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  • 1.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Concurrent dual-band power amplifier model modification using dual two-tone test2016Inngår i: 46th Europena Microwave Conference (EUMC) 2016, 2016, s. 186-189Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual two-tone technique for the characterization of memory effects in concurrent dual-band transmitters is revisited to modify a 2D-DPD model for the linearization of concurrent dual-band transmitters. By taking into account the individual nonlinear memory effects of the self- and cross-kernels, a new2D modified digital pre-distortion (2D-MDPD) model is proposed,which not only supersedes the linearization performance but also reduces the computational complexity compared to the 2DDPDmodel in terms of a number of floating point operations(FLOPs). Experimental results show an improvement of 1.7 dBin normalized mean square error (NMSE) and a 58% reduction in the number of FLOPs.

  • 2.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characterization and Compensation of Hardware Impairments in Transmitters for Wireless Communications2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing demands for data rate, energy efficiency and reliability in wireless communications have resulted in the introduction of radio frequency (RF) multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmitters. However, MIMO transmitters suffer from additional crosstalk impairments along with the power amplifier (PA) and I/Q imbalance distortions observed in single input single output (SISO) transmitters. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the characterization and compensation of these hardware impairments in RF SISO and MIMO transmitters.

    PA distortions are often compensated using the Volterra series, but it suffers from high computational complexity. Therefore, a non-parametric method based on density estimation has been proposed in this thesis to estimate the PA transfer function, from which pruned Volterra models can be developed. The method is validated for a Doherty PA and achieves competitive error performance at a lower complexity than its competitors.

    For MIMO transmitters, a characterization technique that uses multitone excitation signals has been proposed. Multitone signals yield non-overlapping tones at the outputs of the MIMO Volterra kernels. These kernel outputs are used to identify the dominant crosstalk impairments, from which block structure and base-band behavioral models are developed. The method is validated for 2x2 and 3x3 MIMO transmitters and it is shown that the derived models achieve a better complexity accuracy trade-off than the other pruned MIMO Volterra models considered in this thesis.

    Finally, the thesis presents compensation models for joint static I/Q imbalance and MIMO PA distortions based on conjugate pair and real-valued basis functions. The models are augmented with sub-sample resolution to compensate for dynamic I/Q imbalance distortions. The proposed models are validated for a 2x2 RF MIMO transmitter and achieve a better complexity accuracy trade-off than the other state-of-the-art models considered in this thesis.

  • 3.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    A Comparative Analysis of the Complexity/Accuracy Tradeoff in the Mitigation of RF MIMO Transmitter Impairments2017Inngår i: 2017 89th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference (ARFTG), IEEE, 2017, artikkel-id 8000827Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the complexity accuracy tradeoff in state-of-the-art RF MIMO transmitter mitigation models. The complexity and accuracy of the candidate models depends on the basis functions considered in these models. Therefore, a brief description of the mitigation models is presented accompanied by derivations of the model complexities in terms of the number of FLOPs. Consequently, the complexity accuracy tradeoff in the candidate models is evaluated for a 2 × 2 RF MIMO transmitter. Furthermore, the model complexities are analyzed for increasing nonlinear orders and number of antennas.

  • 4.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    Universidad Católica San Pablo.
    Händel, Peter
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Digital Predistortion for Joint Mitigation of I/Q Imbalance and MIMO Power Amplifier Distortion2017Inngår i: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 322-333, artikkel-id 7600411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the joint effects of in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) imbalance and power amplifier (PA) distortion for RF multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmitters in the presence of crosstalk. This paper proposes candidate models for the digital predistortion of static I/Q imbalanced sources exciting a dynamic MIMO Volterra system. The proposed models are enhanced using a novel technique based on subsample resolution to account for dynamic I/Q imbalance distortions. Finally, the computational complexity of the proposed models is analyzed for implementation suitability in digital platforms. It is shown that the error spectrum for the proposed models in subsample resolution reaches the noise floor of the measurements. The proposed models achieve a normalized mean squared error of -50 dB and an adjacent channel power ratio of -57 dB for signal bandwidths upto 65 MHz and crosstalk levels ranging to -10 dB. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques in the joint mitigation of I/Q imbalance and PA distortion with crosstalk for a typical 2x2 MIMO telecommunication setup.

  • 5.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Department of Information Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    Universidad Católica San Pablo, Arequipa, Peru.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Information Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Extraction of the Third-Order 3x3 MIMO Volterra Kernel Outputs Using Multitone Signals2018Inngår i: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 66, nr 11, s. 4985-4999Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses multitone signals to simplify the analysis of 3×3 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Volterra systems by isolating the third-order kernel outputs from each other. Multitone signals fed to an MIMO Volterra system yield a spectrum that is a permutation of the sums of the input signal tones. This a priori knowledge is used to design multitone signals such that the third-order kernel outputs are isolated in the frequency domain. The signals are designed by deriving the conditions for the offset and spacing of the input frequency grids. The proposed technique is then validated for the six possible configurations of a 3x3 RF MIMO transmitter impaired by crosstalk effects. The proposed multitone signal design is used to extract the third-order kernel outputs, and their relative contributions are analyzed to determine the dominant crosstalk effects for each configuration.

  • 6.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    Universidad Católica San Pablo.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. University of Gävle.
    Identification of Third Order 3x3 MIMO Volterra Kernels using Multitone Excitation SignalsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Universidad Catolica San Pablo, Arequipa, Peru.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Multitone design for third order MIMO volterra kernels2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), IEEE conference proceedings, 2017, s. 1553-1556Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a technique for designing multitone signals that can separate the third order multiple input multiple output (MIMO) Volterra kernels. Multitone signals fed to a MIMO Volterra system yield a spectrum that is a permutation of the sums of the input signal tones. This a priori knowledge is used to design multitone signals such that the output from the MIMO Volterra kernels does not overlap in the frequency domain, hence making it possible to separate these kernels from the output of the MIMO Volterra system. The proposed technique is applied to a 2×2 RF MIMO transmitter to determine its dominant hardware impairments. For input crosstalk, the proposed method reveals the dominant self and cross kernels whereas for output crosstalk, the proposed method reveals that only the self kernels are dominant.

  • 8.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zenteno, Efrain
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Study of the Power Amplifier transfer function symmetry and its relation to dynamic effects2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE 16th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, s. 1-6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Future wireless networks will employ unprecedentedly high number of transmitters along-with larger bandwidth signals. Therefore, complexity efficient Power Amplifier (PA) modelling methods with the ability to quantify memory effects are required. This paper presents a low complexity method to quantify memory effects by studying the symmetry in the PA transfer functions estimated with the density estimation method. It is shown that the symmetry helps in reducing the method complexity by more than two orders of magnitude. Further, it is verified that the symmetry can be used as a non-model based metric for quantifying memory effects in PAs. 

  • 9.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH.
    Density estimation models for strong nonlinearities in RF power amplifiers2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference 2014, 2014, s. 116-118Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a method for modeling strongnonlinear effects in power amplifiers based on the principlesof density estimation. The static nonlinear transfer function isobtained by averaging measured data. The performance obtainedwith density estimation is similar to the one using high ordernonlinear static polynomial models. The benefit of consideredmethod over the ones using polynomial models is that the formerestimates blindly the structure of the transfer function and doesnot suffer from numerical instabilities.

  • 10.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Department of Signal Processing, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Department of Signal Processing, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Finding Structural Information about RF Power Amplifiers using an Orthogonal Nonparametric Kernel Smoothing Estimator2016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 2883-2889, artikkel-id 7109926Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-parametric technique for modeling the behavior of power amplifiers is presented. The proposed technique relies on the principles of density estimation using the kernel method and is suited for use in power amplifier modeling. The proposed methodology transforms the input domain into an orthogonal memory domain. In this domain, non-parametric static functions are discovered using the kernel estimator. These orthogonal, non-parametric functions can be fitted with any desired mathematical structure, thus facilitating its implementation. Furthermore, due to the orthogonality, the non-parametric functions can be analyzed and discarded individually, which simplifies pruning basis functions and provides a tradeoff between complexity and performance. The results show that the methodology can be employed to model power amplifiers, therein yielding error performance similar to state-of-the-art parametric models. Furthermore, a parameter-efficient model structure with 6 coefficients was derived for a Doherty power amplifier, therein significantly reducing the deployment’s computational complexity. Finally, the methodology can also be well exploited in digital linearization techniques.

  • 11.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, Stockholm, Sweden; Univ Catolica San Pablo, Arequipa, Peru.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using Intrinsic Integer Periodicity to Decompose the Volterra Structure in Multi-Channel RF Transmitters2016Inngår i: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, ISSN 1531-1309, E-ISSN 1558-1764, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 297-299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An instrumentation, measurement and post-processing technique is presented to characterize transmitters by multiple input multiple output (MIMO) Volterra series. The MIMO Volterra series is decomposed as the sum of nonlinear single-variable self-kernels and a multi-variable cross-kernel. These kernels are identified by sample averages of the outputs using inputs of different sample periodicity. This technique is used to study the HW effects in a RF MIMO transmitter composed by input and output coupling filters (cross-talk) sandwiching a non-linear amplification stage. The proposed technique has shown to be useful in identifying the dominant effects in the transmitter structure and it can be used to design behavioral models and compensation techniques.

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