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  • 1.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Noise in the school environment: Memory and Annoyance2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives.The general objectives of this dissertationwere to examine the effects of acute exposure to meaningfulirrelevant speech and road traffic noise on memory performance,and to explore annoyance responses to noise exposure in theschool environment for pupils and teachers in different agegroups.

    Methods. The thesis comprises seven papers, representingdifferent methodological approaches: experiments, surveystudies and interviews. In the experiments, reported in PapersI-V, 288 pupils and teachers participated in the age groups,13-14 years (n=96), 18-20 years (n=96), 35-45 years (n=48) and55-65 years (n=48). The subjects were randomly assigned to oneof three conditions: (a) meaningful irrelevant speech, (b) roadtraffic noise, and (c) silence. The equivalent sound level inthe noise conditions was set to 66 dB(A). A test batteryreflecting episodic and semantic memory were used. The surveystudies, reported in Paper VI and VII, included 207 pupils(M=13.5) and 166 teachers (M=45.9). Two separate questionnairesmainly comprising items about annoyance, noise sensitivity andstress symptoms were administered. Paper VI presents results offocus group interviews (n=16) treating the main topics:disturbing sounds, emotions, ongoing activity, and suggestionsconcerning future changes. Results. The overall findings showedthat both noise sources affected episodic and semantic memoryto the same degree for all age groups. The results indicatedthat the similarity of semantic content between noise and thetask at hand was not the only suitable explanation model, sincea non-speech noise impaired memory as much as speech.

    Resultsalso indicated that attention effects did notmediate the obtained noise effects and that the noise effectsdid not differ between age groups. Therefore, it seemedunlikely that different memory and attentional capacities stoodout as explanatory factors of the memory effects. Sinceperformances of both episodic and semantic memory tasks wereimpaired, the explanation based on level of access to long-termmemory was also ruled out. However, the episodic memory task,reading comprehension, stood out to be most impaired by noise,suggesting that complexity of the task to perform was ofimportance. For reading comprehension there was also adifferent noise pattern obtained. Participants performance wasin this task, more impaired by meaningful irrelevant speechthan by road traffic noise. This effect indicated thatmeaningful irrelevant speech might reduce the availablecognitive resources necessary for learning the text. Theannoyance models derived from the survey studies indicated thatsensitivity acted as a mediator between hearing status andannoyance, with stress symptoms as an outcome. Whetherannoyance arises or not was also determined by control andpredictability of the noise. In the interviews a differentannoyance pattern was found, in that stress symptoms appearedto be a determinant of annoyance. To be involved, respected,take own responsibility and respect others were suggestions onhow to change the environment to become more silent.

    Conclusions.For both pupils and teachers acute exposureto meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noiseinfluenced both the achieving and providing of knowledge. Acommon annoyance pattern was also found for pupils andteachers, where individual and situational factors were ofimportance. To achieve a more silent school environment in thefuture, the pupils pointed out that the interaction betweenthemselves and their teachers was of importance.

    Key words:Noise, meaningful irrelevant speech, roadtraffic noise, memory, age groups, school environment, pupils,teachers

  • 2.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    The effects of noise and gender on children’s episodic and semantic memory.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 407-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objectives in the present study were to examine meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise effects on episodic and semantic memory, and to evaluate whether gender differences in memory performance interact with noise. A total of 96 subjects, aged 13–14 years (n= 16 boys and 16 girls in each of three groups), were randomly assigned to a silent or two noise conditions. Noise effects found were restricted to impairments from meaningful irrelevant speech on recognition and cued recall of a text in episodic memory and of word comprehension in semantic memory. The obtained noise effect suggests that the meaning of the speech were processed semantically by the pupils, which reduced their ability to comprehend a text that also involved processing of meaning. Meaningful irrelevant speech was also assumed to cause a poorer access to the knowledge base in semantic memory. Girls outperformed boys in episodic and semantic memory materials, but these differences did not interact with noise.

  • 3.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ballgren, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, CNS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is health related quality of life among school children associated with level of semantic memory?2010In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 19, p. 107-107, article id 194/1380Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Factors affecting pupils’ noise annoyance in schools: The building and testing of models2004In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 207-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports two studies intended to develop and assess conceptual models of how different factors mediate and moderate the annoyance reaction in school environments. In the first, a survey of 207 pupils was conducted where assumptions about mediators and moderators were formulated and tested. In the best model, general sensitivity and adaptation led to a higher degree of annoyance causing stress symptoms. In the second study, focus group interviews with 16 pupils were performed to set up a model of mediating and moderating factors from pupils' statements in the formation of annoyance. The objective was also to get their opinions about ways to improve the sound environment in school. The interviews indicated a serial arrangement in which stress symptoms and distraction mediated between chatter and disturbance. Thus, the two studies suggested different models for the prediction of the annoyance reaction. The pupils' views about how to improve the school sound environment are discussed in the framework of an empowerment model.

  • 5.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Noise and age effects on reading comprehension (Poster)2004In: XXVII International Congress of Psychology, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Strength of noise effects on memory as a function of noise source and age.2005In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 27, p. 11-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives in this paper were to analyse noise effects on episodic and semantic memory performance in different age groups, and to see whether age interacted with noise in their effects on memory. Data were taken from three separate previous experiments, that were performed with the same design, procedure and dependent measures with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45 and 55-65 years). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) meaningful irrelevant speech, (b) road traffic noise, and (c) quiet. The results showed effects of both noise sources on a majority of the dependent measures, both when taken alone and aggregated according to the nature of the material to be memorised. However, the noise effects for episodic memory tasks were stronger than for semantic memory tasks. Further, in the reading comprehension task, cued recall and recognition were more impaired by meaningful irrelevant speech than by road traffic noise. Contrary to predictions, there was no interaction between noise and age group, indicating that the obtained noise effects were not related to the capacity to perform the task. The results from the three experiments taken together throw more light on the relative effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on memory performance in different age groups.

  • 7.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Univ Gavle, Gavle, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Univ Gavle, Gavle, Sweden..
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is perceived autonomy associated with health-related quality of life among adolescents?2016In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 25, p. 85-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Can psychosomatic symptoms explain gender and age differences in health related quality of life among Swedish schoolchildren?2012In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 21, p. 77-78Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Boman, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Danermark, Berth
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Can people with disabilities gain from education?: Similarities and differences between occupational attainment among persons with and without disabilities2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: More knowledge is needed ofoccupational attainment of persons with disabilities, i.e. the relationship between their educational level and their profession, and factors of importance for this relationship.

    Objective: To compare occupational attainment among persons with and without a disability.

    Method: 3 396 informants with disabilities and 19 004 non-disabled informants participated (control group) in a survey study by Statistics Sweden.The informants with disabilities were divided into six groups.

    Results: Occupational attainment did not differ between the disability groups, neither between persons with and without a disability. Follow-up analysis showed that men with disabilities with primary or secondary school had an occupation above their educational level to a significantlylarger extent than women with disabilities. This pattern was even clearer in comparison with the control group. Persons without disabilities, with secondary or higher education, were more successful in the labor market than persons with disabilities. Occupational attainment increased with age in both groups.

    Conclusions: Young women with disabilities who only have primary or secondary education run a higher risk of having a job that is below their educational level than men at the same educational level. This indicates discriminating mechanisms in the society related to gender and ability.

  • 10.
    Boman, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Danermark, Berth
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Employment opportunities for persons with different types of disability2015In: Alter;European Journal of Disability Research ;Journal Europeen de Recherche Sur le Handicap, ISSN 1875-0672, E-ISSN 1875-0680, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 116-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The employment status of groups with different disabilities wasanalysed as were potentially important moderating factors (workability, structural and individual factors). A secondary analy-sis was performed on 4359 respondents with disabilities fromStatistics Sweden's Labour Market Investigation. The respondentswere divided into six disability groups (communicative-hearing,communicative-speech-reading, communicative-vision, psycho-logical disability, medical disability, physical disability). Logisticregression analyses showed that the probability of being employedwas highest among respondents with hearing disabilities andrespondents with psychological disabilities were least likely tobe employed. Being a woman (very young or old) with onlyprimary education and with partially or very impaired workability, reduced employment opportunities. Higher education didnot increase employment opportunities for respondents withimpaired work ability. In summary, the type of disability is essentialfor employment opportunities, and differences between disabil-ity groups cannot be explained by differences in other variables. 

  • 11.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Boman, Eva
    Improvement of the sound environment in schools2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12. Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Boman, Eva
    Noise annoyance in schools – Teachers’ perceptions2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Noise annoyance responses of middle school pupils and teachers2004In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 527-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present survey study had three aims: (1) to compare pupils' and teachers' annoyance responses to classroom noise, (2) to compare females and males responses and (3) to test annoyance models that fitted both pupils and teachers. The study included 207 pupils, aged 13-14 years, and 166 teachers, aged 21-65 years. Both pupils and teachers rated chatter as the most disturbing noise source in the classroom. In line with predictions, the teachers experienced themselves as more sensitive to noise, had poorer hearing status, and reported more intense stress symptoms than the pupils. Contrary to expectations, the teachers were more annoyed and they perceived the noise to be more unpredictable than the pupils did. The control items showed a mixed pattern. There were no overall differences between females and males annoyance responses, but females reported having more stress symptoms than males. A conceptual model was tested with structural equation models, where noise sensitivity mediated the relationship between hearing status and annoyance, which in turn affected stress symptoms. Control and predictability were tested as moderators of the relations between stress symptoms and annoyance. The data fit the conceptual model reasonable well when both samples were included in the same test. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Pupils and teachers response structures of noise annoyanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Structural equation models of memory performance across noise and age2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 449-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competing models of declarative memory were tested with structural equation models to analyze whether a second-order latent variable structure for episodic and semantic memory was invariant across age groups and across noise exposure conditions. Data were taken from three previous experimental noise studies that were performed with the same design, procedure, and dependent measures, and with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45, and 55-65 years). Two noise conditions, road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech, were compared to a quiet control group. The structural models put to the test were taken from Nyberg et al. (2003), which employed several memory tests that were the same as ours and studied age-groups that partly overlapped with our groups. In addition we also varied noise exposure conditions. Our analyses replicated and supported the second-order semantic-episodic memory models in Nyberg et al. (2003). The latent variable structures were invariant across age groups, with the exception of our youngest group, which by itself showed a less clear latent structure. The obtained structures were also invariant across noise exposure conditions. We also noted that our text memory items, which did not have a counterpart in the study by Nyberg et al. (2003), tend to form a separate latent variable loading on episodic memory.

  • 16.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    The effects of noise on memory1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17. Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Boman, Eva
    Hygge, Staffan
    The effects of noise on word fluency and word comprehension in different age groups2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Short is beautiful: Dimensionality and measurement invariance in two length of the Basic Psychological need Satisfaction at work scale2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-determination theory proposes that all humans have three intrinsic psychological needs: the needs for Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness. These needs take different forms in different areas of life. The present study examines the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction at Work (BPNS-W) scale. The fit of 10-factor structures previously suggested for related versions of the scale were compared. Cross-sectional data from 1,200 participants were examined in a confirmatory factor analysis framework. Both the original 21-item version and a reduced 12-item version of the BPNS-W were examined. The General Health Questionnaire was used for validation. The results supported a three-factor solution with correlated error variances for the reversed items. Invariance testing of the long and short scales gave best support to the short scale, for which partial scalar invariance was achieved. The external validity of the short scale was supported by a hierarchical regression analysis in which each need made a unique contribution in predicting psychological well-being. In conclusion, the results corroborate a three-factor structure of BPNS-W. Although not perfect the short scale should, it is argued, be preferred over the long version. Directions for the future development of the scale are discussed.

  • 19.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Richardsson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Telecommuting in academia – Associations with staff’s health and well-being2018In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume IX: Aging, Gender and Work, Anthropometry, Ergonomics for Children and Educational Environments / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 308-312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to telecommute has changed working life for staff at universities and colleges. Although the opportunity to work away from the office at any time gives workers more freedom to manage their work, it also imposes higher demands on workers to set limits to their work. The aim of this ongoing study is to determine if there is an optimal amount of telecommuting for male and female academics with respect to perceived health, work stress, recovery, work-life balance, and work motivation. A web-based survey is currently being conducted among lecturers and professors at Swedish universities and colleges. Results so far show that perceived fatigue and stress associated with indistinct organization and conflicts are higher among academics that telecommute to a larger extent. The results also show that female academics are more fatigued and stressed at work than male academics, but this does not seem to be related to the extent of telecommuting performed.

  • 20.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Widar, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Telecommuting in academia – associations with health and well-being among staff2018In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    Boman, Eva
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    An experiment with children in the first grade to reduce their self-generated noise2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    The effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on different memory systems2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 13-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore why noise has reliable effects on delayed recall in a certain text-reading task, this episodic memory task was employed with other memory tests in a study of road traffic noise and meaningful but irrelevant speech. Context-dependent memory was tested and self-reports of affect were taken. Participants were 96 high school students. The results showed that both road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech impaired recall of the text. Retrieval in noise from semantic memory was also impaired. Attention was impaired by both noise sources, but attention did not mediate the noise effects on episodic memory. Recognition was not affected by noise. Context-dependent memory was Dot shown. The lack of mediation by attention, and road traffic noise being as harmful as meaningful irrelevant speech, are discussed in relation to where in the input/storing/output sequence noise has its effect and what the distinctive feature of the disturbing noise is.

  • 23.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    A comparison of structural equation models of memory performance across noise conditions and age groups2008In: ICBEN 2008: Machantucket Connecticut, USA, July 21-25, 2008 : the 9th Congress of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise : Noise as a Public Health Problem : Proceedings (edited by Barbara Griefahn), Dortmund: IfADo , 2008, p. 387-394Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Richardsson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Att arbeta på distans – möjligheter och konsekvenser för universitetslärare2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 118-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Universitets- och högskoleväsendet har under de senaste årtiondena genomgått stora förändringar. Den teknologiska utvecklingen och ökade konkurrensen nationellt och internationellt har lett till högre krav på effektivitet, produktivitet och tillgänglighet av personal oavsett vart de befinner sig. Arbetssituationen inom universitet- och högskole-väsendet har på detta sätt blivit mer krävande. Universitetslärare är en yrkesgrupp som i allt större utsträckning har möjlighet att arbeta på distans, och nyttjar den möjligheten regelbundet både inom och utanför ordinarie arbetstid. Trots detta är det få studier som undersökt hur undervisande och forskande personal inom högskolesektorn upplever och påverkas av distansarbete.

    Syfte

    Att undersöka hur distansarbete praktiseras av, och påverkar universitetslärare, samt att undersöka första linjens chefers upplevelser av att leda en personalgrupp som i varierande omfattning arbetar på distans.

    Metod

    Projektet innehåller fyra delstudier. Delstudie I består av en web-baserad enkätunder-sökning av hälsa, stress, återhämtning, balans mellan arbete och privatliv, arbetsmo-tivation, och förekomst av distansarbete bland universitetslärare vid svenska högskolor och universitet. Datainsamlingen pågår och förväntas vara avslutad i slutet av VT-18. I delstudie II kommer universitetslärare att följas under en arbetsvecka med mätningar av rörelsemönster, hjärtfrekvens och stresshormon. Mätningarna kommer att förläggas till en vecka då läraren arbetar minst en dag på ordinarie arbetsplats och minst en dag på annan plats, så att jämförelser av exponering kan göras inom person. Datainsamling för delpro-jekt III genomförs genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med universitetslärare för att undersöka deras upplevelser av att arbeta på, respektive utanför, ordinarie arbetsplats och vad som motiverar dem att arbeta på distans. I delprojekt IV undersöks upplevelser av att leda en personalgrupp som i varierande omfattning arbetar på distans, genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med universitetsanställda med en första linjens chefsposition.

    Resultat

    Projektet förväntas bidra med fördjupad kunskap om hur distansarbete inom universitets- och högskolesektorn relaterar till olika aspekter av hälsa och välbefinnande bland universitetslärare, och vilka effekter det får för individen att ta med sig arbetet från den ordinarie arbetsplatsen. Projektet förväntas även generera kunskap om hur universitets-anställda med en personalledande funktion upplever att leda anställda som arbetar på distans. Denna kunskap kommer att bidra till utvecklandet av rekommendationer för en hållbar arbetsmiljö, i lärarkåren och hos universitetsanställda med en personalledande funktion.

  • 25.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Inst för klinisk neurovetenskap, sektionen för försäkringsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Associations between scores of psychosomatic health symptoms and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents2013In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 11, no 176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aims of the present study are to investigate whether there are differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between girls and boys in two different age groups, to study how much of children’s variance in HRQoL can be explained by common psychosomatic health symptoms, and to examine whether the same set of psychosomatic symptoms can explain differences in HRQoL, both between girls and boys and between older and younger school children.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 253 children, 99 of ages 11-12 years (n=51 girls, n=48 boys) and 154 of ages 15-16 years (n=82 girls, n=72 boys), in Swedish schools. The KIDSCREEN-52 instrument, which covers 10 dimensions of HRQoL and additional questions about psychosomatic health symptoms, were used. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate differences between the genders and age groups, and in interaction effects on the KIDSCEEN-52 dimensions. Regression analyses were used to investigate the impacts of psychosomatic symptoms on gender and age group differences in HRQoL.

    Results: Boys rated themselves higher than girls on the KIDSCREEN dimensions: physical and psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, and autonomy. Main effects of age group were found for physical well-being, psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, autonomy, and school environment, where younger children rated their HRQoL more highly than those aged 15-16 years. Girls rated their moods and emotions dramatically lower than boys in the older age group, but the ratings of emotional status were more similar between genders at younger ages. Psychosomatic symptoms explained between 27% and 50% of the variance in the children’s HRQoL. Sleeping difficulties were a common problem for both girls and boys. Depression and concentration difficulties were particularly associated with HRQoL among girls whereas stomach aches were associated with HRQoL among boys.  

    Conclusions: Girls and adolescents experience poorer HRQoL than boys and younger children, but having psychosomatic symptoms seem to explain a substantial part of the variation. Strategies to promote health among school children, in particular to alleviate sleep problems among all children, depression and concentration difficulties among girls, and stomach aches among boys, are of great importance.

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