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  • 1.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Att välja pedagogiska hälsointerventioner för genusanalys2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet med att förbättra och förstärka människors hälsa förs på flera fronter. En av dessa fronter handlar om livsstilsförändringar och söks åstadkommas genom interventionsarbete och riktas då ofta mot ett eller annat risk- eller ohälsobeteende, som kan handla om exempelvis kost eller motion. Det börjar även anses viktigt att ett genusperspektiv integreras i hälsoarbetet. Mer och mer uppmärksammas hur relationerna mellan män och kvinnor påverkar individers hälsotillstånd på olika sätt, liksom deras möjligheter att agera på ett hälsosamt sätt. Kost och motion kan även anses vara genusladdade begrepp så till vida att aktiviteterna (att äta, att motionera) handlar om beteenden som är bemängda med föreställningar om vad som är manliga respektive kvinnliga beteendemönster, varmed ätande/val av mat samt motionerande/val av motionsform i allra högsta grad påverkas av normer, och är även normskapande. Som en konsekvens av detta blir integrerandet av ett genusperspektiv i utvecklandet, implementerandet och utvärderandet av pedagogiska hälsointerventioner en nödvändighet för att undvika att i interventionsarbetet skapa, upprätthålla eller förstärka inskränkande eller hämmande normer. Mitt avhandlingsarbete skall delvis handla om att göra en genusanalys av pedagogiska hälsointerventioner, varmed några interventioner måste väljas ut för analysarbetet. För att kunna göra detta behöver inledningsvis följande frågor besvaras: Vad är en intervention? Vad är en pedagogisk hälsointervention? Hur kan en ”population” av pedagogiska hälsointerventioner definieras och identifieras och utifrån vilka strategier kan ett urval göras ur denna ”population”? Det är dessa frågor, och naturligtvis svaret på dem, som utgör grunden för föreliggande paper.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Constituting the Healthy Employee?: Governing gendered subjects in workplace health promotion2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With a post-structural approach and an analytical focus on processes of governmentality and biopower, this study is concerned with how discourses of health are contextualized in educational practice and interaction between educators and participants in workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions. Of concern are issues of the discursive production, regulation and representation of power, knowledge and subjects as gendered beings in workplace health promotion interventions. The methods for generating data are participant observation, interviews and gathering of documentation pertaining to four different workplace health promotion interventions. Based on these data, the thesis offers an analysis of the health discourses drawn on in the interventions and the technologies of power and of the self by which the participants are governed and invited to govern themselves in the name of health. It also asks what practices and positions that thus come to be made available or not to the participants. Two health discourses are identified: the biomedical discourse and the wellness discourse. Both discourses are drawn on in all four studied interventions, the biomedical discourse being the dominating discourse drawn on. The biomedical discourse is informed by scientific ‘facts’ and statistics and is underpinned by a notion of risk. The wellness discourse is informed by an understanding of health as a subjective embodied experience and is underpinned by a notion of pleasure. Drawing on these discourses, the responsibility for health is placed with the participants and the healthy participant/employee is constituted as a rationally motivated risk-avoider and disciplined pleasure seeker who is both willing and able to actively make ‘good’ choices regarding their lifestyle. Furthermore, and informed by essentialist and heteronormative ideas about gender, the ideal healthy person is modelled on a male norm, representing women as the deviant Other.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Constructing healthy bodies in health education2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Public health work has long been focusing on school based health education and community development projects. However, there is a growing field of health education taking place in various corporations and workplaces, targeting employees. Critical perspectives on health education offer some insight into what ‘truths’ are made available to the recipients of health education messages, but what is not previously explored is how these ‘truths’ are put to work in health education interventions at corporations and workplaces, how these ‘truths’ are drawn on in the interaction with participants and how they serve to govern the participants and to engage them in governing themselves. In my study, this is explored by drawing on Foucault’s notion of governmentality, specifically the technologies of power and the technologies of the self, to examine discourses (‘truths’ or ‘regimes of truth’) of health, body, gender and education drawn on in four health education interventions targeting diet and physical activity in adults and how these discourses are negotiated on the one hand by the educators and on the other hand by the participants to govern their own and others conduct of conduct. With this study I seek to trouble taken for granted notions in health education about the subject and provide public health workers with new knowledge about health education practice, about what happens in the interaction between educators and participants in health education interventions. Methodologically I suggest new areas and methods for interrogating the phenomenon of public health/health education practice/interventions. The analysis has been executed on data consisting of field notes, interview transcripts and artifacts (documents pertaining to the interventions) from participation observations in four different health education interventions targeting diet and physical activity in adults. The results of the analysis are concerned with the truth regimes (discourses) concerning health, body, gender and education that are drawn on in the interventions and how educators and participants are positioned as these discourses are negotiated.

  • 4.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Evaluating the planned ”ripple effect” of an educational/social program2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An ex post facto study, initiated at the request of the National Institute for Working Life (NIWL) in Umeå, aimed at evaluating the impact of an educational/social program, targeted towards working life and dealing with work environment issues, such as noise, vibration and non-ionised radiation is described. The pedagogical principle on which the program is based is a strategic use of a, so called, "ripple effect", that is, where participants in the educational program are specifically expected to convey their knowledge gained on to other colleagues in the workplace. This "ripple effect" is ultimately supposed to result in an improvement of workplace safety behavior. The program has been in operation since 1997. Ex post facto data will be gathered at selected workplaces from the ultimate targets of the "ripple effect". Difficulties and problems associated with ex post facto evaluations; of evaluating "ripple effects"; and of deciding on strategy and methodology for ex post facto "ripple effect"-evaluations will be explored.

  • 5.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik. Pedagogiska insitutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Hälsa och anställningsbarhet: en kritisk analys2009Ingår i: Anställningsbarhet: Perspektiv från utbildning och arbetsliv / [ed] Berglund, Gun & Fejes, Andreas, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1, s. 137-151Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Risk and pleasure in health promotion2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the perpetual issues in health promotion is the issue of compliance. Researchers and practitioners work to understand and identify the mechanisms and find the magic formula for how to achieve that long-term compliance regarding healthy behavior. Since the poststructuralist ‘linguistic turn', language has come to be conceived as performative (rather than representational) and as such is also of great interest in education as a central aspect of learning: language has come to be perceived as central to our way of understanding our world, and how we understand our world may be perceived as central to how we come to act in this world. Hence, how health is talked about may be expected to have an impact on behavior, on compliance. When the notion of ‘health' is discussed, in research and by lay-people, it is often described by using binaries such as health/disease, healthy/unhealthy, risk/resource, etc. In a study on health promotion initiatives in the workplace (Björklund 2008), another binary emerged: risk/pleasure. By drawing on Derrida's notion of différance to interrogate the binary of risk/pleasure this paper seeks to deconstruct this notion of health. This deconstruction exposes expectations that are placed on the recipients of health promotion initiatives.  The analysis also illustrates the dialectical relationship between risk and pleasure and explores inclusive spaces for understanding other ways of thinking about health.

  • 7.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Teaching employees to “do” health and wellness: Wellness inspirers as a technology of workplace health promotion2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    General description of research questions, objectives and theoretical framework

    This paper takes issue with corporate concern for shaping and governing employees’ health and wellness. Corporations have long been concerned with employee health, but this concern has shifted from a focus on occupational health and safety to include individual health and wellbeing (Bjurvald 2004, Björklund 2008). This is much in line with neo-liberal developments in the public health field internationally in which the advance of a culture of risk has resulted in individuals needing to become self-regulating and self-forming (Turner 1997). This focus on individual health and wellbeing through self-regulation and self-formation has resulted in the development of various health promoting interventions, for instance in the workplace. Workplace health promotion interventions have been described as a two-edged sword (Lupton 1995, but see also for instance Allender, Colquhoun & Kelly 2006a, 2006b and  Maravelias 2009, 2012), meaning that interventions and programs concerned with employee health signal philanthropic motives on the part of the employers at the same time as they signal a control over employees’ bodies, exhorting them to engage in specific activities and not others in their spare time. Health promotion in the workplace thus serves to foster a culture of health consciousness and a desire to lead a healthy life, teaching employees what, how and why they should do in order to become happy and fulfilled with their lives and thus be more desirable employees.

    As part of a discursive trend, workplace health promotion is being organized and governed on a European level by for instance a European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP). The network aims at promoting good practice in workplace health promotion in all European countries, defining workplace health promotion as “the combined efforts of employers, employees and society to improve the health and well-being of people at work” (ENWHP 1997/2007:2). Basic network consensus on goals, vision and mission are recorded in policy documents, or declarations. For example, in the Luxembourg Declaration (ENWHP 1997/2007), implementing policies and practices that enhance employee health by making the healthy choices the easy choices is encouraged. The Luxembourg Declaration also points to important actions for improving workplace health, one of which involves promoting active participation. In an ever more health focused and neo-liberal society, corporations have started to introduce wellness inspirers into the workplace. A wellness inspirer is a regular employee who receives a couple of days of training in order to, besides their regular work duties, also function as an inspirer to help develop healthier lifestyle habits among the staff. The introduction of wellness inspirers to help advance employees’ health and wellness can hence be regarded as an example of promoting active participation among employees, and in this manner, wellness inspirers function as a technology of workplace health promotion. The purpose of this paper is therefore to explore how this phenomenon of wellness inspirers and their role in the workplace and workplace health promotion are discursively construed and operate to govern employees’ health and wellness.

    Methods/methodology

    The study is based on empirical data in the form of student theses and organization reports and evaluations on workplace health promotion with a specific focus on wellness inspirers. Original student theses were searched in DiVA which is an open database and archive for research publications and student theses produced in Sweden. The search term “hälsoinspiratör” (“wellness inspirer”) was used. Searches were also performed using the same search term on Scholar Google to find reports and evaluations from organizations using wellness inspirers. Out of a total of 103 references, 29 publications were selected.

    The publications used were then analyzed using discourse theory, guided by Foucault’s (1978/2003) notion of governmentality. In Rose’s (1999:20) words, governmentality is to analyze “what authorities of various sorts wanted to happen, in relation to problems defined how, in pursuit of what objectives, through what strategies and techniques”. In this study, this relates to the discursive constructions of wellness inspirers, their responsibilities and organization which were analyzed in relation to the techniques for governing that the discourses produced in the name of health and wellness. What discourses were mobilized and what practices for governing of the self and others did those discourses produce?

    Expected outcomes/results

    The findings show a high degree of consistency between different organizations and different parts of the country regarding how the wellness inspirer was constituted. The wellness inspirer generally had a network of other wellness inspirers to turn to but was also expected to be self-sufficient in producing activities and inspiring co-workers, making it somewhat of a solitary endeavor. In the studied material, the wellness inspirer is also depicted as someone who offers inspiration, energy and good spirits. In this description of the wellness inspirer – or the expectations placed on the wellness inspirer – health and wellbeing is conceived as something that can be imparted upon and shared with people by the means of mere good cheer.

  • 8.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    The fragmentation of work environment training in Swedish vocational education and training2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that contemporary work environment training in Swedish vocational education and training (VET) is insufficient in terms of students’ learning. In 2011, the Swedish government implemented the current curriculum and syllabi, replacing the older one from 1994. One of the changes made was the restructuring of work environment training (WET) in VET. The reform was played out by breaking apart the former cohesive course of WET into different subjects and courses. An apparent risk with this new ‘integration’ of WET into different subjects and courses is that WET within a program may become fragmented and disorganized, not only in the policy documents but also in the daily education practice. Based on these notions, the paper will firstly develop an understanding of the thinking behind the current syllabus for WET, secondly exemplify the distribution of WET within various subjects and courses, and thirdly illustrate how the current syllabus may be played out in daily education practice. Based on these initial observations, the study will explore how notions of a ‘good work environment’ is framed and constructed within the newly re-organized context of WET. Accordingly, the study aims to explore how WET is made intelligible within the new curriculum and syllabi for VET in upper secondary school and how notions and expectations attached to a ‘good working environment’ is part of this discourse. The empirical material is the 2011 curriculum and syllabi for the upper secondary school Electricity and energy program. By systematically reviewing and analyzing the various course syllabi, the study will contribute with a comprehensive view of the current syllabus for WET and knowledge about what a ‘good work environment’ is conceived to be within these policy documents. This will provide a better understanding regarding what kind of knowledge of work environment that young people are expected to be equipped with before entering the labor market. Finally, consequences for students’ ability to learn effectively by distributing a specific content into different subjects will be discussed and elaborated on. Even though the specific example here is WET, the results have a potential to be universal.

  • 9.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Theoretical Perspectives on the Body2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore selected theoretical perspectives on the body. The perspectives selected focus on concepts such as disciplined and medicalized bodies. Further, they are based in gender-/feminist theory, and/or discourse analysis. They also deal with questions of the body as materiality or social construction, the mind/body-split, and the concept of embodiment. The exploration into these perspectives will result in a construction of an analytical framework to analyze embodiment, from a gender perspective, in educational health interventions targeting diet and physical activity in adults.

  • 10.
    Björklund, Erika
    Umeå universitet.
    Timelines of Policy debates: Sweden: Deliverable No. 192007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Traces of ’Healthy Body’ and Gender Discourses in A Nutrition Educational Health Intervention2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In educational health interventions that target life-style related behavior, a common focus is on diet and physical activity. Diet and physical activity can be regarded as gendered concepts in so far that the activities (to eat, to exercise) concern behaviors that are permeated by notions of what is considered to be masculine and feminine behavior. Eating/choosing food and exercising/choosing forms of exercise are highly influenced by norms and social mores, and, reciprocally, also educate norms and mores. Diet and physical activity are also two of the most common, every-day modes of shaping our bodies: through diet, to maintain, gain or lose weight, and through physical activity, to maintain, gain (build muscles) or lose weight. Normative perceptions of body shape, appearance and behavior may be informally prescribed in discourses of “the healthy body”. The goal of this paper is to analyze gender aspects of ‘healthy body’ discourses as they might appear in an educational health intervention targeting diet. Based on ethnographic data from a pilot-study this paper explores questions of whether, and how, these notions may influence discourses of un-/healthy bodies in educational health interventions targeting participants’ diet.

  • 12.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Using governmentality to understand subjectification in workplace health promotion2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to current discussions about criticisms aimed at the analytical concept of governmentality. To do this, I draw on my thesis work, in which the purpose was to explore how “the healthy employee” was constituted in four different workplace health promotion interventions, and how technologies of power and of the self were employed to invite the participants to govern themselves and others. As such, the paper starts with a brief summary of the study, followed by a description of how the concept of governmentality was drawn on in the study. After that review, the paper goes on to address some of the strengths and weaknesses of how the concept was drawn on in this specific work.

  • 13.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    What "is" feminist poststructuralist writing?2007Ingår i: Present challenges in gender research / [ed] Åsa Andersson & Eva E. Johansson, Umeå: National School of Gender Research, Umeå University , 2007, s. 15-28Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Writing Different(ly)?2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In writing (e.g. a Ph.D.-thesis), you have several and sometimes diverging ideals, traditions and expectations to consider. Ideals, traditions and expectations related to the genre you’re writing in (science as opposed to fiction), the discipline (education), the theoretical perspective (feminist poststructuralism), and the methodological approach (discourse analysis), but also the time period (contemporary), the geographical location (Sweden, Europe, the Western world?) and, lest we forget, the form (Ph.D.-thesis), and possibly (probably) more. This “presentation” would have been readily available to you as you first see this article, glimpse the title, author-name and know the context in which it is being presented, even without me spelling it out to you as I have. My concern in this paper regards the possibility to write a text – thesis or article – differently. Questions that arise in relation to this are: What would it mean to write “differently”? Is it to do with form, content or something else? Why would I want to write differently? Further, is it possible for a Ph.D.-student to do so? What I would like to explore here is a notion of disrupting the reading/reader. What would that mean and (how) could that be accomplished? And will it add anything of value to the text/reading? Another question is, should one try to accomplish a disruption through one’s writing, and, importantly, why should one want disruption? Beyond these central first questions, there are others following on it, such as: Will the research still be considered credible? Will it be read? Will it be understood? Will it make the writer/researcher (me?) undesirable in academia? These are considerations one might want to take a minute to reflect over. I will address these questions as I explore the issues of writing different(ly) through disruption.

  • 15.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Grysell, Tomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Förväntade lärandemål: ett arbete från en projektbaserad universitetspedagogisk kurs vid Umeå universitet2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I följande skrift har syftet dels varit att lyfta fram ett arbete som ingått som ett försök till en framtida planerad projektbaserad universi-tetspedagogisk kurs, dels att sprida de kunska-per och erfarenheter som dokumenterats i och med det projektbaserade universitetspedago-giska arbetet Förväntade lärandemål – Om att ändra en kursplan i enlighet med Bologna. Pro-jektarbetet syftade till att beskriva och proble-matisera arbetsprocessen med att formulera och skriva om målen för en tidigare univer-sitetspedagogisk kurs till lärandemål, i enlig-het med Bolognadeklarationens direktiv. Ar-betet baseras på ett uppdrag som författaren, Erika Björklund, fått genom sin hemmain-stitution vid Högskolan i Gävle. Författaren till det här presenterade arbetet har förutom att dokumentera sina reflektioner om arbets-processen med att formulera om kursmålen även refererat till material – intervjuer och lit-teratur – som inspirerat henne i sitt arbete. I resultaten framkommer att arbetet på inget sätt är enkelt utan att det innehåller en rad moment som är mer eller mindre problema-tiska och besvärliga. Inte minst när det gäller de avvägningar som man som kursutvecklare måste göra i förhållande till vad som förvän-tas av kursdeltagarna enligt tidigare kursplan och vad som faktiskt skett under kursen när man som projektutövaren inte själv deltagit eller medverkat i kursen. Parallellt med det egna projektet utarbetade hennes uppdrags-givare egna lärandemål utifrån ett annat per-spektiv än hon själv kommit att arbeta efter. På så sätt får läsaren själv erfara två olika sätt att betrakta och få exempel på olika möjliga lärandemål inom en kurs, beroende på vilket perspektiv kursutvecklaren har med sitt arbe-te. Arbetet i sin helhet ger en vägbeskrivning eller en karta till hur man kan arbeta med och tänka kring förväntade lärandemål och hur arbetsprocessen för en enskild universitetslä-rare kan förväntas te sig i och med ett sådant utvecklingsarbete.

  • 16.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet.
    Review of educational research on ‘health work’ in Swedish Ph.D.-theses during 2005-20142016Ingår i: Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education?, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine how health work is manifested in Swedish educational PhD-theses. We define ‘health work’ here broadly, encompassing for instance the work of all kinds of health professionals (such as health educators/promoters, public health workers, nurses, chiropractors, personal trainers, etc), health work through health related reporting in various media (e.g. magazines, web-sites, blogs, etc), and also the health work individuals perform on and for themselves (e.g. lifestyle-oriented activities). Intrinsic to these types of health work are both immanent and more direct processes of education, whereby it becomes a field of interest to educational researchers, and education research into this field of health work in turn becomes of use to health workers/practitioners.

    Therefore it is interesting to examine how this field of ‘health work’ is perceived and framed in the perspective of Swedish education research and what questions education research have been asking in this field. The aim of this paper is to explore how health work figures in Swedish education research. What aspects of health work are education researchers in Sweden interested in? What questions are being asked? And hence, how can education research in the field of health work support health workers/practitioners in their work?

    In order to answer these questions, we have looked at all of the Swedish doctoral theses in education published during the years of 2005-2014. During this period, there were 666 theses published, of which 108 were selected in the first selection, and of these, 74 were selected in the third selection. With a broad operationalization of ‘health’ and ‘health work’, the 74 theses were then further analyzed to determine how health figured in the theses and to answer the rest of the research questions. Here, a distinction was made between theses that had an explicit focus on health work in their research questions and those that did not. The analysis further consisted of categorizing the theses depending on how central or marginal issues of health work were in the studies and on whether health work was an implicit or explicit aspect of the study. The analysis was also concerned with finding common themes or issues or arenas etc.

    The preliminary results show that very few theses in education directly relate to health work. The most common areas studied are the school subject of Physical health and education (Idrott och hälsa-ämnet), student health (elevhälsa), health care (hälso- och sjukvård), and sports (idrott). Quite a few studies are concerned with issues of professionalization and many want to understand learning processes related to various illnesses or chronic conditions that people live with, while very few studies have research questions that directly relate to practices of health promotion, i.e. issues of influencing health practices from a salutogenic (“positive health”) perspective.

  • 17.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Review of educational research within the territory of health in Swedish Ph.D.-theses during 2005-20142016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Kickbusch (2007), lately health has grown in societal significance to such a degree that we can talk about a shift to a “health society”. From a pedagogical perspective, this shift can be understood as a shift in mentality (Ödman, 1995), meaning a shift in how we think about and understand society and ourselves. In this “health society”, and perhaps with increased impact since the introduction of the notion of health promotion in the 1980s (Nutbeam 2008), health has become both a commodity and a trade (fitness market, health foods, alternative therapies, health tourism, cosmetic surgery, etc, see Kickbusch 2007). With its increased reach, and considering the importance of education to health work, one question is how health figures in education research. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore this, with Swedish Ph.D. theses as an example. It asks: What aspects of health and health society are educational researchers in Sweden interested in? How is health perceived and framed in the perspective of educational research? What questions are being asked? And hence, how can educational research within the territory of health support health workers/practitioners in their work? The empirical material is based on Swedish doctoral theses in education published during the years of 2005-2014 (n = 666). Through two selection stages, guided by a broad conceptualization of health, 74 theses were identified as health related and selected for analysis to determine how health figures in the theses with regard to the research questions. The preliminary results show that few theses in education directly relate to health. The most common areas studied are the school subject of physical health and education, student health, health care, and sports. Quite a few studies are concerned with issues of professionalization and many want to understand learning processes related to various illnesses or chronic conditions that people live with, while few studies have research questions that relate to practices of (salutogenic) health promotion or the profession of health promotion. In conclusion, health figures in educational research primarily in terms of various health related arenas as objects of study, and to a more limited extent as an object of knowledge.

  • 18.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Discourses about electricians in vocational education2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Students in vocational education to become electricians have an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) once in the workforce compared to most other blue collar professions (Toomingas et al., 2014). This increased risk comes from having to work in awkward body positions, with heavy and sometimes poorly adapted tools and with time constraints. Many end up with chronic disabilities, forcing them to change careers or to go on sickness pension. Besides the significant and damaging consequences for the individual concerned, losing electricians from the workforce is a significant loss for the building industry in which electricians these days are scarce, and for society that not only loses tax-incomes but also possibly need to pay sickness pension for these people during quite a few years. It is therefore important to find ways to prevent MSDs and to promote good ergonomics in the building industry in general and among electricians specifically. Electricians’ knowledge and habits regarding MSDs are first formed and shaped in school, during vocational education to become an electrician. Drawing on the ideas of bio-power and governmentality, as introduced and developed by Foucault (1988, 1990, 2003) and developed by Rose (1999; Rabinow and Rose, 2006), discourses govern how it is possible to think and act. From this standpoint, then, talk and discourses are not perceived as innocent or ‘mere’ talk (Hall, 2001) but as governing the production, regulation and representation of both bodies and subjects through the acquisition of specific dispositions, tastes and abilities (Foucault, 1988; Rose, 1999). Thus, discourses drawn on in school about electricians and the profession govern how it is possible to think and act about oneself and others in relation to both ergonomics and MSD and, by extension, have material effects on electricians’ health. This means that, to foster healthy ergonomics one needs to consider how electricians and the profession are conceived and thought about in school, i.e. how electricians and the profession are discursively conceived. The purpose of this paper is thus to explore discursive constructions of electricians and the profession as these are expressed in discussions about MSDs in the vocational education and school context. Methods used are four focus group interviews: two with students, one with teachers and one with school management at one senior high school program for electricians. In the focus group interviews the participants were asked to discuss ideas about causes and reasons to why electricians develop MSDs, consequences and effects of MSDs and ideas about what could be done to prevent MSDs. The interviews were then transcribed and discursively analyzed with questions in mind about how each group conceived of electricians and the profession.

  • 19.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Discursive constructions of electricians in discussions about musculoskeletal disorders among professionals in the field2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricians have an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) compared to most other blue collar professions. Many end up with chronic disabilities, forcing them to change careers or to go on sickness pension. Besides negative consequences for the individuals concerned, MSDs also have a detrimental impact on the workforce (reduced number of professionals) and on society (financial costs). It is therefore important to find ways to prevent MSDs and to promote good ergonomic behavior. Electricians’ knowledge and habits regarding MSDs are first formed and shaped in school, during vocational education to become an electrician. In the course of this time the students have periods of internship during which they interact with professionals within the field. Drawing on the ideas of bio-power and governmentality, as introduced and developed by Foucault and developed further by Rose, discourses govern how it is possible to think and act. From this standpoint, then, talk and discourses are not perceived as innocent or ‘mere’ talk but as producing and regulating subjects through their acquisition of specific dispositions, tastes and abilities. Thus, discourses drawn on about electricians and the profession during the students’ internship will govern how it is possible for the students to think and act about themselves and others in relation to both ergonomic behavior and MSDs and, by extension, will have material effects on electricians’ health. This means that, to foster healthy ergonomic behavior one needs to consider how electricians are thought of within the field, i.e. how electricians and the profession are discursively conceived. The purpose of this paper is thus to explore discursive constructions of electricians and the profession as these were expressed in discussions about MSDs among professionals in the field.  Two semi-structured focus group interviews and one individual interview with professionals in the field were conducted. The participants were asked to discuss ideas about i) causes as to why electricians develop MSDs, ii) consequences and effects of MSDs, and iii) ideas about what could be done to prevent MSDs. The interviews were transcribed and the material is currently being discursively analyzed with questions in mind about how the participants conceived of electricians and the profession. Results will be presented at the conference, but preliminary analyses suggests that predominant discourses are concerned with the masculinity of electricians as well as with their time pressured work situation, both contributing to casualness towards ergonomic behavior.

  • 20.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Genderand educational ”safer sex” interventions2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the proposition that there is a paucity of gender perspectives in the field of health education interventions, it is argued that a gender analysis is fundamental to health promotion and health education planning and should be a part of all health planning and programming. The aim of this paper was to inquire to what extent gender aspects are considered in the development of interventions. For this study, published peer reviewed research papers describing interventions targeting prevention of pregnancy/HIV/STI, were selected from databases (see Wijk, 2002, this conference). Selected papers have been analyzed through a “gender reading” of the texts. Results describe the extent to which selected papers deal with gender in the development of theoretical premises and implementation strategies.

  • 21.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Wright, Jan
    University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Disciplined by pleasure: Pleasure as a mode of governing in health promotion2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the notion of pleasure in health promotion (HP) is rare but increasing. It has to some extent been explored for instance in relation to drugs and alcohol (Hold and Treloar 2008, Peele and Grant 1999) and to sexual health (Race 2008), and to a more limited extent in relation to physical activity and dietary habits (Björklund 2008, Vogel and Mol 2014). Coveney and Bunton (2003) provide a more philosophical discussion about what pleasure in HP might entail. Greco (2009) and Race (2008) propose that a focus on pleasure in HP and a problematization of the absence of pleasure in health policy discourse would offer a well-needed shift in interpretations of HP that would contribute to the development of alternative approaches (see also Björklund 2008, Coveney and Bunton 2003, Fullagar 2002, Phoenix and Orr 2014, Segar and Richardson 2014).

    Drawing on Foucault’s (1991) power analysis, in which power is perceived as relational and productive, and Foucault’s (1988, 1990, 2003) and Rose’s (1999, see also Rabinow and Rose 2006) ideas about bio-power and governmentality, we will be interrogating pleasure as a technology for shaping, managing and disciplining both bodies and minds, through the acquisition of specific dispositions, tastes and abilities related to health and health practices. The purpose is to analyze the production, regulation and representation of bodies and subjects through both the presence and absence of pleasure in HP practice in four Swedish workplace interventions.

    The paper draws on empirical material (field notes from observations and conversations, transcripts from interviews and documents such as course books) gathered for an ethnographic study that examined how discourses of health were contextualized in educational practice, including the interactions between lecturers and participants in the four interventions. The data were read in the context of our theoretically informed questions about the pleasure discourse and what subjectivities it constituted. Our questions were concerned with what values and modes of life, what subjectivities are promoted through the notions of wellness and pleasure in health promotion? That is, what is the subjectivity proper to a notion of a healthy citizen, as produced through a discourse of pleasure?

    The analysis shows that the ideal subject produced by the notion of pleasure was a self-responsible and self-governing individual who was able and willing to recognize the boundary between “good”, meaning disciplined, pleasures and “bad” pleasures, as well as able to manage to stay on the “right” side of this boundary.

  • 22.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Wright, Jan
    University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australien.
    Gender and evolutionary theory in workplace health promotion2017Ingår i: Health Education Journal, ISSN 0017-8969, E-ISSN 1748-8176, Vol. 76, nr 8, s. 893-905Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Ideas from evolutionary theories are increasingly taken up in health promotion. This articleseeks to demonstrate how such a trend has the potential to embed essentialist and limiting stereotypes ofwomen and men in health promotion practice.

    Design: We draw on material gathered for a larger ethnographic study that examined how discourses ofhealth were re-contextualised in four workplace health promotion interventions in Sweden.

    Method: This study provided the opportunity to investigate how ideas derived from evolutionary theoriesproduced particular constructs of the healthy employee. A Foucauldian notion of governmentality wasused to examine the rationalities, truths and techniques that informed what we have called a ‘Stone Age’discourse as these contributed to shaping the desires, actions and beliefs of lecturers and participants in theinterventions.

    Results: We focus on one intervention which used the Stone Age discourse as an organising idea toconstitute differences in women’s and men’s health through references to women as gatherers and men ashunters, thereby positioning men as the physical, emotional and mental ideal and women as the problematicand lacking ‘other’.

    Conclusion: The paper concludes by discussing the implications of such ideas about health and gender forinterventions aimed at changing behaviour and lifestyles.

  • 23.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Wright, Jan
    University of Wollongong, Dept. of Education.
    Troubling the Notion of the ‘Stone Age’ in Health Promotion: a gender analysis2012Ingår i: AARE-APERA 2012, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses how gender is constituted in a Swedish workplace health promotion intervention which focused on diet and physical activity, through the resources of what we have called a ‘Stone Age’ discourse. The paper draws on material gathered for a larger study that examined how discourses of health are contextualized in educational practice and interaction between educators and participants in four different workplace health promotion interventions. The purpose of the interventions was to help employees change (improve) their lifestyle as concerns dietary and physical activity habits. Data was collected for the original study by ethnographic methods such as participation observation of the interaction between educators and participants. Foucault’s ideas about governmentality were utilized in analyzing the interactions in order to investigate how health discourses were drawn on and the technologies of power and of the self by which the participants were governed and invited to govern themselves in the name of health. From these analyses, various discourses were identified on which the participants and particularly the educators drew to constitute the healthy employee. One of these was a discourse, which in this paper is called a ‘Stone Age’ discourse, because of the ways in which the differences in men and women’s health were explained in its most overt form by reference to women as gatherers and men as hunters, with men as a result positioned as the physically, emotionally and mentally ideal and women as the problematic and lacking ‘Other’. While this discourse, in this form, may be unique to Scandinavian countries, this paper will nevertheless indicate how this notion corresponds to ideas from evolutionary theory and medicine in international research on health and wellness. This paper will also discuss the implications of such ideas about health and gender for interventions aimed at changing behavior and lifestyles. The paper will provide a discussion of the specific rationalities, truths and techniques that informed the 'Stone Age' discourse, as these contributed to shaping desires, actions and beliefs.

  • 24.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Björklund, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Utveckling av arbetsmiljöutbildning på yrkesgymnasium för förebyggande av belastningsbesvär och främjandet av ett hållbart arbetsliv för installationselektriker: En förberedande fallstudie2018Ingår i: FALF KONFERENS 2018. Arbetet - problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö? Gävle 10-12 juni 2018: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 92-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte

    Många yrkesprogram på gymnasiet utbildar för yrken där vi vet att anställda ofta drabbas av belastningsrelaterad ohälsa. Exempelvis visar data från Arbetsmiljöverket att 9–12% av alla installationselektriker och elmontörer rapporterar besvär orsakade av påfrestande arbetsställningar och att de rapporterar en ettårsprevalens på 6–10% för besvär i nacke, axlar, arm och rygg till följd av arbetet som varit så svåra att det påverkat arbetsförmågan. Forskning har även visat att elever på elteknikprogram löper särskilt hög risk att drabbas av arbetsskada relativt andra utbildningar. Redan under utbildningen bör åtgärder sättas in för att minska dessa risker.

    En genomgång av litteraturen visar dock att det finns tydliga brister i hur yrkesprogram förbereder eleverna för ett kommande arbetsliv vad gäller arbetsmiljökunskap och att orsakerna till dessa brister troligen finns inom undervisningens innehåll och utformning, lärares kompetens och samverkan med yrkeslivet under utbildningen. Vidare kan elever-nas attityder till arbetsmiljöundervisning utgöra ett hinder. Sammantaget förefaller hin-dren för en bra arbetsmiljöutbildning på yrkesprogram inom gymnasiet vara komplexa och multifaktoriella.

    Innan åtgärder sätts in för att utveckla undervisningen finns därför stort behov av att kartlägga de komplexa orsakssambanden bakom brister inom utbildningen och utifrån det utforma förbättringsåtgärder.

    I vår studie avser vi att svara på forskningsfrågan: Hur anser olika intressenter att olika faktorer inom såväl utbildningen som framtida yrkeskontext interagerar och bidrar till uppkomsten av belastningsbesvär hos installationselektriker?

    Metod och resultat

    Studien har en fallstudiedesign där fokusgrupper och problemträdsanalys används. Pro-blemträdsanalys är en metod för att kartlägga komplexa orsakssamband och att klargöra grundläggande orsaker. Analysen kan därmed säkra att aktiviteter och insatser inte väljs och påbörjas utan att man först har kartlagt kärnproblemets ofta komplexa orsaker grundligt.

    Som underlag till problemträdsanalysen kommer fokusgruppsintervjuer att genomföras där personer från samma kategori intressenter separat samtalar om kärnproblemet. Vi kommer genomföra intervjuer separat med elever, lärare, skolledning och representanter från arbetslivet. Problemträdsanalysen genomförs sedan vid ett tillfälle där 2–3 personer från varje intressent; elever, lärare, skolledningen, representanter från arbetslivet och forskare från projektgruppen deltar. Inför sessionen kommer vi att delge deltagarna underlag baserat på resultaten från fokusgruppintervjuerna och vår litteratursökning så att de kan ta del avSession D:2Individuella presentationer: Fysiskt arbetsliv93vad andra intressegrupper/källor identifierat som möjliga orsaksfaktorer. Efter framtagande av problemträd kommer tänkbara lösningar att formuleras i samverkan med alla intressenter för att skapa ett lösningsträd, vilket kommer att utgöra grund för kommande utvecklingsarbete inom utbildningen.

    Datainsamling och analyser genomförs under våren 2018 och preliminära resultat kommer att presenteras på konferensen.

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