1475-7583, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 135-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for studying school improvement processes such as making school environments safer. Using concepts from spatial theory, in which distinctions between mental, social and physical space are applied, makes for a multidimensional analysis of processes of change. In a multi-level case study, these were combined with task perception analysis, where all categories of personnel and management in the school were studied. The results indicated the significance of borderlands in the school for helping students, of organizational transgressions aimed at “making things work” and of social spaces created in the borderlands that contributed to the necessary social glue in the school. This theoretical framework offers alternative and fruitful lenses which can enrich studies of school improvement processes. The use of multiple data sources allows for triangulation, which in turn improves the validity and reliability of the results.

  • 28.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    The production of present and absent presences in education2013In: Journal of Pedagogy, ISSN 1338-1563, E-ISSN 1338-2144, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 139-161Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the distinction between absent and present presences, this article contributes to our understanding of how new managerial and performative discourses are played out in a secondary school context in Sweden. The consequences of numerous educational reforms during the last 20 years include a surge of new independent schools and increased segregation between students due to individual school choice. Following international trends, a yearly national municipal school ranking is published, drawing much attention both in the media and on the policy level, intensifying pressure for results at the municipal level. A case study was conducted in one bottom-ranked Swedish secondary school over the 2012-13 school year, focusing on how relationships between students and staff were negotiated in informal spaces and places. The results illustrate how absent presences and present presences are produced in the practice of schooling. The present presences were publication of results, raising merit scores and grading pressure, and the absent presences were the role of the media in the self-image of schools, increased workload for teachers, the misuse of statistical data and demoralization and determination. The results contribute to the understanding of a) the challenges that teachers and schools are faced with as a consequence of the new managerial and performative discourses in educational settings, and b) the means they draw on to face and resist them in their everyday practices.

  • 29.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    The role of dataveillance software in school leaders’ surveillance of teachers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Trygga möten i skolans mellanrum2014In: Elevhälsa, ISSN ISSN 2000-5296, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Using a Spatial Perspective to Explore the Creation of Safe School Environments2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Relational Dimensions of Policy Enactment: Principals' Experiences of Relations With Newly Qualified Teachers During the Teacher Registration Reform2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalized educational reforms include registration reforms for newly qualified teachers (NQTs). As policies travel, this paper examines the Swedish example of principals’ policy enactments (Ball et al, 2012) when assessing NQTs. Questionnaire data was collected in three municipality clusters. 11 semi-structured interviews with principals were conducted in two municipalities. These were analyzed to determine whether and how the relations between principals and NTQs changed due to the teacher registration reform. The results showed some positive change in the relations and that contrary to the reform’s intentions support and assessment practices were intermingled. As the complexity of the situation was underestimated, other countries may learn from the example of a reform that led to a policy retreat.

  • 33.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Centrala begrepp - i praktiken2003In: Lek, musik, könsroller och centrala begrepp: Fyra exempel på sociala konstruktioner / [ed] Gerhard Arfwedson, Stockholm: HLS Förlag , 2003, p. 58-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Democratic Education in Different Settings.2005In: The 33rd NERA (Nordic Educational Research Association) Annual Conference: , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    En för alla, alla för en: ungdomar om tolerans och solidaritet i olika gruppers sociala dynamik2006In: Den mångtydiga skolan: utbildning i det postmoderna samhället / [ed] Säfström, Carl-Anders, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2006, p. 135-150Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Framtidens demokratiska medborgare: Om ungdomar, medborgarskap och demokratifostran i svensk skola2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis attempts to deepen our understanding of the democratic assignment for Swedish schools. The school is a public space that all children and youth are a part of which gives it a prominent opportunity for fostering democratic citizens of the future. The purpose of the study is to increase the knowledge of this assignment, based on the students’ stories of how they experience it. The theoretical framework draws upon a spatial perspective and educational theory inspired by a radical view of democracy. A multiple case study was conducted based on three cases, chosen in order to achieve socioeconomic variation. A mixed method approach has been applied to the study: interviews, observations, documents and quantitative data have been analyzed using a thematic analysis framework. The results show that the democratic assignment of schools is complex and filled with legal, social, ideological, and ethical tensions. For the purpose of creating a school environment that meets the democratic assignment, systematic work and guidelines for school personnel, students, and parents appear to be necessary. The study has clearly shown that the conditions for the democratic assignment may differ markedly between schools and that peer socialization is of great importance for the outcome. The influence and potential of diversity on the democratic assignment of schools is clear. From a curriculum micro perspective, the study has brought attention to how the view of the (non-)competent student is relevant for the democratic assignment, as well as the bases on which this notion of (non-)competence rest. It is suggested that the view of the democratic assignment is extended, from a narrow focus on democratic decision-making processes to a wider focus that also takes into account the ongoing everyday negotiation processes between teachers and students that have impact on what is perceived as political action and democratic arenas.

  • 37.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Not yet a democratic citizen?: young people and the transition from becoming to being a democratic citizen2009In: 11th CiCe Annual Conference: "Human Rights and Citizenship Education": School of Teacher Education, Malmö University, Sweden, from the 21st to the 23rd of May 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Democracy is always related to a place. This location is bordered by boundaries, such as the nation state. The boundaries of democratic citizenship are mostly based on the idea of universality. Modern democracies claim to extend the civic franchise and citizenship rights to all, or to all members of the community. However, this universality is always, historically and in the present, conditional. The notion of universal refers to some particular universe with its own rationale and discursive boundaries - both including and excluding individuals from citizenship. Individuals and groups marked by categorical markers such as women, Jews, blacks, gypsies, criminals, having a status with limited or no citizenship rights. In this paper I’m addressing age and the notion of adolescence in particular, as a categorical marker, and how this has an effect on young people’s democratic citizenship – in the present and in the future. 

  • 38.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    On Political Judgment and Emotions in Citizenship Education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Peer engagement in learning democracy2007In: International Journal of Learning, ISSN 1447-9494, E-ISSN 1447-9540, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 189-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses youths in peer groups who, during their leisure time, play music in a rock band. What I intend to explore in this paper is organizational aspects in relation to how the band came together and how the group manages their interaction and leadership issues, in order to study the relations, positions and the games of negotiations that takes place within the group. My empirical data is collected through observations and interviews with youth in the age of 16-20 year old. All interviews and observations are conducted in one location in the middle part of Sweden. I then use negotiation theories as analytical tools in order to translate young people’s experiences of interaction and organizing of peer groups into an understanding of what meanings they hold for their learning of democracy. The purpose with this paper is to develop theoretical concepts based on empirical material. In turn, these theoretical concepts might contribute to a wider understanding of democratic fostering processes within schooling.

  • 40.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Political Judgement in Education2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that there is a need to bring in the concept of political judgment to the discussion oncitizenship education. There is also a need to enlarge the view on political judgment by recognizing emotionsas an important part of an individual’s cognition and perception. Furthermore, results are presented from acontent analysis of the international ICCS report (IEA, 2009) in which the analysis starts from a distinctionbetween political knowledge and political judgment. In line with the distinction, this paper critiques an overrelianceon the notion of progression in education based on predetermined subject matter and outcomes,which is reflected in the ICCS report (IEA, 2009) as a knowledge-first hegemony. This refers to the skills for afuture democratic citizenship as purely cognitive phenomena, where “knowledge” is to be transferred throughschooling. Drawing on the work of Mouffe (1995) and Biesta (2006, 2007), teachers’ and students’ politicaljudgment – in a wider understanding by also taking into account emotions, beliefs, norms, and values (cf.Bauman, 1995; Marcus, 2000) – becomes a key concept in recognizing and understanding an extended viewof political skills and action in the everyday practices of schooling. In order to strengthen the argument onpolitical judgment, empirical example from multiple case studies conducted at a Swedish school arepresented. These show a recurrent situation in which students enact their political judgment in a settingwhere political action is not recognized as acceptable behaviour. The paper concludes with a discussion ofthe ICCS report in relation to the suggested enlarged view on political judgment.

  • 41.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Spaces of surveillance: a study of newspaper articles on school surveillance cameras from 2002-20142016In: Education and Society, ISSN 0726-2655, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 69-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, school fires, vandalism, graffiti and bullying in school environments are common occurrences in Sweden. As a result, schools are faced with significant tangible and intangible costs for different types of measures, of which surveillance technology is one.

    This paper presents a study of newspaper articles mapping the occurrence and representation of surveillance cameras in Swedish schools and the stated arguments for and against such usage.

    The results indicate that the use of Surveillance technology has not always been critically appraised or evaluated; discussions about the underlying causes of problems are rare, and the developments seem to be part of a risk discourse in which a wider range of behaviour is criminalized; that young people are represented as risk factors, particularly in socioeconomically segregated areas; and an increased use of surveillance technology is only a limited remedy in what is in actual fact a much more complex societal context.

  • 42.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    The Abstract Citizen: Minority Youths Qualifying for Citizenship2014In: Citizenship Teaching and Learning, ISSN 1751-1917, E-ISSN 1751-1925, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 157-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the Swedish school's democratic mission to foster active democratic citizens in relation to fundamental human rights, the National Education Act and the National Curriculum for the compulsory school system. This is done by showing the tension contained in policy documents and giving examples of how this is played out in the everyday practices of schooling. The overall democratic mission for the Swedish school system—to prepare the younger generation for Swedish citizenship—takes place within the nation state and therefore carries with it historical and cultural norms, values ​​and laws that in certain ways become relevant to various minority groups in the country. In this paper, the notion of the abstract citizen is used to elaborate on the imaginary of the nation and its ideal citizens. The empirical material consists of two case studies, both of which are situated in the same Swedish town and have been chosen in order to achieve socioeconomic variation. A mixed method approach has been applied to the study. The results show the complexities that result from the tension that exists in the policy documents with regard to the school’s responsibility to prepare the younger generation for an active, democratic citizenship characterised by virtues such as democratic, pluralistic and tolerant. An important feature is the school staff's professional judgement, i.e. an awareness of the grounds on which students are treated and which opportunities exist for individuals to differ from the majority of the population. Such situations of response and processes of socialising and disciplining create practices of inclusion and exclusion. In democratic terms, the notion of the abstract citizen must be constantly negotiated and renegotiated in the policy implementation and enactment in the everyday practice of schooling. 

  • 43.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    What about developing the pupils' sense of solidarity?: Youths about the boundaries of solidarity within different teaching contexts.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With respect to the relation between group ties and democracy, this paper focuses how different types of pedagogies and teaching contexts lead to different expressions of solidarity between students. In one public school with a music profile, the middle-class students experience a strong group connection (‘tightness’ is the word frequently used by the students), which fuels robust interpersonal relations and a strong degree of openness between the individuals in the group; however, this loyalty to group members does not lead to solidarity across group boundaries. Solidarity as expressed in the Swedish curriculum is a much broader social, democratic attitude. The results shows that learning through group work and thematic studies does not seem to provide the conditions for solidarity either; instead, it fosters weak relations in the group since often one or two persons in the group take entire responsibility for getting the work done. In relation to goals of the national curriculum to foster solidarity, this is an interesting and troublesome result pointing at the need for making the normative dimensions of curriculum explicit in pedagogical practice as opposed to being merely a regulatory ideal.

  • 44.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Principals’ assessments of NQTs’ competences: The use of informal and interpersonal sources of information for assessment2016In: 2016 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes and discusses the informal assessments of newly qualified teachers (NQTs) that are performed in relation to the mandatory formal assessment outlined in the recently introduced teacher registration reform in Sweden (TRR). Questionnaire data was collected in three municipality clusters. 11 semi-structured interviews with principals were conducted in two municipalities. These were analyzed to determine whether and how principals used informal and interpersonal sources of information about NQTs’ competences. The school culture, together with the use of formal and informal assessment, influences a principal’s final assessment of an NQT. The use of informal and interpersonal sources of information for assessment fit the school context in ways that a standardized reform cannot match.

  • 45.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Concerns and Student Back-up in the Common Areas in School: The Significance of the Borderlands2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the often neglected preconditions for a productive educational environment is that students feel positive about coming to school and that they have meaningful relationships in school. In this paper, attention is directed towards the common areas that lie within the school but outside of classrooms, e.g. corridors, school yards and dining halls. The concept of the “borderlands of the common areas” in everyday activities at schools is addressed. We explore common area spaces and practices, along with the intentions of the personnel that are responsible for them.

    This paper presents data from a research project aiming at exploring the relational interplay between school personnel and students, its functions and complexity in the secondary school context. A year-long case study is being conducted during the 2012-13 school year at a secondary school that has recently been renovated and where the staff is working to improve the school environment. We make use of multiple data sources, including document analysis, mapping, observations and interviews. In the analyses, spatial theories are applied, a novel approach within the field. These are fruitful for understanding the factors that contribute to positive relational processes within the school context  (cf Author 1 & Author 2; Ferrare & Apple, 2010).  

    The common areas in the school are easily neglected and can be described as “non-places” in the everyday activities. The results indicate that the common areas in the school are used for practices addressing student concerns, aimed at improving conditions for students so that they can concentrate on studying. These borderland practices are viewed as constructed social spaces, where students can feel safe and enjoy coming to school.  These two predicaments are in turn preconditions for enhancing students’ ability to study and to succeed.

  • 46.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Education Support Professionals and the atomistic logics of school governance2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Highlighting educational support professionals’ indirect contributions to the educational environment2017In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 37, no 3-4, p. 217-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the discussion about educational environments. Drawing on Dewey’s and Hansen’s work, the point of departure is that the educational environment is dynamic and connected to educational purposes, and that educational relationships can be both direct and indirect and connected to norms, values and subject matter. In a case study, using interviews and observations, the periphery of educational environments is explored. Distinctions between the intended and actual functions, and between environment and surroundings in different parts of the municipal administration, and the resulting shortcomings of using an atomistic rather than an ecological perspective in education, are also discussed.

  • 48.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    In the face of Neo-Liberalism: Public educators and resources for defending a democratic discourse2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Possibilities for a Negotiated Curriculum Space?2008In: Nordic Educational Research Association, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the value of teacher-student relations within schooling. More specifically we aim to explore the occasional possibility of an open-ended negotiated curriculum. Our point of departure is a critical stance towards the discursive shift that is taking place within the Swedish as well as other countries school systems. The new discourse of learning is influenced by the market ideology of neo-liberalism and its contemporary management vocabulary. A new formalism of this kind reduces teaching to an instrumental act based on predefined content far from the complex interactions within the dynamics of teacher-student relations. In the findings from two different interview studies, one with teachers and the other with students, certain spaces where education can take place emerge in negotiation between teacher and student. How can we understand these spaces and what consequences do the increasing inspection and control, accountability, measurability and order have for the possibility of such spaces in school?

  • 50.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet, Instutionen för didaktik.
    Present vs Absent Presence: Visualizing Uncounted Occurrences In Education2010In: The Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, the new common vocabulary of educational policies uses rhetoric from business which has redefined education as serving the labor market, bringing concepts as accountability, efficiency and performance standards (Lipman, 2009) For instance in Sweden, the educational system has responded with an increased focus on National tests and other control features (Liedman, 2009; Pettersson, 2008). Various educational reforms have been launched with the purpose of strengthening Sweden’s competition and economic growth (Sundberg, 2005). The underlying logic of these societal and educational developments and the rhetoric that is used make certain features count while others are obscured (see e.g. Apple, 2009; Kumashiro, 2008). Such complexity reduction is a political product which is why one needs to ask “for whom and in whose interest” it is being reduced (Biesta, 2008). In an earlier work (Grannäs & Frelin, 2009) we addressed the political significance of the temporal dimension of education within the current educational climate which constitute a challenge for teachers and students, and directed critique towards the consequences of over-pre-determination of knowledge outcomes for teachers’ working conditions. We argued that in a climate of post-fordism structuring and language render some events obscured and sometimes impossible to address within the educational system. In another work (Frelin & Grannäs, 2010), we argued that the “view of education as exclusively aimed at pre-determined and predictable outcomes /.../ obliterates the possibilities for teachers and students to negotiate the content or other educational issues.” However, in our empirical study we found that despite the conditions, teachers and students worked to attain what we termed intersubjective spaces of negotiation which proved to be significant for education although impossible to plan or predict. They struggled in order to balance demands of the system with the demands that need to be met in order for the system to work, but were impossible to address within it (Frelin & Grannäs, 2010). Over the last 30 years the neo-liberal ideology production has been so pervasive that a massive reframing in society have taken place which have made the managerial discourse a major part of our commonsense (Apple, 2009). This development makes it hard, for teachers, to speak and ‘make sense’ using concepts outside the managerial discourse. Inspired by Apple’s term absent presence (Apple, 1999) we argue that events within the managerial discourse, which can and become allowed to occur within it, are to be termed present presences. That is, what counts can only be within the managerial discourse as present presence. The events that are outside of the managerial discourse or uncounted, but still need to be addressed are termed absent presences. By naming them absent presences we want to achieve two things; first, absent presences acknowledges their presence and significance in educational situations, and second, absent presences visualizes their invisibility within the managerial rhetoric of educational policy, and organizational structure of schools. Based on this research, we suggest that what teachers do in their everyday practices is to take responsibility for the uncounted voices and actions in order to make the counted work – that is absent presence as condition for the present presence.

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