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  • 1.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Mancuso, Giancarlo
    Addo, Richard
    Building Sports Brands and Fan Relationships During a Global Pandemic2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the measures taken by hockey clubs, using SM, to build their brand and fan relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden. To this end, the study looks at a variety of activities and commitments connected with SM, as well as taking into consideration the perspectives of both the hockey clubs and their fans.

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  • 2.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sukbua, Sudy
    O'Sullivan, Jane
    Resources required for internationalization of Swedish SMEs2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to identify the resources required for the internationalization process for small and medium sized enterprises (SME) s in Sweden.

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  • 3.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul Huda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sawunda Hannadige, Sanvida Vishani
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Weerasinghe, Dona Kithmini Chiranthini
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The Contribution of Innovation Hubs Towards Strengthening the Regional Development in Sweden2023In: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), ISSN 0219-8770, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 1-20, article id 2350010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to explore the influence of innovation hubs (IHs) on innovation-based regional development.

    Methodology: This study applied a qualitative approach using a multiple case study method to collect data through 10 semi-structured interviews. A detailed analysis of the data collected was conducted using the content analysis method.

    Findings: The study shows that IHs can influence both economic and social development. An IH can attract knowledge and expertise as well as investors to the region through its activities and geographical location. The hubs support start-ups, entrepreneurs and smart specialization at the same time as they also enable sustainable development by creating social value. Regions can exchange resources through cross-collaboration via IHs.

    Research Implications: This study has important theoretical managerial and societal implications. It adds comprehensive knowledge to the existing theory on IHs and regional development by highlighting the influence of IHs on regional development. The study shows both economic and social influence in detail and points out a previously undiscussed concept in the context of the correlation between IHs and regional development.

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  • 4.
    Demir, Robert
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Translation of relational practices in an MNC subsidiary: Symmetrical, asymmetrical and substitutive strategies2012In: Asian Business & Management, ISSN 1472-4782, E-ISSN 1476-9328, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 369-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extant research on knowledge transfer within multinational corporations has increasingly focused on knowledge flow, but ignored the process of knowledge translation. Building on translation theory, this article seeks to explain how the translation of relational practices by local Chinese managers occurs in a Swedish multinational corporation subsidiary in China. The findings show that middle managers in the subsidiary adopt three different translation strategies: symmetrical, asymmetrical and substitutive. These strategies and their key drivers, and implications for further research, are discussed.

  • 5.
    Fang, Tony
    et al.
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schaumburg, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    International business negotiations in Brazil2017In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 591-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to explore an innovative strategy for studying the Brazilian negotiator’s unique and paradoxical characteristics from a cultural point of view in order to acquire a better understanding of the nature of international business negotiations in Brazil.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study is of a qualitative nature, using a multiple-case study design at three levels (small-, medium-, and large scale negotiations). Interviews were conducted with Brazilian and German managers to capture the emic-etic view of the Brazilian negotiator. The Strategic Trinity Model was developed to assess the behavior of the Brazilian negotiator in agreement with three metaphors: “African Capoeirista”, “Portuguese Bureaucrat”, and “Indigenous Warrior”.

    Findings

    The three roles “African Capoeirista”, “Portuguese Bureaucrat”, and “Indigenous Warrior” comprised similar as well as contradicting characteristics. The Brazilian negotiator chose naturally and even paradoxically from these role features, effectively negotiating any given situation, context, and time. During the pre- and post-negotiation phases, traits of the “African Capoeirista” and “Indigenous Warrior” were the most salient. During the formal negotiation phase, however, the characteristics of the “African Capoeirista” and the “Portuguese Bureaucrat” dominated.

    Research limitations/implications

    International business negotiations in Brazil call for an in-depth comprehension of the paradoxical roles that local negotiators take on in order to achieve better negotiation outcomes.

    Originality/value

    The present study unveiled the contradicting Brazilian negotiating style in international business negotiations, thus acquiring a better understanding of the negotiation process in the Brazilian market.

  • 6.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Cross-cultural knowledge transfer: Lessons from Swedish MNEs in China2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Study on international marketing strategies for MNCs in emerging markets in disrupted times2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims to explore the actions related to international marketing strategies taken by MNCs during the last three years to adapt and adjust in EMs in response to the disrupted business environment because of the global pandemic Covid-19 and the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict. 

    Methodology

    To address the aim of the study the researchers will be following a qualitative approach. It is assumed that a qualitative lens will enable the researchers to obtain detailed insights, perceptions, and experiences of the respondents related to actions taken by MNCs as part of their international marketing strategies EMs in disrupted times (Easterby-Smith et al., 2018; Yin, 2009). It is planned that semi structured interviews will be conducted. Respondents will be selected based on their positions in the MNCs. Three MNCs will be selected operating in India and three MNCs will be selected in Bangladesh. The MNCs that will be chosen will have to have their head quarter in developed nations. One MNC will be chosen from service industry and two MNCs will be chosen from fast moving consumer goods industry in each of the two countries. Respondents will be selected based on their positions in the marketing department of the six MNCs.

    Initial knowledge gathered and expected results

    A pilot study was conducted by interviewing a respondent who is the Brand Manager of a popular brand marketed by a well-known British MNC in the fast-moving consumer goods industry of Bangladesh. The respondent has confirmed that the disrupted time have brought is crisis and new initiatives as part of marketing strategy have been launched to comply with the market situation. For instance, before the Covid-19 pandemic the company only used traditional wholesale and retailing channels to reach the target consumers but since the pandemic, the company is using traditional and local online stores to reach their target consumers for their nine brands that they market in Bangladesh. In response to the impact of inflation on consumers in current times, the company is following sales promotion strategies to motivate consumers. These sales promotion strategies are not similar for all consumers rather the sales promotion strategies are conceived keeping in mind the behavior of consumers of each of the six regions of Bangladesh.  The pilot study provides us the relevance of the aim of the study and ensures us that full bloom study will provide us effective knowledge related to international marketing strategies implemented by MNCs in EMS in disrupted times.

    It is expected that the study will provide knowledge on adaptation and adjustment strategies taken by MNCs to survive and grow in EMS under the influence of the global pandemic Covid-19 and Ukraine-Russia conflict.

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  • 8.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Ahmed, Sharif
    Islam, Md Tawhidul
    Influence of supply chain factors on reshoring decisions – A structured literature review2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to explore how supply chain factors that influence decisions on reshoring have been discussed in previous research. 

    Methodology: A structured literature review is used to analyze 139 peer-reviewed articles containing reliable and effective arguments and discussion related to the aim of the study, retrieved from the online research databases of EBSCOhost, Science Direct, Emerald Insight and Springer. 

    Findings: The study identifies four supply chain factors that influence reshoring decisions, namely: supply chain resources, supply chain reconfiguration, the customer-supplier relationship, and supply chain proximity. 

    Implications of the study: This study provides a novel starting point from which future researchers can initiate empirical studies to evaluate the influence of the identified supply chain factors on reshoring decisions. The findings can, in addition, help practitioners and managers to develop knowledge of the influence of supply chain factors when making reshoring decisions. 

    Originality – This structured review extends our knowledge on the link between supply chain factors and reshoring, by drawing attention to how the factors of supply chain resources, supply chain reconfiguration, the customer-supplier relationship, and supply chain proximity influence reshoring decisions.

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  • 9.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Ahmed, Sohail
    Batkhuu, Bolortuya
    Implications for multinational enterprises from emerging market subsidiaries reverse knowledge transfer2023In: Central European Management Journal, ISSN 2336-2693, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 326-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aims to understand the role of drivers, underlying challenges and, consequently, the implications of the reverse knowledge transfer (RKT) process for multinational enterprises (MNEs).

    Method: A dyadic qualitative research design was used with a cross-country design covering perspectives from both the parent companies (PCs) and subsidiaries from the United States, Denmark, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with managers in multiple sectors such as information technology, telecommunications, project management, and engineering.

    Findings: The study reveals the constraints and drivers of the RKT process, and furthermore elaborates on the implications for MNEs. RKT can lead to the development of new processes, subsidiary independence, and intra-organizational knowledge transfer. Besides, it can entail challenges such as position insecurity for subsidiaries and a blurring of the MNE market vision. The findings demonstrate several implications for the MNEs. 

    Implications: The study highlights the direct implications of RKT for the multinational enterprises. The findings serve as a practical guide for global managers seeking to improve their competitive edge.

    Originality: The study presents a framework of the RKT process from emerging market (EM) subsidiaries to PCs, that demonstrates the role of drivers, underlying challenges, and implications of the RKT process for the MNEs.

    Paper type: Research paper

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  • 10.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hartung, Kristina
    Hämäläinen, Emilia
    Enablers of international product positioning strategy – A Swedish SME’s case2022In: International Conference Proceedings: ICISET-22, ICBEN-22, LLESS-22 & IEMEL-22, 2022, Vol. 1, p. 111-112, article id H112250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify the main factors that SMEs need to consider when positioning a premium priced product in the international market. In addition, this study aims to acquire in-depth knowledge regarding the market conditions in Germany. This study follows a qualitative research method, where a Swedish SME Damasteel acts as the case company of the research. In addition to the case company, four of their German distributors were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The data were processed and presented by dividing the findings into six different categories. The empirical findings suggest that the German kitchen knife market is rather competitive, however, there is still potential for further growth and demand has been growing during the past few years. Personalisation of the products is considered one of the current trends. High quality of a product is often linked with high price, therefore, the main factors justifying premium price are the brand name, origin of the product, and customisation. This study contributes to the existing literature by adding new knowledge regarding product positioning and pricing strategies in the German market from the perspective of a Swedish SME. This study highlights the importance of premium price when positioning a high-quality product, therefore, it suggests that a premium product cannot be targeted to a mass audience. Practical recommendations offer insight to the case company Damasteel of the local market conditions in Germany, by providing an overview of the competition and customers in this segment. The focus of this study was on a niche market without offering any detailed information of the different factors influencing the market itself. Future research could supply an insight into how to better target the final customers of a specific market, and how to market a premium priced product for them. In addition, the pricing methods of the new product planned to be launched by the case company Damasteel and the impact on the current sales could be further investigated. 

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  • 11.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sjöberg, Sandra
    Sekyere, Bernard
    Critical role of cluster organisations to overcome SMEs´ liabilities of size, resources, newness, and foreignness in their internationalisation2022In: International Conference Proceedings: ICISET-22, ICBEN-22, LLESS-22 & IEMEL-22, 2022, Vol. 1, p. 111-112, article id H1122509Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to find out how clusters can assist small- and medium enterprises (SME) s to expand their business to the international market. A qualitative approach was used in this study where the primary data was collected from five cluster organizations in the region of Gävleborg in Sweden with ten semi structured interviews with key personals in the five cluster organizations. The analysis was done with the help of concepts identified in the literature as well as new themes that was found in the empirical investigation.  The findings in this study have shown that the clusters can provide support to the SMEs to overcome obstacles related to capital, learning, innovation, networking, sales and strategy. The clusters can also help the SMEs in terms of sustainability. The weakest link is to help the SMEs to gain social capital where the clusters abilities are low. Each cluster has their niche competence so a collaboration within the clusters is required to help the SMEs in their international journey. The study extends the knowledge around the support system known as clustering as the study shows that only one cluster may not be able to help the SMEs in all the given areas required for their internationalization but a collaboration between clusters can help the SMEs to overcome most of the barriers towards internationalization. Future studies can focus on longitudinal research in this area to be able to follow the journey of the SMEs between the clusters but also to be able to capture and compare if the SMEs and cluster are experiencing the same pros and cons of the support system. We also suggest replicating this study in another region of Sweden to see if the results can be generalized or if it is a very local context regarding the help the SMEs can receive for internationalization. 

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  • 12.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Rupasinghe, Lasni
    Sustainable Innovation Challenges: Study of a Swedish MNC2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore the external environment challenges that a multinational corporation (MNC) faces to adopt social innovation.

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  • 13.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fang, Tony
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Reasons for reshoring from China to Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fang, Tony
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chimenson, Dina
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Explaining reshoring in the context of Asian competitiveness: evidence from a Swedish firm2019In: Journal of Asia Business Studies, ISSN 1558-7894, E-ISSN 1559-2243, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 277-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to arrive at a different understanding of reshoring in Asia vis-à-vis the Western context of competitiveness, through a case study of the Swedish company FM Mattsson.

    Design/methodology/approach: Empirical studies with semi-structured interviews have been conducted both in Sweden and China to gain an in-depth understanding of the case company’s reshoring activities.

    Findings: The findings point at reshoring as a competitive means to respond to the dynamics of internal (firm-specific) and external (country-specific) factors. Reshoring comes as a dynamic process by reshuffling resources inside and outside of the firm that strives for continuous competitiveness. Organizations need to meet the challenges of changing environment, especially the dynamic business competition in Asia, and reshoring is a way.

    Originality/value: This paper contributes to the literature by perceiving reshoring as a dynamic process of competitiveness development. Reshoring is not seen as one-off short-term decision-making on cost and location but as a long-term process in response to the dynamic internal and external challenges ahead.

  • 15.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Frick, Paul
    Competitive productivity in South African public–private partnerships2021In: Cross cultural & strategic management, ISSN 2059-5794, E-ISSN 2059-5808, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 76-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to develop the concept of competitive productivity focussing on the interplay between national competitive productivity (NCP) and firm competitive productivity (FCP) based on the following research question: how does the competitive productivity framework explain the influence that government has on public–private procurement programmes?

    Design/methodology/approach: A case study is conducted on the South African Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme. Data were collected using an exploratory, mixed methods design, starting with national level secondary data on five bid windows between 2011 and 2014, followed by eight in-depth qualitative interviews with industry experts.

    Findings: The findings indicate that non-financial factors, such as trust (through consistent and transparent government policy) as well as a pragmatic attitude on the part of government, increased competition and ultimately resulted in a productive procurement process. Social implications: By understanding what moderating factors influence competitiveness in African procurement programmes, using competitive productivity (CP) as a framework, the research contributes to development of government policy and procurement programmes. Incidentally, there is little doubt that improving infrastructure and in turn a greater percentage of access to electricity leads to increased competitiveness of the nation, firms and individuals, thus enabling companies to grow and operate with more stability. Originality/value: Originality is demonstrated through the interplay of NCP and FCP, where the constructs of culture, benchmarking and performance were found to have the strongest influence of the six constructs of the CP model. 

  • 16.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Guttormsen S.A., David
    Department of Organisation Studies, University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, UK.
    A critical exploration of ‘access’ in qualitative International Business field research: towards a concept of socio-cultural and multidimensional research practice2016In: Qualitative research in organization and management, ISSN 1746-5648, E-ISSN 1746-5656, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 110-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Researchers often face challenges in locating and obtaining relevant and meaningful information during qualitative international business (IB) field research in other countries. This process constitutes an immensely critical phase, which determines the success or failure of the research endeavour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss "access" as a multidimensional and contestable concept that poses particular challenges in international and multicultural research contexts.

    Design/methodology/approach - This paper builds on the experience as field researchers in China/Hong Kong (120 in-depth interviews) and the need to disseminate acquired field experiences, in particular concerning "access". The multifaceted issue of "access" is rarely featured on the IB methodological agenda, and has become a silent feature of qualitative IB research.

    Findings - This paper is devoted to this nexus: the lack of focus on "access" issues, and the rich sources of acquired, but mostly veiled, field experiences that feature in both IB and management research programmes. A plausible explanation for this circumstance relates to the influence of mainstream positivist and objectivist paradigms in which researchers are not recognised as having an impact on research processes, hence taking this silent feature for granted.

    Originality/value - By viewing the multiple dimensions of "access", we move beyond the mainstream understanding that merely relates it to the question of gaining access to a physical site and/or the time of an individual, and in which "access" is only an enterprise of securing pre-existing, tangible information. Drawing upon specific international field research experiences, this paper contributes to the methodological debate concerning "access" - beyond "technicality" and towards a concept of socio-cultural and multidimensional research practice.

  • 17.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Guttormsen S.A., David
    Coventry University.
    The Silent Concept in Qualitative Research2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Fang, Tony
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Kumar, Viswanathan
    Tobin College of Business, St. John’s University, Queens, NY, USA.
    Kumar, Ajay
    EMLYON Business School, Ecully, France.
    Tan, Kim Hua
    Operations Management and Information Systems, University of Nottingham Business School, United Kingdom.
    Manufacturing relocation ambiguity model: a prerequisite for knowledge management2023In: British Journal of Management, ISSN 1045-3172, E-ISSN 1467-8551, Vol. 34, p. 1100-1116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management and manufacturing relocation have been treated as independent spheres. However, for a relocation to be fruitful, knowledge management needs to be incorporated. The purpose of this research is to shed light on the lack of knowledge management in dynamic manufacturing relocation. In particular, the research focuses on the ability to change, adapt and revert manufacturing relocation decisions, that is, the dynamic nature (or use) of the concept. A Swedish company was used as a case study. Nine in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants at the company's headquarters in Sweden and its factory in China to capture a dyadic perspective. The findings demonstrate that: (1) knowledge transfer is crucial to create/sustain competitive advantage in the offshoring and reshoring phase; (2) lack of knowledge transfer results in limited learning outcomes with operational and strategic consequences in the relocation; (3) resistance to knowledge transfer in the offshoring creates a knowledge gap that consequently leads to relocation ambiguity in the reshoring phase; and (4) companies need to develop knowledge management strategies to promote knowledge transfer and learn from their international relocation, to cope with relocation ambiguity. Our theoretical contribution introduces the knowledge ambiguity framework, which is a result of insufficient knowledge transfer in the dynamic manufacturing relocation. Even if an organization relocates efficiently, it can fail to take advantage of knowledge transfer and development as potential learning for the organization.

  • 19.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Lui, Lok Yan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Caceres, Wilfredo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Knowledge Transfer in Reshoring2017In: Reshoring of Manufacturing: Drivers, Opportunities, and Challenges / [ed] Vecchi, Alessandra, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 79-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge is a key resource in any organization, and during a reshoring process, transferring knowledge to the home market is crucial. This study offers an in-depth comprehension of the factors influencing the knowledge transfer process in companies conducting in-house reshoring. We applied a qualitative multiple case study approach of Swedish organizations that fulfilled the criteria for in-house reshoring. Similar to other knowledge transfer processes, knowledge transfer during in-house reshoring is influenced by cultural, linguistic, and physical distances. Furthermore, reshoring motivation has an impact on the actors’ knowledge transfer motivation. This investigation clarifies knowledge transfer in the context of reshoring, and exposes the challenges of knowledge transfer during reshoring. The study signifies the importance of understanding reshoring motivation for the success of reshoring. It moreover contributes to the research on knowledge transfer by providing evidence of the influence of the role of knowledge on the choice of knowledge transfer methods. In addition, the study extends the research on the reverse direction of knowledge transfer, in terms of in-house reshoring scenarios.

  • 20.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    A Conceptual Framework Enabling Understanding of Customer Satisfaction Drivers of Digitalised Vendor Managed Inventory2018In: Conference Book of Abstract Proceedings: The 6th International Symposium on Multidisciplinary Research on Social Sciences and Management studies (MRSSM), 2018, p. 4-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work responds to calls for more studies on customer satisfaction drivers associated with Industrial Vending Solutions (a unique form of vendor-managed inventory) implementation. It identifies key drivers of customer satisfaction and positive service quality perception as well as trust and commitment indicators for business-to-business industrial vending systems by asking: How is the customers perceived service quality impacted by the suppliers execution of the IVS dimensions and what customer satisfaction drivers can be derived? Through an explanatory approach, qualitative data on multiple cases was gathered. 14 in-depth semi-structured interviews were held with customers. We draw upon the consumer satisfaction paradigm to analyse post-usage satisfaction with application service providers services. Solution characteristics of industrial vending systems impact service quality perception through compliance with customer requirements. Customer satisfaction drivers were identified for the investigated industrial vending system, the most important being efficiency, user-friendliness and timeliness. Further, the presence of trust in customer-supplier relationships positively impacts trust and commitment intentions. A conceptual framework builds on knowledge on customer satisfaction which managers can incorporate into the value promise design, product development and marketing strategies.

  • 21.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The Effect of Digital Marketing on Customer Relationship Management2019In: Proceedings / [ed] Soliman, KS, IBIMA , 2019, p. 7612-7622Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examines the combination of social media and customer relationship management with the help of customer relationship performance and social customer relationship management capabilities in order to explore as if social media can be utilized as a constructive CRM instrument in business-to-business settings. Additionally, the research will disclose the positive or negative impact of the social media on customer relationship performance. During the research process, we interviewed digital marketing managers from four different small and medium sized organizations. The findings of our research shows that because of the companies’s less effective customer relationship management capabilities, the companies were not able to achieve customer relationship performance by utilizing social media. Additionally, we found that not only social media is the most effective instrument for CRM. We also found that there is no specific social media used by every company i.e. the efficiencies of social media platforms varies from company to company.

  • 22.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Pettersson, Tobias
    Tadesse, Daniel
    The Role of Digitalization in SMEs’ Strategy Development: The Case of Sweden2020In: The Changing Role of SMEs in Global Business: Volume I: Paradigms of Opportunities and Challenges / [ed] Thrassou, A., Vrontis, D., Weber, Y., Shams, S.M.R., Tsoukatos, E., Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, 1, p. 65-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of digital technologies has enabled a notable transformation in firms’ boundaries, processes, structures, roles, and interactions. This digital revolution affects a company as a whole, thereby redefining its strategies, entrepreneurial processes, and governance mechanisms or structures. The aim of this study is to understand how digitalization affects small and medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs’) marketing strategy. The study uses a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews. The findings demonstrate that digital marketing tools demand few resources and have a positive effect on competitive advantage. The study contributes to our knowledge on how small enterprises develop strategy, showing that they focus on customer preferences. It also shows the benefits of SME digital marketing where digitalizing an enterprise’s marketing activities helps to reduce costs and increase dynamic capabilities to maintain competitive advantage.

  • 23.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Roe, Thomas
    The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation, Wexford, County Wexford, Ireland.
    Enablers of international product customisation strategy - a Swedish case2023In: International Journal of Business Environment, ISSN 1740-0589, E-ISSN 1740-0597, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 240-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to understand what factors influence companies to customise products international customers and markets. A qualitative case study with semi-structured interviews was conducted at one multinational corporation to gain insights into its product customisation strategy. The findings demonstrate how internationalisation can impact product customisation and identify four factors in the customisation process: culture, internationalisation, knowledge transfer, and product strategy. Tailored marketing strategies that influenced the international product customisation strategy (IPCS) were used. This study augmented on our understanding of how product customisation impacts internationalisation and vice versa, revealing the importance of knowledge transfer in IPCS and its growing impact due to digitalisation. It also shows how both B2B marketing and a tailored marketing strategy are overarching themes in international product customisation, making it one of few studies to recognise the relevance of omnichannel strategy in the B2B market segment.

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  • 24.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Wensong, Bai
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.(International Business).
    Oliviera, Luis
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Sweden; Center for International Business, Fundacao Getuilo Vargas, Brazil .
    Fang, Tony
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Springboard internationalisation in times of geopolitical tensions2023In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 32, no 6, article id 102144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geopolitical tensions and a world where state interventions are driven by national security and ideology present novel challenges for emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs). Often, individual companies are targeted, and their corporate growth gets curbed. These phenomena are derived from non-market factors, which are generally absent in the springboard view of the international business discourse that explains the foreign expansion of EMNEs by viewing these firms as ambidextrous organisations capable of handling conflicting requirements. This research aims to understand the international expansion of EMNEs under geopolitical tensions by incorporating non-market factors into the ambidexterity model to enrich the springboard view. A case study of Huawei and its exclusion from the telecommunications industry in Sweden forms the empirical base of this research. The contributions are twofold. First, within the springboard view, the ambidexterity model can be upgraded by incorporating non-market factors that better explain the international expansion of EMNEs in changing geopolitical and business contexts. Second, the research highlights the management of EMNEs' subsidiaries while considering geopolitical tensions.

  • 25.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Zander, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Asymmetrical Adaptation in a Swedish-Chinese context2017In: Knowledge transfer in Multinational Companies: Sharing Multiple Perspectives / [ed] Hamida, L. B. and Lejeune, C., Paris: L'Harmattan , 2017, p. 73-117Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The paradox of globalization: exploitation or empowerment of women?2022In: The paradox of globalization: exploitation or empowerment of women?, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the Paradox of Globalisation. We investigate if Globalisation leads to empowerment or to exploitations of women. Research show globalization contributes to higher incomes for less developed economies, democratizes institutions, cultivates cultural richness and develops employment for women. Additionally, there are negative effects of globalization if the cultural context of people is not considered and globalization is controversial. We view the paradox of globalization as twofold having consequences on women empowerment and exploitation. It is assumed gender equality can improve women conditions and opportunities, advances their careers and enhances participation in democratic decision-making, by giving freedom of speech to all about problems in factory work. Based on a study from Bangladesh garment industry we analyze the influence of globalization on women empowerment. We conducted a qualitative study and structured interviews with 39 women workers in six factories and use a grounded theory approach to analyse the data. Preliminary results of the study show contextual factors affect the working conditions of women in the factories negatively. Female workers are not satisfied with the salaries they get, they are not allowed to use the money they earn by themselves and they do not have the possibility to participate in decision-making and advance in careers. The paradox is female workers still can support their families and their children and got the possibility to buy more and healthier food. The study suggests if institutional factors are considered, globalization can make a positive contribution by empowering women and improving the quality of decision-making. 

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  • 27.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Li, Haihan
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, University of Gavle, Gavle, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    A Supply Chain Perspective Reviewing Shoring Cases2023In: Operations and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 1979-3561, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 524-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shoring trend of supply chains has changed over the decades. In the initial stages it mostly concerned about offshoring, however, recently it has changed to reshoring. This study focuses on the mainstreams of shoring case studies from the supply chain perspective with a systematic literature review. We identified 22 supply chain shoring cases from the initial pool of thousands of supply chain case studies. Publishing activity was increasing until 2010, but thereafter it has been sporadic. It could be concluded that shoring always contains numerous risks. As failures were also reported, it is simply so that not too much weight should be placed on costs and locating only to one country. Based on research works, global sourcing will continue in the future, however, new locations and practices shall prevail. Single-sided reshoring supply chains back to developed economies is not the only answer due to costs and supply chain tensions.

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  • 28.
    Komunda, Mabel Birungi
    et al.
    Department of Marketing and International Business, Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda..
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Katusabe, Justus
    Department of Marketing and Management, Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda..
    Nyongyera, Victor
    Department of Marketing and Management, Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda..
    A Conceptual Framework to Unmask the Relationship between Marketing Mix Strategies, Marketing Culture and Sales Performance of Ugandan Manufacturing Firms2023In: Journal of Service Science and Management, ISSN 1940-9893, E-ISSN 1940-9907, Vol. 16, no 06, p. 694-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between marketing mix strategies, marketing culture and sales performance of Ugandan manufacturing firms. The study used a cross-sectional and quantitative design. Data was collected at a particular point in time. We employed firm-level data collected by means of a questionnaire survey sent to a sample of 118 of a total population of 178 manufacturing firms. The primary data was collected, coded; correlations and regression analysis were done using SPSS Version 21. Findings revealed a significant positive relationship between marketing mix strategies and sales performance, marketing mix strategies and marketing culture, and marketing culture and sales performance; marketing culture explains more of the variation in sales performance. The use of cross-sectional and quantitative methodology limits the researcher’s ability to make causal inferences and to examine behavioural change over time. Nevertheless, the insight gained from the conceptual framework and ideas posited are useful for developing a future research agenda. There is need for manufacturing firms to promote and recognize marketing culture and marketing mix strategies among CEOs and sales representatives.

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  • 29.
    Ojiaku, Obinna C.
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria..
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Determinants of Customers’ Intention to ‘Port’ Mobile Phone Numbers in Times of Proliferating use of Multi-Sims2017In: International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, ISSN 0972-7302, Vol. 15, no 22, p. 621-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates factors that influence customers’ intentions to “port” mobile numbers in the Nigerian mobile telecommunications market. The study specifically investigates the effects of service quality, customer satisfaction, switching barriers and multiple SIMs on customers’ intentions to port their numbers to a new provider. A sample of 363, a cross-section of mobile phone subscribers in Anambra State, Nigeria, was surveyed and their responses analysed using simple percentages and descriptive statistics. Regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses, and the results confirm the effects of service quality, customer satisfaction, switching costs and attractiveness of the alternatives on porting intention. The effect of multiple SIM cards was, however, not confirmed. Demographic effects were also found, with age and occupation influencing subscribers’ intentions to port. Implications of the study include that regulatory efforts should be geared towards increasing consumer education on mobile number portability (MNP) and licensing of universal SIM cards to allow porting between operators with short codes. Efforts should also be made to improve service quality and increase brand attractiveness. The paper discusses the contributions and implications for theory, society/policy and managers.

  • 30.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    A cluster's internationalization as a catalyst for its innovation system's access to global markets2022In: EuroMed Journal of Business, ISSN 1450-2194, E-ISSN 1758-888XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The paper aims to illuminate the platform created by a cluster organization to facilitate its internationalization and thereby enhance its regional innovation system partners' competitiveness by providing access to global value chains and boosting innovativeness.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study draws upon the interaction approach, focusing on the interaction process, interaction partners, relationship atmosphere, and relationship environment. A qualitative study was conducted at Future Position X, a Swedish cluster organization. A total of 58 interviews were conducted, including 48 face-to-face in-depth interviews between 2017 and 2019 with six key informants at FPX, representatives from 28 SMEs, ten members of regional innovation systems to which FPX belongs, and four process leaders of regional and local networks, in addition to online interviews with ten members of the regional innovation systems conducted via Microsoft Teams in March 2021. The time span of the study provides a longitudinal perspective.

    Findings

    The FPX cluster collaborates with actors in the quadruple helix, maintaining a mindset that has led to a number of new partner agreements in the global arena to secure the resources and expertise necessary for cluster activities, and thereby ensuring firms in FPX networks access to platforms for international expansion. Internationalization thus expands the cluster's knowledge base beyond the traditional environment of its member firms.

    Research limitations/implications

    Very few innovations arise from the isolated work of a lone genius. Instead, most innovation is achieved through complex, interactive, iterative and cumulative learning processes in which a variety of actors are involved. The FPX cluster organization's internationalization platform is therefore vital to the internationalization of its partners since cluster actors lack the time, resources, knowledge, experience, and networks required to break into international markets singlehandedly.

    Practical implications

    This study suggests that, for practitioners and researchers alike, the growing importance and relevance of the regional innovation system cannot be overemphasized. It also holds policy and societal implications in that FPX's global network helps regional SMEs to internationalize, in addition to inspiring international firms to establish operations in the Gävleborg region, thereby helping to strengthen the overall GIS environment. Internationalization also expands the FPX cluster's knowledge base beyond the traditional environment of its firms, an example of this being the construction start of a Microsoft data centre in the region in 2020.

    Social implications

    FPX is financed through taxation and grant funding. By initiating projects, creating relationships and building collaborations, FPX thus contributes to collaboration between business, academia and the public sector. FPX also contributes to knowledge development of new technology by creating meeting places and networks around digital issues, such as GIS, AI, the IoT and blockchain technology.

    Originality/value

    While earlier research has concentrated on endogenous gaps critical to cluster dynamics, comparatively little attention has been paid to exogenous gaps, i.e. linkages between regional clusters and innovation partners elsewhere in the world. This study showcases the richness of interactions in the cluster against the background of wider, global innovation interactions. Future research should examine other vital questions that remain unanswered, e.g. by measuring and exploring the extent to which regional innovation systems can contribute to long-term economic growth for society.

  • 31.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    A cluster's internationalization platform as a springboard for internationalization of firms in the age of digitalization2019In: Economic Clusters and Globalization: Diversity and Resilience / [ed] Francisco Puig, Berrbizne Urzelai, Taylor & Francis Group, 2019, p. 134-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study draws on the Uppsala Internationalization Process Model with an experiential learning-commitment mechanism that focuses on business network relationships to facilitate an understanding of how the formal and informal networks of a cluster amalgamate during international establishment. In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants from a leading Swedish cluster – Geographic Information Solutions (GIS) to answer the question: what platform does the cluster organization create to enable the internationalization process in order for its partner organizations to effectively manage the challenges brought on by the cataclysmic changes in business logic of the age of globalization and digitalization? We found that GIS began by building international links with other similar clusters in the Nordic, Baltic and European countries and learned that to be in forefront of innovation it needed to mix its core competencies with complementing areas of technology from the world’s biggest hotspots in geospatial technologies. This enabled GIS to work with cross-cluster international innovation. A sustainable internationalization platform created by a cluster is of importance because digitalization is fundamentally disrupting traditional industries, labour markets and the global economy and transforming various facets of exchange. For companies, this means opportunities for new business models spanning from marketing and sales channels to logistics. This study contributes to the literature by examining how location can help firms to increase their competitiveness and thus offer support in gaining access to global value chains and new markets, by focusing solely on exogenous activities that serve to improve cooperation with global markets, which are critical to cluster dynamics.

  • 32.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    A Study of of Exogenous Gap Critical for Cluster Dynamics and Interaction with Global Markets2019In: 12th Annual Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business: Business Management Theories and Practices in a Dynamic Competitive Environment / [ed] Demetris Vrontis, Yaakov Weber, Evangelos Tsoukatos, 2019, p. 885-897Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to answer the following question: What platform does cluster organisation create to enable its internationalisation process in order for its partner´s organisations to effectively manage the challenges brought about by the cataclysmic changes in business logic in the age of globalisation and digitalisation? Theoretical lens draws on combination of the experiential learningcommitment interplay, which is the driving mechanism of Uppsala´s internationalisation process model with a similar experiential learning-commitment mechanism focusing on business network relationships. Data collection through in-depth interviews with Process Manager – R&D, Cluster Market Manager, Communication and Information, Cluster coordinator took place in the Swedish cluster Future Position X (FPX) - a leading cluster organisation in Europe within geographical information. Findings show that FPX was building international links with similar clusters in the Nordic, Baltic, and European countries. FPX later learned that for it to be in forefront of innovation, it needs to mix its own core competences with very complementing technology areas of the biggest hotspots in the world in Geo Spatial technologies. Conclusion remarks and implications: A sustainable internationalisation platform created by cluster is of utmost importance these days because digitalisation is fundamentally disrupting traditional industries, labour markets and the global economy, and transforming various facets of exchange. To companies, this means opportunities for new or changed business models, spanning from marketing and sales channels to logistics. Originality: This study contributes to the literature examining location can help firms to increase their competitiveness and thus supporting them in getting access to global value chains and new markets, by focusing solely on exogenous activities which serve to improve cooperation with global markets, that are critical to cluster dynamics.

  • 33.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Clustering and networking as a sine qua non for SMEs and regional international competitive advantage2017In: Global and national business theories and practice: Bridging the past with the future / [ed] Vrontis, D., Weber, Y., Tsoukatos, E., EUROMED PRESS , 2017, p. 1258-1281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extant literature gives the impression that formulation of a firm’s strategic intent is a unilateral process solely confined to a single firm. This study respond to calls to expand inter-firm relationships study beyond the narrow dyadic relationship focus and not solely conceptualize collaborations as one of firms’ strategic intent to implement mechanistic growth strategy. Hence the following research question: How are the collaborative networks of private and public partnership organized to enhance competitiveness for actors in a cluster? And what are the perceptions of the actors in the cluster on the usefulness of clustering and networking? The objective is to map the salient features of existing clusters and networks and unveil firms’ perceptions of benefits accrued from clustering. Theoretical lens builds on clustering as an interactive learning process, and happens in the interaction between actors as open innovation postulates and that innovation is born out of reshuffling resources inside and outside of the firm and considers the mutual value creation between the involved. Methodology draws on focus group interviews, semi-structured and open-ended survey in cluster initiatives and strategic networks in Kronoberg region. Findings show that networking, dialogue, and experience exchange were the recurrent themes when firms expressed the benefits of collaboration in a cluster/network setting. Conclude that unveiling the salient features of existing clusters and networks and perceptions of the actors on gains accrued from clustering and networking, accomplished in this study, is the first step in a cluster development process. The implications are that relationships of firm in a domestic network are critical avenues for acquisition of resources and knowledge for enhancement of competitiveness, and as bridges to other networks in other countries. We present an explanatory model of cluster and regional competitiveness which emerged from our findings.

  • 34.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Cluster's internationalisation platform as a springboard for internationalisation of firms in the age of digitalisation2017In: Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic development, Innovation Management, and Global Growth / [ed] Soliman, K. S., International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2017, p. 3022-3032Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following research question is used to guide the exploratory nature of this study: What platform does cluster organisation create to enable its internationalisation process in order for its partner´s organisations (SMEs) to effectively manage the challenges brought about by the cataclysmic changes in business logic in the age of globalisation and digitalisation?

  • 35.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Clusters’ vital role in promoting international competitive advantage: towards an explanatory model of regional growth [El rol fundamental de los clúster en la promoción de la ventaja competitive internacional - Hacia un modelo explicativo del crecimiento regional]2017In: Investigaciones Regionales, ISSN 1695-7253, Vol. 2017, no 39, p. 175-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work responds to calls to expand the study of inter-firm relationships beyond the narrow dyadic relationship focus and sole concentration on conceptualizing collaborations as firms’ strategic intent to implement mechanistic growth strategy. The objective is to map the salient features of existing clusters and how firms perceive the benefits of clusters by asking: How are the collaborative networks of private and public partnerships organized to enhance the competitiveness of all the stakeholders in a cluster? And how do these actors perceive the usefulness of clustering? The theoretical lens builds on viewing cluster initiatives as an interactive learning process and something that occurs in the interaction between actors as competitiveness is born through reshuffling resources both inside and outside of the firm, and takes into account value creation. The methodology draws on focus groups and surveys conducted in Swedish clusters. The findings show the perceived benefits of cluster initiatives to be networking, dialogue and experience exchange. The implications are that the relationships firms form in a cluster constitute critical avenues for acquiring resources and knowledge to enhance competitiveness, and bridges to other clusters in other countries. An explanatory model of clusters and regional competitiveness that emerged from our findings is presented.

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  • 36.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Depersonalization of the Customer Relationship in the Age of Digitalization2019In: Proceedings of the 34th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) conference, IBIMA , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current age of digitalisation brings several opportunities and challenges that have precipitated the need to implement digital solutions in organisations. Against this background, technological interface that enables customers to produce service outcome, independent of direct service-employee involvement, is commonly used in organisations in various sectors Extant literature is not keeping pace with the increasing speed in which the digitalisation of society and business is marching forward. In literature, more attention is devoted to personalised service encounter – the use of inter-personal buyer-seller interactions in the process of creating service outcomes. “Personalization”, using software applications/digital tools necessitates lesser inter-personal interactions. Hence, the relationship between companies and customers is increasingly being “depersonalised”. But, we ask in this study the following research question, “does depersonalization affect service provider-customer relationship positively or negatively? To answer this question, thus study aims to identify the pros and cons of depersonalization necessitated by digitalization and how it affects “customer-service provider relationship. The theoretical background rests on the discussion of personalization and depersonalization, technology-based service encounter, customer relationship strategy, opportunities and challenges of digitalization. A qualitative research approach entails both company and customer perspectives. Hence, data was collected through interviews. Findings show that depersonalisation through digitalization, despite some challenges, has positive effects on the “service provider-customer relationship”. Concludes that personalised buyer-seller interactions is considered an unalloyed good. However, adjusting and modifying the service, and making personalised recommendations, are considered a way to greater customer satisfaction. Implications for overcoming the challenges are discussed. Technology will continue to play vital role buyer-seller service encounter and will continue to be a crucial component in the customer-firm interactions. Further studies should investigate the reasons for positive or negative aspects. In addition, it remains open question regarding the perception of "less human error".

  • 37.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The oxymoron of digitalisation - A study of critical factors2018In: Proceedings of the 32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018 - Vision 2020:: Sustainable Economic Development and Application of Innovation Management from Regional expansion to Global Growth / [ed] Soliman K. S., International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2018, Vol. -, p. 4428-4430Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question and objectiveThe exploratory nature of this study is guided by the following research question: How do Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Gävleborg County perceive the prerequisites and critical factors of digitalisation. Thus, this paper aims to map SME´s digital maturity and their views on how to manage the opportunities and challenges brought about by digitalisation in order to foster their competitiveness in local, regional, national and international contexts. This research does not conceptualise digitalisation as merely a technology issue - as most commonly envisaged. Digitalisation is about something else; it is an approach and a capability to create and make available values by means of existing technology in a global, but the capability to exploit its benefit and manage its challenges varies on a national and sectorial basis. That is to say, the capability of utilising gathered data for something more than just reducing production costs. Thus, the basic tenet upon which this paper rests is a recognition that digitalisation is an oxymoron. This is due largely to the fact that as long as its development is based on technology that is equally available all over the world, but simultaneously hampered by the capability to utilize it, might from a Swedish perspective be viewed as a threat, but it is also regarded as a great opportunity. Theoretical lens for this paper builds on triadic as an interactive learning process, and happens in the interaction between actors as open innovation postulates (Chesbrough, 2003; Chesbrough et al., 2006; Fagerberg, 1995; Van de Ven et al., 1999; Waluszewski, Baraldi, Linné & Shih, 2009) and that innovation is born out of reshuffling resources inside and outside of the firm and considers the mutual value creation between those involved. This triadic logic is based on the assumption that the methods of strategy and its central questions follow from the definition that business strategy is concerned with the match between the internal capabilities of the company and its external environment (Hunt and Lambe, 2000; Chandler, 1962; Hamel and Prahalad, 1989). Consequently this paper draws on resource-based perspective which views the firm as a unique bundle of assets and resources that, if utilised in distinctive ways, can create competitive advantage (Barney, 1991 & 1995; Conner, 1991; Peteraf, 1993). Thus, key resources determine competitive advantage of firm that the firm is endowed with. According to Conner (1991) and Barney (1999), a resource with the potential to gain competitive advantage must exhibit VRIN attributes: Valuable, Rare, Imperfectly imitable and Non-substitutable. These attributes are at parity with Dynamic capability perspective that depicts the firm's ability to integrate, build, and reconfigure internal and external competences to address rapidly changing environments (Teece, Pisano and Shuen, 1997). Dynamic capabilities can be distinguished from operational capabilities, which pertain to the current operations of an organization. Dynamic capabilities, by contrast, refer to “the capacity of an organization to purposefully create, extend, or modify its resource base” (Helfat et al., 2007).

    MethodologyTo tackle the overarching research question that this study aims to answer - how the unit of analysis and unit of enquiry perceive the prerequisites and critical factors of digitalisation - qualitative approach was deemed most appropriate. It will facilitate deeper understanding of the actors' interactions, sentiments and behaviours occurring during the research process (Borghini et al. 2010). To achieve this, in-depth interviews were conducted at the premises of the companies and University of Gävle with highly knowledgeable informants who viewed the transformation process from strategic and business perspectives (Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007). Material for the case studies was both retrospective and real-time, as the investigated were ongoing during the time data collection took place. However, these face-to-face interviews enable us to ask follow-up and clarify questions and to record non-verbal clues. Moreover, experience experience-based seminars and workshops on how SMEs will be able to manage critical factors, thereby creating competitive values in the business processes, with digitalisation as a starting point. They will furthermore be able to create an understanding of how and what it is that creates competitiveness in each critical factor. The transcribed interviews were analysed by delineating keywords from the data collected. 

  • 38.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The oxymoron of digitalization - a resource-based perspective2021In: Journal of Information Technology Research, ISSN 1938-7857, E-ISSN 1938-7865, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 122-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: How do small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) perceive the prerequisites and critical factors of digitalization? 

    Objective: To map SMEs’ digital maturity and their views on how to manage the opportunities and challenges brought about by digitalization in order to foster competitiveness in local, regional, national and international contexts. 

    Theoretical lens: The study draws on a resource-based perspective, which views the firm as a unique bundle of assets and resources that, if utilized in distinctive ways, can create competitive advantage. The study builds on triadic relations as an interactive learning process that occurs in the interaction between actors as the concept of open innovation postulates. 

    Methodology: This study was conducted as an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) study of SMEs and actors in innovation system in Gävleborg County in Sweden. It uses a qualitative approach featuring in-depth interviews, workshops and focus-group interviews.

    Findings: The findings suggest a digital divide between SMEs, with a discrepancy in opportunities to benefit from the digitalization potential among the population studied. The divide manifests itself through economics, usability and empowerment. 

    Concluding remarks: Digitalization should not be viewed as merely a technology issue, but as a better way to run a business. Platform for development and dissemination of knowledge about the critical factors for increased competitiveness and creates competitive values ​​in production with digitalization as a starting point. And creates an understanding of HOW and WHAT that creates competitiveness in each critical factor

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  • 39.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande..
    Awuah, Gabriel
    University of Halmstad, Sweden..
    Networked establishment processes in transition economies2020In: Global Business and Economics Review (GBER), ISSN 1097-4954, E-ISSN 1745-1329, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 161-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to examine the establishment processes of Scania in Croatia and Statoil in Estonia applying a model developed from the network approach. The findings show that Statoil’s ability to leverage significant actors in its network to support its establishment made the process less cumbersome and less resource-consuming. Scania’s lack of home- and host country support resulted in an arduous and costly process, with Scania’s market position changing several times as different problems cropped up. We also found that relationship orientation requires adaptation by the firm and, more critically, by its managers. A lack of cross-cultural competence is also observed to be an impeding factor in the process.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    University of Halmstad, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Network perspective on establishment process in transition economies2017In: Global and national business theories and practice: Bridging the past with the future / [ed] Vrontis, D., Weber, Y., Tsoukatos, E., EUROMED PRESS , 2017, p. 1235-1257Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to extant literature on market entry strategies in several ways. First, while previous literature focuses either on entry modes or entry timing, comparatively little efforts are made to illuminate the establishment process. Secondly, it addresses emanating impediments and development of supporting relationships with significant actors during the processes of establishment in transition economies. Establishment model, developed from network approach, facilitated the capturing of various supporting relationships that enabled the focal relationships to function properly during the establishment processes in less-structured markets. In-depth interviews were held with key informants in two Scandinavian firms. Findings show that Statoil’s ability to leverage a number of significant actors in its network for support during its establishment in Estonia makes the process less cumbersome and less resource consuming. Lack of home and host country support for Scania resulted in an arduous and costly process, with the firm’s position changing several times as different problems cropped up. In conclusion, relationship orientation requires adaptation by an organization, but more critically by its managers. Lack of cross-cultural relationship skills and orientation could impede a company’s growth in international markets. We call for more research efforts in the area of cultural dimensions of market establishment processes.

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