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  • 1.
    Abrehdary, M.
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjöberg, L. E.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Modelling Moho depth in ocean areas based on satellite altimetry using Vening Meinesz-Moritz' method2016In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, ISSN 2213-5812, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment for estimating Moho depth is carried out based on satellite altimetry and topographic information using the Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric isostatic hypothesis. In order to investigate the possibility and quality of satellite altimetry in Moho determination, the DNSC08GRA global marine gravity field model and the DTM2006 global topography model are used to obtain a global Moho depth model over the oceans with a resolution of 1 degrees x 1 degrees. The numerical results show that the estimated Bouguer gravity disturbance varies from 86 to 767 mGal, with a global average of 747 mGal, and the estimated Moho depth varies from 3 to 39 km with a global average of 19 km. Comparing the Bouguer gravity disturbance estimated from satellite altimetry and that derived by the gravimetric satellite-only model GOGRA04S shows that the two models agree to 13 mGal in root mean square (RMS). Similarly, the estimated Moho depths from satellite altimetry and GOGRA04S agree to 0.69 km in RMS. It is also concluded that possible mean dynamic topography in the marine gravity model does not significantly affect the Moho determination.

  • 2.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Department of Environment and Life Sciences, Geomatics Section, University of Karlstad, Karlstad,Sweden; Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lars, Sjöberg
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology(KTH), Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sampietro, Daniele
    GReD s.r.l., Como, Italy.
    Towards the Moho depth and Moho density contrast along with their uncertainties from seismic and satellite gravity observations2017In: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a combined method for estimating a new global Moho model named KTH15C, containing Moho depth and Moho density contrast (or shortly Moho parameters), from a combination of global models of gravity (GOCO05S), topography (DTM2006) and seismic information (CRUST1.0 and MDN07) to a resolution of 1° × 1° based on a solution of Vening Meinesz-Moritz’ inverse problem of isostasy. This paper also aims modelling of the observation standard errors propagated from the Vening Meinesz-Moritz and CRUST1.0 models in estimating the uncertainty of the final Moho model. The numerical results yield Moho depths ranging from 6.5 to 70.3 km, and the estimated Moho density contrasts ranging from 21 to 650 kg/m3, respectively. Moreover, test computations display that in most areas estimated uncertainties in the parameters are less than 3 km and 50 kg/m3, respectively, but they reach to more significant values under Gulf of Mexico, Chile, Eastern Mediterranean, Timor sea and parts of polar regions. Comparing the Moho depths estimated by KTH15C and those derived by KTH11C, GEMMA2012C, CRUST1.0, KTH14C, CRUST14 and GEMMA1.0 models shows that KTH15C agree fairly well with CRUST1.0 but rather poor with other models. The Moho density contrasts estimated by KTH15C and those of the KTH11C, KTH14C and VMM model agree to 112, 31 and 61 kg/m3 in RMS. The regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between KTH15C and Moho depths from seismic information yields fits of 2 to 4 km in South and North America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia and Antarctica, respectively.

  • 3.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Combined Moho parameters determination using CRUST1.0 and Vening Meinesz-Moritz model2015In: Journal of Earth Science, ISSN 1674-487X, E-ISSN 1867-111X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 607-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) global inverse isostatic problem, either the Moho density contrast (crust-mantle density contrast) or the Moho geometry can be estimated by solving a non-linear Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Here solutions to the two Moho parameters are presented by combining the global geopotential model (GOCO-03S), topography (DTM2006) and a seismic crust model, the latter being the recent digital global crustal model (CRUST1.0) with a resolution of 1A(0)x1A(0). The numerical results show that the estimated Moho density contrast varies from 21 to 637 kg/m(3), with a global average of 321 kg/m(3), and the estimated Moho depth varies from 6 to 86 km with a global average of 24 km. Comparing the Moho density contrasts estimated using our leastsquares method and those derived by the CRUST1.0, CRUST2.0, and PREM models shows that our estimate agrees fairly well with CRUST1.0 model and rather poor with other models. The estimated Moho depths by our least-squares method and the CRUST1.0 model agree to 4.8 km in RMS and with the GEMMA1.0 based model to 6.3 km.

  • 4.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    The spherical terrain correction and its effect on the gravimetric-isostatic Moho determination2016In: International Journal of Geophysics, ISSN 1687-885X, E-ISSN 1687-8868, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 262-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the Moho depth is estimated based on the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and DTM2006 topographic data using the Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric-isostatic hypothesis. In this context, we compute the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances in a set of 1° × 1° blocks. The spherical terrain correction, a residual correction to each Bouguer shell, is computed using rock heights and ice sheet thicknesses from the DTM2006 and Earth2014 models. The study illustrates that the defined simple Bouguer gravity disturbance corrected for the density variations of the oceans, ice sheets and sediment basins and also the non-isostatic effects needs a significant terrain correction to become the refined Bouguer gravity disturbance, and that the isostatic gravity disturbance is significantly better defined by the latter disturbance plus a compensation attraction. Our study shows that despite the fact that the lateral variation of the crustal depth is rather smooth, the terrain affects the result most significantly in many areas. The global numerical results show that the estimated Moho depths by the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances and the seismic CRUST1.0 model agree to 5.6 and 2.7 km in RMS, respectively. Also, the mean value differences are 1.7 and 0.2 km, respectively. Two regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between the Moho depths estimated based on the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and that using CRUST1.0 model yield fits of 4.9 and 3.2 km in South America and yield 3.2 and 3.4 km in Fennoscandia, respectively.

  • 5.
    Agha Karimi, Armin
    et al.
    KTH.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. KTH.
    Huremuz, Milan
    KTH.
    Multidecadal sea level variability in the Baltic sea and its impact on acceleration estimations2021In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 8, article id 702512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidecadal sea level variation in the Baltic Sea is investigated from 1900 to 2020 deploying satellite and in situ datasets. As a part of this investigation, nearly 30 years of satellite altimetry data are used to compare with tide gauge data in terms of linear trend. This, in turn, leads to validation of the regional uplift model developed for the Fennoscandia. The role of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in multidecadal variations of the Baltic Sea is also analyzed. Although NAO impacts the Baltic Sea level on seasonal to decadal time scales according to previous studies, it is not a pronounced factor in the multidecadal variations. The acceleration in the sea level rise of the basin is reported as statistically insignificant in recent studies or even decelerating in an investigation of the early 1990s. It is shown that the reason for these results relates to the global warming hiatus in the 1950s−1970s, which can be seen in all eight tide gauges used for this study. To account for the slowdown period, the acceleration in the basin is investigated by fitting linear trends to time spans of six to seven decades, which include the hiatus. These results imply that the sea level rise is accelerated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1900–2020.

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  • 6.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Evaluation of the Closure of Global Mean Sea Level Rise Budget over January 2005 to August 20162019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Sea level changes over time because of water mass exchange among the oceans and continents, ice sheets, and atmosphere. It fluctuates also due to variations of seawater salinity and temperature known as the steric contributor. GRACE-based Stokes coefficients provide a valuable source of information, about the water mass exchange as the main contributor to the Earth’s gravity field changes, within decadal scales. Moreover, measuring seawater temperature and salinity at different layers of ocean depth, Argo floats help to model the steric component of Global Mean Sea Level. In this study, we evaluate the Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) budget closure using satellite altimetry, GRACE, and Argo products. Hereof, considering the most recent released GRACE monthly products (RL06), we examine an iterative remove-restore method to minimize the effect of artifact leaked large signal from ice sheets and land hydrology. In addition, the effect of errors and biases in geophysical model corrections, such as GIA, on the GMSL budget closure is estimated. Moreover, we quantify the influence of spatial and decorrelation filtering of GRACE data on the GMSL budget closure. In terms of the monthly fluctuations of sea level, our results confirm that closing the GMSL budget is highly dependent on the choice of the spatial averaging filter. In addition, comparing the trends and variations for both the global mean sea level time series and those estimated for mass and steric components, we find that spatial averaging functions play a significant role in the sea level budget closure.

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  • 7.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. KTH.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. KTH.
    Quantifying barystatic sea-level change from satellite altimetry, GRACE and Argo observations over 2005–20162020In: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1922-1940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-varying spherical harmonic coefficients determined from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data provide a valuable source of information about the water mass exchange that is the main contributor to the Earth’s gravity field changes within a period of less than several hundred years. Moreover, by measuring seawater temperature and salinity at different layers of ocean depth, Argo floats help to measure the steric component of global mean sea level (GMSL). In this study, we quantify the rate of barystatic sea-level change using both GRACE RL05 and RL06 monthly gravity field models and compare the results with estimates achieved from a GMSL budget closure approach. Our satellite altimetry-based results show a trend of 3.90 ± 0.14 mm yr−1 for the GMSL rise. About 35% or 1.29 ± 0.07 mm yr−1 of this rate is caused by the thermosteric contribution, while the remainder is mainly due to the barystatic contribution. Our results confirm that the choice of decorrelation filters does not play a significant role in quantifying the global barystatic sea-level change, and spatial filtering may not be needed. GRACE RL05 and RL06 solutions result in the barystatic sea-level change trends of 2.19 ± 0.13 mm yr−1 and 2.25 ± 0.16 mm yr−1, respectively. Accordingly, the residual trend, defined as the difference between the altimetry-derived GMSL and sum of the steric and barystatic components, amounts to 0.51 ± 0.51 and 0.45 ± 0.44 mm yr−1 for RL05 and RL06-based barystatic sea-level changes, respectively, over January 2005 to December 2016. The exclusion of the halosteric component results in a lower residual trend of about 0.36 ± 0.46 mm yr−1 over the same period, which suggests a sea-level budget closed within the uncertainty. This could be a confirmation on a high level of salinity bias particularly after about 2015. Moreover, considering the assumption that the GRACE-based barystatic component includes all mass change signals, the rather large residual trend could be attributed to an additional contribution from the deep ocean, where salinity and temperature cannot be monitored by the current observing systems. The errors from various sources, including the model-based Glacial Isostatic Adjustment signal, independent estimation of geocenter motion that are not quantified in the GRACE solutions, as well as the uncertainty of the second degree of zonal spherical harmonic coefficients, are other possible contributors to the residual trend.

  • 8.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Division of Geodesy and satellite positioning, KTH.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potential and the Earth ellipsoid parameters2019In: Journal of Geodesy, ISSN 0949-7714, E-ISSN 1432-1394, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 1943-1961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geoid, according to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, is, among infinite equipotential surfaces of the Earth’s gravity field, the equipotential surface that in a least squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s global gravity models (GGM). Although, nowadays, satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the mean Earth ellipsoid (MEE). The main objective of this study is to perform a joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite-component of a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e., mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2 s−2 and the semi-major and minor axes of the MEE, a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3 s−2.

  • 9.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potential and the Earth ellipsoid parameters2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    According to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, the geoid is the equipotential surface of the Earth’s gravity field that in a least-squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s Global Gravity Models (GGM). Although nowadays, the satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the Mean Earth Ellipsoid (MEE). In this study, we perform joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface, and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite componentof a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e. mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea-level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2s-2 and the semi-major and –minor axes of the MEE,a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of the GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3s-2.

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  • 10.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A study on the quality of GNSS signals for extracting the sea level height and tidal frequencies utilizing the GNSS-R approach2023Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 11.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Combination of seismic and an isostatic crustal thickness models using Butterworth filter in a spectral approach2012In: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, ISSN 1367-9120, E-ISSN 1878-5786, Vol. 59, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Deformation monitoring using different least squares adjustment methods: a simulated study2016In: KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, ISSN 1226-7988, E-ISSN 1976-3808, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 855-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the ability of different least squares adjustment techniques for detecting deformation. A simulated geodetic netwo rk is used for this purpose. The observations are collected using the Total Station instrument in three epochs and different least squares adjustment methods are used to analyze the simulated network. The applied methods are adjustment-byelement, using variance-covariance components and Tikhonov regularization. For numerical computation, we utilized exist geodetic network around the simulated network and the deformation (changes in the simulated network) imposes to the object using a simulator in each epoch. The obtained results demonstrate that more accurate outcome for detection of small deformation is possible by estimating variance-covariance components. The difference of the estimated and the simulated deformations in the best scenario, i.e., applying variance-covariance components, is 0.2 and 0.1 mm in x and y directions. In comparison with adjustment by element and Tikhonov regularization methods the differences are 1.1 and 0.1 in x direction and 1.4 and 1.1 mm in y direction, respectively. In addition, it is also possible to model the deformation and therefore it can be seen that how the calculated displacement will affect the result of deformation modelling. It has been demonstrated that determining reasonable variance-covariance components is very important to estimate realistic deformation model and monitoring the geodetic networks. 

  • 13.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Global earth isostatic model using smoothed Airy-Heiskanen and Vening Meinesz hypotheses2012In: Earth Science Informatics, ISSN 1865-0473, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 93-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Impact of compensating mass on the topographic mass: A study using isostatic and non-isostatic Earth crustal models2012In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, ISSN 1217-8977, E-ISSN 1587-1037, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 29-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Importance of precise geoid model in direct georeferencing and aerial photogrammetry: A case study in Sweden2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne mobile mapping is one of the most important data acquisitionmethods for producing topographical maps and extracting terrain featuresfrom aerial images. The interest in 3D geospatial data is expanding, andtechnology is growing at an unprecedented speed with new digitalcamera mapping systems. Different sensors are used for data acquisitionin modern airborne photogrammetry. GNSS/INS (Inertial NavigationSystems) applications are developing, especially for direct georeferencingin airborne photogrammetry. Achieving accurately georeferencedproducts from the integration of GNSS and INS requires removingexisting systematic errors/bias, due to different reference systems, in themobile mapping systems. The collected data should refer to the samereference system; otherwise, it can impose a systematic shift in theresults. In this presentation, we assess the impact of the deflection ofverticals (i.e. the angle between the plumb line and normal to thereference ellipsoid) on the obtained horizontal and vertical coordinates.

  • 16.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. KTH.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Department of Computer and Spatial Sciences University of Gävle Gävle Sweden.
    Wang, Linsong
    China University of Geosciences; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, Germany.
    Shirazian, Masoud
    Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
    Mantle Viscosity Derived From Geoid and Different Land Uplift Data in Greenland2022In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, ISSN 2169-9313, E-ISSN 2169-9356, Vol. 127, no 8, article id e2021JB023351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth's mass redistribution due to deglaciation and recent ice sheet melting causes changes in the Earth's gravity field and vertical land motion in Greenland. The changes are because of ongoing mass redistribution and related elastic (on a short time scale) and viscoelastic (on time scales of a few thousands of years) responses. These signatures can be used to determine the mantle viscosity. In this study, we infer the mantle viscosity associated with the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and long-wavelength geoid beneath the Greenland lithosphere. The viscosity is determined based on a spatio-spectral analysis of the Earth's gravity field and the land uplift rate in order to find the GIA-related gravity field. We used different land uplift data, that is, the vertical land motions obtained by the Greenland Global Positioning System (GPS) Network (GNET), gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) data, and also combined them using the Kalman filtering technique. Using different land uplift rates, one can obtain different GIA-related gravity fields. As shown in this study, the mantle viscosities of 1.9 × 1022 Pa s and 7.8 × 1021 Pa s for a depth of 200–700 km are obtained using ICE-6G (VM5a) model and the combined land uplift model, respectively, and the GIA-related gravity potential signal

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  • 17.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Wang, Linsong
    Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China.
    Shirazian, Masoud
    Department of geomatics engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran..
    Mantle viscosity derived from geoid and different land uplift data in Greenland2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth’s mass redistribution due to deglaciation and recent ice sheet melting causes changes in the Earth’s gravity field and vertical land motion in Greenland. The changes are because of ongoing mass redistribution and related elastic (on a short time scale) and viscoelastic (on time scales of a few thousands of years) responses. These signatures can be used to determine the mantle viscosity. In this study, we infer the mantle viscosity associated with the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and long-wavelength geoid beneath the Greenland lithosphere. The viscosity is determined based on a spatio-spectral analysis of the Earth’s gravity field and the land uplift rate in order to find the GIA-related gravity field. We used and evaluated different land uplift data, i.e. the vertical land motions obtained by the Greenland Global Positioning System (GPS) Network (GNET), GRACE and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) data. In addition, a  combined land uplift rate using the Kalman filtering technique is presented in this study. We extract the GIA-related gravity signals by filtering the other effects due to the deeper masses i.e. core-mantle (related to long-wavelengths) and topography (related to short-wavelengths). To do this, we applied correlation analysis to detect the best harmonic window. Finally, the mantle viscosity using the obtained GIA-related gravity field is estimated. Using different land uplift rates, one can obtain different GIA-related gravity fields. For example, different harmonic windows were obtained by employing different land uplift datasets, e.g. the truncated geoid model with a harmonic window between degrees 10 to 39 and 10 to 25 showed a maximum correlation with the GIA model ICE-6G (VM5a) and the combined land uplift rates, respectively. As shown in this study, the mantle viscosities of 1.6×1022 Pa s and 0.9×1022 Pa s for a depth of 200  to 650  km are obtained using ICE-6G (VM5a) model and the combined land uplift model, respectively, and the GIA-related gravity potential signal.

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  • 18.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bai, Yongliang
    School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, China.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    NTIS - New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of West Bohemia, Plzeň, Czechia.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Miranda, Silvia
    Departamento de Geofísica y Astronomía, FCEFN Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina.
    Sanchez, Juan M. Alcacer
    Departamento de Geofísica y Astronomía, FCEFN Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina.
    Effect of the lithospheric thermal state on the Moho interface: a case study in South America2017In: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, ISSN 0895-9811, E-ISSN 1873-0647, Vol. 76, p. 198-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gravimetric methods applied for Moho recovery in areas with sparse and irregular distribution of seismic data often assume only a constant crustal density. Results of latest studies, however, indicate that corrections for crustal density heterogeneities could improve the gravimetric result, especially in regions with a complex geologic/tectonic structure. Moreover, the isostatic mass balance reflects also the density structure within the lithosphere. The gravimetric methods should therefore incorporate an additional correction for the lithospheric mantle as well as deeper mantle density heterogeneities. Following this principle, we solve the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy constrained by seismic data to determine the Moho depth of the South American tectonic plate including surrounding oceans, while taking into consideration the crustal and mantle density heterogeneities. Our numerical result confirms that contribution of sediments significantly modifies the estimation of the Moho geometry especially along the continental margins with large sediment deposits. To account for the mantle density heterogeneities we develop and apply a method in order to correct the Moho geometry for the contribution of the lithospheric thermal state (i.e., the lithospheric thermal-pressure correction). In addition, the misfit between the isostatic and seismic Moho models, attributed mainly to deep mantle density heterogeneities and other geophysical phenomena, is corrected for by applying the non-isostatic correction. The results reveal that the application of the lithospheric thermal-pressure correction improves the RMS fit of the VMM gravimetric Moho solution to the CRUST1.0 (improves ∼ 1.9 km) and GEMMA (∼1.1 km) models and the point-wise seismic data (∼0.7 km) in South America.

  • 19.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Avd för naturvetenskap, lantmäteri- och maskinteknik, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Högskolan i Väst.
    Combined Moho Estimators2014In: Geodynamics : Research International Bulletin, ISSN 2345-4997, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 1-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we develop three estimators to optimally combine seismic and gravimetric models of Moho surface. The first estimator combines them by their special harmonic coefficients; the second one uses the spherical harmonic coefficients of the seismic model and use integral formula for the gravimetric one. The kernel of the integral terms of this estimator shows that a cap size of 20◦ is required for the integration, but since this integral is presented to combine the low frequencies of the gravimetric model, a low resolution model is enough for the integration. The third estimator uses the gravity anomaly and converts its low frequencies to those of the gravimetric Moho model, meanwhile combining them with those of seismic one. This integral requires an integration domain of 30◦ for the gravity anomalies but since the maximum degree of this kernel is limited to a specific degree, the use of its spectral form is recommended. The kernel of the integral involving the gravity anomalies, developed for recovering high frequencies of Moho, is written in a closed-from formula and its singularity is investigated. This kernel is well-behaving and decreases fast, meaning that it is suitable for recovering the high frequencies of Moho surface.

  • 20.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, and K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran .
    Crustal thickness recovery using an isostatic model and GOCE data2012In: Earth Planets and Space, ISSN 1343-8832, E-ISSN 1880-5981, Vol. 64, no 11, p. 1053-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the GOCE satellite mission goals is to study the Earth's interior structure including its crustal thickness. A gravimetric-isostatic Moho model, based on the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) theory and GOCE gradiometric data, is determined beneath Iran's continental shelf and surrounding seas. The terrestrial gravimetric data of Iran are also used in a nonlinear inversion for a recovering-Moho model applying the VMM model. The newly-computed Moho models are compared with the Moho data taken from CRUST2.0. The root-mean-square (RMS) of differences between the CRUST2.0 Moho model and the recovered model from GOCE and that from the terrestrial gravimetric data are 3.8 km and 4.6 km, respectively.

  • 21.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Surveying.
    Recovery of Moho’s undulations based on the Vening Meinesz–Moritz theory from satellite gravity gradiometry data: A simulation study2012In: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 1097-1111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Farzaneh, Saeed
    Gholamrezaee, Sara
    Parvazi, Kamal
    How accurate are GNSS signals for extracting sea level height and tidal frequencies using GNSS-R technique?2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote sensing observations of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) provide a means of studying their global and regional impacts. Coastal GNSS stations measure water levels using GNSS Reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique by determining the vertical distance between the antenna and the water surface. In this study, GNSS-R data from four stations over three months were used to estimate sea surface heights (SSH) and assess accuracy using nearest tide gauge observations. Results showed that GNSS signals from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou were accurate for the SSH estimation. In addition, 145 significant tidal frequencies were extracted using the GNSS-R and tide gauge time series by employing the Least Square Harmonic Estimation (LS-HE) approach. The study demonstrates the usefulness of GNSS-R for tide studies and its potential use alongside tide gauge measurements in coastal locations.

  • 23.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    How isostasy explains continental rifting in East Africa?2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The principle of isostasy plays an important role to understand the relation between different geodynamic processes. Although, it is difficult to find an exact method that delivers a complete image of the Earth structure. However, gravimetric methods are alternative to provide images of the interior of the Earth. The Earth’s crust parameters, i.e. crustal depth and crust-mantle density contrast, can reveal adequate information about the solid Earth system such as volcanic activity, earthquake and continental rifting. Hence, in this study, a combine Moho model using seismic and gravity data is determined to investigate the relationship between the isostatic state of the lithosphere and seismic activities in East Africa. Our results show that isostatic equilibrium and compensation states are closely correlated to the seismicity patterns in the study area. For example, several studies suggest that African superplume causes the rift valley, and consequently differences in crustal and mantle densities occur. This paper presents a method to determine the crustal thickness and crust-mantle density contrast and consequently one can observe low-density contrast (about 200 kg/m3 ) and thin crust (about 30 km) near the triple junction plate tectonics in East Africa (Afar Triangle), which confirms the state of overcompensation in the rift valley areas. Furthermore, the density structure of the lithosphere shows a large correlation with the earthquake activity, sub-crustal stress and volcanic distribution across East Africa.

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  • 24.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
    Studying permafrost using GRACE and in situ data in the northern high-latitudes regions2019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is an exceptional opportunity of achieving simultaneous and complementary data from a multitude of geoscience and environmental near-earth orbiting artificial satellites to study phenomena related to the climate change e.g. sea level change, ice melting, soil moisture variation, temperature changes, and earth surface deformations. In this study, we focus on permafrost thawing and its associated gravity change, and organic material changes using GRACE data and other satellite- and ground-based observations. The estimation of permafrost changes requires combining information from various sources, particularly using the gravity field change, surface temperature change, and GIA. The most significant factor for careful monitoring of the permafrost thawing is the fact that this process could be responsible for releasing an additional enormous amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere, most importantly to mention Carbone dioxide and Methane that are currently stored in the frozen ground. The results of a preliminary numerical analysis reveal a possible existence of a high correlation between the secular trends of greenhouse gases, temperature and equivalent water thickness in the selected regions. Furthermore, according to our estimates based on processing the GRACE data, the groundwater storage attributed to the due to permafrost thawing increased at the annual rates of 3.4, 3.8, 4.4 and 4.0 cm, in Siberia, northern Alaska, and Canada. Despite a rather preliminary character of our results, these findings indicate that the methodology developed and applied in this study should be improved by incorporating the in situ permafrost measurements.

  • 25.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. KTH.
    Jouybari, Arash
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Ågren, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Lantmäteriet.
    Deflection of Vertical Effect on Direct Georeferencing in Aerial Mobile Mapping Systems: A Case Study in Sweden2022In: Photogrammetric Record, ISSN 0031-868X, E-ISSN 1477-9730, Vol. 37, no 179, p. 285-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GNSS/INS applications are being developed, especially for direct georeferencing in airborne photogrammetry. Achieving accurately georeferenced products from the integration of GNSS and INS requires removing systematic errors in the mobile mapping systems. The INS sensor's uncertainty is decreasing; therefore, the influence of the deflection of verticals (DOV, the angle between the plumb line and normal to the ellipsoid) should be considered in the direct georeferencing. Otherwise, an error is imposed for calculating the exterior orientation parameters of the aerial images and aerial laser scanning. This study determines the DOV using the EGM2008 model and gravity data in Sweden. The impact of the DOVs on horizontal and vertical coordinates, considering different flight altitudes and camera field of view, is assessed. The results confirm that the calculated DOV components using the EGM2008 model are sufficiently accurate for aerial mapping system purposes except for mountainous areas because the topographic signal is not modelled correctly.

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  • 26.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. KTH.
    Jouybari, Arash
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Lantmäteriet.
    Ågren, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Lantmäteriet.
    Importance of precise gravity field modeling in direct georeferencing and aerial photogrammetry: a case study for Sweden2022In: The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLIII-B2-2022XXIV ISPRS Congress (2022 edition), ISPRS , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct georeferencing of airborne mobile mapping systems is developing with unprecedented speed using GNSS/INSintegration. Removal of systematic errors is required for achieving a high accurate georeferenced product in mobile mappingplatforms with integrated GNSS/INS sensors. It is crucial to consider the deflection of verticals (DOV) in direct georeferencing dueto the recently improved INS sensor accuracy. This study determines the DOV using Sweden’s EGM2008 model and gravity data.The influence of the DOVs on horizontal and vertical coordinates and considering different flight heights is assessed. The resultsconfirm that the calculated DOV components using the EGM2008 model are sufficiently accurate for aerial photogrammetrypurposes except for the mountainous areas because the topographic signal is not modeled correctly.

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  • 27.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. KTH.
    Shirazian, Masoud
    Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU), Tehran, Iran.
    Geodetic Control Networks: Challenges and Solutions: Essesntial Tools for Deformation and Environmental Monitoring2022In: GIM International - The Worldwide Magazine for Geomatics, ISSN 1566-9076, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 31-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the key challenges in establishing precise geodetic control networks? This is one of the most important tasks of geodesists and land surveyors, since geodetic control networks are essential for the deformation and environmental monitoring of dams, tunnels, high towers, landslides and bridges, among others. This article discusses the main challenges relating to vertical angles and provides some recommendations for how they can be overcome.

  • 28.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Surveying—Geodesy, Land Law and Real Estate Planning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shirazian, Masoud
    Department of Geomatics Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Horemuz, Milan
    Division of Surveying—Geodesy, Land Law and Real Estate Planning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Time transfer and significance of vertical land motion in relativistic geodesy applications: a review paper2023In: Frontiers in Earth Science, E-ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 11, article id 1139211Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of the Earth’s gravity field and geopotential value is one of the fundamental topics in physical geodesy. Traditional terrestrial gravity and precise leveling measurements can be used to determine the geopotential values at a local or regional scale. However, recent developments in optical atomic clocks have not only rapidly improved fundamental science but also contributed to applied research. The latest generation of optical clocks is approaching the accuracy level of 10−18 when facilitating atomic clock networks. These systems allow examining fundamental theories and many research applications, such as atomic clocks applications in relativistic geodesy, to precisely determine the Earth’s gravity field parameters (e.g., geopotential values). According to the theory of relativistic geodesy, the frequency difference measured by an optical clock network is related to the gravity potential anomaly, provided that the effects of disturbing signals (i.e., tidal and non-tidal contributions) are filtered out. The relativistic geodesy principle could be used for a practical realization of global geodetic infrastructure, most importantly, a vertical datum unification or realization of height systems. This paper aims to review the background of relativistic (clock-based) geodesy and study the variations of optical atomic clock measurements (e.g., due to hydrology loading and land motion).

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  • 29.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. KTH.
    Shirazian, Masoud
    Assistant Professor, Dept. of Geomatics Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training Univ., Tehran 1678815811, Iran. ORCID: ..
    Ågren, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Dept. of Geodetic Infrastructure, Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, SE 80182, Sweden..
    Horemuz, Milan
    Associate Professor, Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, SE 10044, Sweden..
    Physical and Geometric Effects on the Classical Geodetic Observations in Small-Scale Control Networks2023In: Journal of Surveying Engineering, ISSN 0733-9453, E-ISSN 1943-5428, Vol. 149, no 1, article id 04022014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In classical two-dimensional (2D) geodetic networks, reducing slope distances to horizontal ones is an important task for engineers. These horizontal distances along with horizontal directions are used in 2D geodetic adjustment. The common practice for this reduction is the use of vertical angles to reduce distances using trigonometric rules. However, one faces systematic effects when using vertical angles. These effects are mainly due to refraction, deflection of the vertical (DOV), and the geometric effect of the reference surface (sphere or ellipsoid). To mitigate refraction and DOV effects, one can choose to observe the vertical angles reciprocally if the baseline points’ elevation difference is small. This paper quantifies these effects and proposes a proper solution to eliminate the effects in small-scale geodetic networks (where the longest distances are less than 5 km). The goal is to calculate slope distances into horizontal ones appropriately. For this purpose, we used the SWEN17_RH2000 quasigeoid model (in Sweden) to study the impact of the DOV applying different baseline lengths, azimuths, and vertical angles. Finally, we propose an approach to study the impact of the geometric effect on vertical angles. We illustrate that the DOV and the geometric effects on vertical angles measured reciprocally are significant if the height difference of the start point and endpoint in the baseline is large. Geometric correction should be considered for the measured vertical angles to calculate horizontal distances correctly if the network points are not on the same elevation, even if the vertical angles are measured reciprocally. 

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  • 30.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Shirazian, Masoud
    Ågren, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Horemuz, Milan
    Karimi, Hamed
    A new approach for reducing physical and geometric effects in small-scale geodetic control networks2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Shirazian, Masoud
    Ågren, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Horemuz, Milan
    Karimi, Hamed
    A new approach for reducing physical and geometric effects in small-scale geodetic control networks: Challenges and Solutions2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    A synthetic Earth gravity model based on a topographic-isostatic model2012In: Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, ISSN 0039-3169, E-ISSN 1573-1626, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 935-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth's gravity field is related to the topographic potential in medium and higher degrees, which is isostatically compensated. Hence, the topographic-isostatic (TI) data are indispensable for extending an available Earth Gravitational Model (EGM) to higher degrees. Here we use TI harmonic coefficients to construct a Synthetic Earth Gravitational Model (SEGM) to extend the EGMs to higher degrees. To achieve a high-quality SEGM, a global geopotential model (EGM96) is used to describe the low degrees, whereas the medium and high degrees are obtained from the TI or topographic potential. This study differes from others in that it uses a new gravimetric-isostatic model for determining the TI potential. We test different alternatives based on TI or only topographic data to determine the SEGM. Although the topography is isostatically compensated only to about degree 40-60, our study shows that using a compensation model improves the SEGM in comparison with using only topographic data for higher degree harmonics. This is because the TI data better adjust the applied Butterworth filter, which bridges the known EGM and the new high-degree potential field than the topographic data alone.

  • 33.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Improving gravimetric–isostatic models of crustal depth by correcting for non-isostatic effects and using CRUST2.02013In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 117, p. 29-39Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principle of isostasy is important in different fields of geosciences. Using an isostatic hypothesis for estimating the crustal thickness suffers from the more or less incomplete isostatic model and that the observed gravity anomaly is not only generated by the topographic/isostatic signal but also by non-isostatic effects (NIEs). In most applications of isostatic models the NIEs are disregarded. In this paper, we study how some isostatic models related with Vening Meinez's isostatic hypothesis can be improved by considering the NIE. The isostatic gravity anomaly needs a correction for the NIEs, which varies from as much as 494 mGal to − 308 mGal. The result shows that by adding this correction the global crustal thickness estimate improves about 50% with respect to the global model CRUST2.0, i.e. the root mean square differences of the crustal thickness of the best Vening Meinesz type and CRUST2.0 models are 6.9 and 3.2 km before and after improvement, respectively. As a result, a new global model of crustal thickness using Vening Meinesz and CRUST2.0 models is generated. A comparison with an independent African crustal depth model shows an improvement of the new model by 6.8 km vs. CRUST2.0 (i.e. rms differences of 3.0 and 9.8 km, respectively). A comparison between oceanic lithosphere age and the NIEs is discussed in this study, too. One application of this study can be to improve crustal depth in areas where CRUST2.0 data are sparse and bad and to densify the resolution vs. the CRUST2.0 model. Other applications can be used to infer the viscosity of the mantle from the NIEs signal to study various locations around the Earth for understanding complete, over- and under-compensations of the topography.

  • 34.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Sjöberg, Lars E
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Modelling the density contrast and depth of the Moho discontinuity by seismic and gravimetric–isostatic methods with an application to Africa2012In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 0899-5362, Vol. 68, p. 111-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crustal thickness (Moho depth) is of interest in several geosciences applications, such as geography, geophysics and geodesy. Usually the crustal depth and density variations are estimated by seismic survey data. As such data collection is very time-consuming and expensive an attractive option could be to use a gravimetric/isostatic model. In this case, realistic estimates for the crustal density and Moho density contrast (MDC) are important. In this study, we first use the seismic crustal thickness of CRUST2.0 model as a known parameter in combination with gravimetric data in estimating the crust–mantle density contrast by the isostatic model of Vening Meinesz–Moritz. We present different models to estimate the MDC and its impact on the modelling of the gravimetric–isostatic Moho depth. The theory is applied to estimate the Moho depth of the African continental crust by using different models for the MDC: (a) constant value (0.6 g/cm3), (b) Pratt–Hayford’s model, (c) CRUST2.0 as input to three gravimetric/isostatic models based on Vening Meinesz–Moritz theory. The isostatic models agree by 5.8–7.1 km in the rms with the regional seismic model at a resolution of 2 x2, and the smallest rms difference at a resolution of 1x1is of

    7.2 km. For comparison, the rms differences of CRUST2.0 and the regional seismic model are 8.8 and 9.1 km at the resolutions of 2 deg (interpolated) and 1 deg respectively. The result suggests that the gravimetric/isostatic Moho model can be used in densification of the CRUST2.0 Moho geometry, and to improve it in areas with poor data.

  • 35.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Non-isostatic effects on crustal thickness: A study using CRUST2.0 in Fennoscandia2012In: Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, ISSN 0031-9201, E-ISSN 1872-7395, Vol. 200, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Towards a world vertical datum defined by the geoid potential and Earth’s ellipsoidal parameters2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development and digitalization need reliable data. Geospatial data becomes a more and more important tool in society for many kinds of research of immediate use, but also for future planning and enterprise. Harmonization of geodata is very important for data producers and organizations, e.g. for mapping agencies. Establishing a uniform horizontal/vertical reference system is a basic prerequisite for combining data from different sources, and for allowing cross-border presentations and analyzes. If we do not use the same reference for positioning, it is not certain that one can compose reliable geodata from different organizations.

    The overall aim of this study is to provide a theoretical and practical solution to unifying height systems in order to overcome systematic datum inconsistencies in height data and digital terrain models. The study deals with a variety of issues in physical geodesy such as Earth’s gravity field, sea level rise, sea surface topography and GNSS data. The advent of satellite altimetry in the 1970s provided a tool for the realization of a global vertical datum as being the equipotential surface of the Earth’s gravity field that minimizes the sea-surface topography (SST) all over the oceans in a least-squares sense. This leads to a direct determination of the geoid potential (W0) from satellite altimetry and an Earth Gravitational Model (EGM).  In contrast, here we will first determine the Mean Earth Ellipsoid parameters and from these follows W0. This means that once the size of the axes of the globally best-fitting ellipsoid is determined, W0 follows. A major problem with this method is that satellite altimetry is only successful over the oceans, but the method requires global data. This problem is solved by employing satellite altimetry and the EGM in a practical combination.  

  • 37.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. KTH.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Wuhan University, China.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    KTH.
    A new Fennoscandian crustal thickness model based on CRUST1.0 and a gravimetric-isostatic approach2015In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 145, p. 132-145Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a new gravimetric-isostatic crustal thickness model (VMM14_FEN) is estimated for Fennoscandia. The main motivation is to investigate the relations between geological and geophysical properties, the Moho depth and crust-mantle density contrast at the crust-mantle discontinuity. For this purpose the Bouguer gravity disturbance data is corrected in two main ways namely for the gravitational contributions of mass density variation due to the different layers of the Earth's crust such as ice and sediments, as well as for the gravitational contribution from deeper masses below the crust. This second correction (for non-isostatic effects) is necessary because in general the crust is not in complete isostatic equilibrium and the observed gravity data are not only generated by the topographic/isostatic masses but also from those in the deep Earth interior. The correction for non-isostatic effects is mainly attributed to unmodeled mantle and core boundary density heterogeneities. These corrections are determined using the recent seismic crustal thickness model CRUST1.0. We compare our modeling results with previous studies in the area and test the fitness. The comparison with the external Moho model EuCRUST-07 shows a 3.3. km RMS agreement for the Moho depth in Fennoscandia. We also illustrate how the above corrections improve the Moho depth estimation. Finally, the signatures of geological structures and isostatic equilibrium are studied using VMM14_FEN, showing how main geological unit structures attribute in isostatic balance by affecting the Moho geometry. The main geological features are also discussed in the context of the complete and incomplete isostatic equilibrium. 

  • 38.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China .
    Comparative analysis of Vening-Meinesz Moritz isostatic models using the constant and variable crust-mantle density contrast – a case study of Zealandia2013In: Journal of Earth System Science, E-ISSN 0973-774X, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 339-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare three different numerical schemes of treating the Moho density contrast in gravimetric inverse problems for finding the Moho depths. The results are validated using the global crustal model CRUST2.0, which is determined based purely on seismic data. Firstly, the gravimetric recovery of the Moho depths is realized by solving Moritz’s generalization of the Vening-Meinesz inverse problem of isostasy while the constant Moho density contrast is adopted. The Pratt-Hayford isostatic model is then facilitated to estimate the variable Moho density contrast. This variable Moho density contrast is subsequently used to determine the Moho depths. Finally, the combined least-squares approach is applied to estimate jointly the Moho depths and density contract based on a priori error model. The EGM2008 global gravity model and the DTM2006.0 global topographic/bathymetric model are used to generate the isostatic gravity anomalies. The comparison of numerical results reveals that the optimal isostatic inverse scheme should take into consideration both the variable depth and density of compensation. This is achieved by applying the combined least-squares approach for a simultaneous estimation of both Moho parameters. We demonstrate that the result obtained using this method has the best agreement with the CRUST2.0 Moho depths. The numerical experiments are conducted at the regional study area of New Zealand’s continental shelf.

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  • 39.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Tenzer, Robert
    The Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Geodesy, School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Comparative study of the uniform and variable Moho density contrast in the Vening Meinesz-Moritz’s isostatic scheme for the gravimetric Moho recovery2016In: International Association of Geodesy Symposia: 3rd International Gravity Field Service, IGFS 2014; Shanghai; China; 30 June 2014 through 6 July 2014 / [ed] Jin, S.G., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016, Vol. 144, p. 199-207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In gravimetric methods for a determination of the Moho geometry, the constant value of the Moho density contract is often adopted. Results of gravimetric and seismic studies, however, showed that the Moho density contrast varies significantly. The assumption of a uniform density contrast thus might yield large errors in the estimated Moho depths. In this study we investigate these errors by comparing the Moho depths determined globally for the uniform and variable models of the Moho density contrast. These two gravimetric results are obtained based on solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz’s inverse problem of isostasy. The uniform model of the Moho density contrast is defined individually for the continental and oceanic lithosphere to better reproduce the reality. The global data of the lower crust and upper mantle retrieved from the CRUST1.0 seismic crustal model are used to define the variable Moho density contrast. This seismic model is also used to validate both gravimetric solutions. Results of our numerical experiment reveals that the consideration of the variable Moho density contrast improves the agreement between the gravimetric and seismic Moho models; the RMS of differences is 5.4 km (for the uniform density contrast) and 4.7 km (for the variable density contrast).

  • 40.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. KTH, Geodesy & Geoinformatics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Geoid-to-Quasigeoid Separation Computed Using the GRACE/GOCE Global Geopotential Model GOCO02S: A Case Study of Himalayas and Tibet2013In: Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, ISSN 1017-0839, E-ISSN 2223-8964, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geoid-to-quasigeoid correction has been traditionally computed approximately as a function of the planar Bouguer gravity anomaly and the topographic height. Recent numerical studies based on newly developed theoretical models, however, indicate that the computation of this correction using the approximate formula yields large errors especially in mountainous regions with computation points at high elevations. In this study we investigate these approximation errors at the study area which comprises Himalayas and Tibet where this correction reaches global maxima. Since the GPS-leveling and terrestrial gravity datasets in this part of the world are not (freely) available, global gravitational models (GGMs) are used to compute this correction utilizing the expressions for a spherical harmonic analysis of the gravity field. The computation of this correction can be done using the GGM coefficients taken from the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08) complete to degree 2160 of spherical harmonics. The recent studies based on a regional accuracy assessment of GGMs have shown that the combined GRACE/GOCE solutions provide a substantial improvement of the Earth’s gravity field at medium wavelengths of spherical harmonics compared to EGM08. We address this aspect in numerical analysis by comparing the gravity field quantities computed using the satellite-only combined GRACE/GOCE model GOCO02S against the EGM08 results. The numerical results reveal that errors in the geoid-to-quasigeoid correction computed using the approximate formula can reach as much as ~1.5 m. We also demonstrate that the expected improvement of the GOCO02S gravity field quantities at medium wavelengths (within the frequency band approximately between 100 and 250) compared to EGM08 is as much as ±60 mGal and ±0.2 m in terms of gravity anomalies and geoid/quasigeoid heights respectively.

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  • 41.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, China .
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    On the residual isostatic topography effect in the gravimetric Moho determination2015In: Journal of Geodynamics, ISSN 0264-3707, E-ISSN 1879-1670, Vol. 83, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In classical isostatic models, a uniform crustal density is typically assumed, while disregarding the crustal density heterogeneities. This assumption, however, yields large errors in the Moho geometry determined from gravity data, because the actual topography is not fully isostatically compensated. Moreover, the sub-crustal density structures and additional geodynamic processes contribute to the overall isostatic balance. In this study we investigate the effects of unmodelled density structures and geodynamic processes on the gravity anomaly and the Moho geometry. For this purpose, we define the residual isostatic topography as the difference between actual topography and isostatic topography, which is computed based on utilizing the Vening Meinesz-Moritz isostatic theory. We show that the isostatic gravity bias due to disagreement between the actual and isostatically compensated topography varies between -382 and 596 mGal. This gravity bias corresponds to the Moho correction term of -16 to 25 km. Numerical results reveal that the application of this Moho correction to the gravimetrically determined Moho depths significantly improves the RMS fit of our result with some published global seismic and gravimetric Moho models. We also demonstrate that the isostatic equilibrium at long-to-medium wavelengths (up to degree of about 40) is mainly controlled by a variable Moho depth, while the topographic mass balance at a higher-frequency spectrum is mainly attained by a variable crustal density.

  • 42.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Wuhan University, China.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Novak, Pavel
    University of West Bohemia, Plzen, Czech Republic.
    Improved global crustal thickness modeling based on the VMM isostatic model and non-isostatic gravity correction2013In: Journal of Geodynamics, ISSN 0264-3707, E-ISSN 1879-1670, Vol. 66, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In classical isostatic models for a gravimetric recovery of the Moho parameters (i.e., Moho depths and density contrast) the isostatic gravity anomalies are usually defined based on the assumption that the topographic mass surplus and the ocean mass deficiency are compensated within the Earth’s crust. As acquired in this study, this assumption yields large disagreements between isostatic and seismic Moho models. To assess the effects not accounted for in classical isostatic models, we conduct a number of numerical experiments using available global gravity and crustal structure models. First, we compute the gravitational contributions of mass density contrasts due to ice and sediments, and subsequently evaluate respective changes in the Moho geometry. Residual differences between the gravimetric and seismic Moho models are then used to predict a remaining non-isostatic gravity signal, which is mainly attributed to unmodeled density structures and other geophysical phenomena. We utilize three recently developed computational schemes in our numerical studies. The apparatus of spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis is applied in forward modeling of the isostatic gravity disturbances. The Moho depths are estimated globally on a 1 arc-deg equiangular grid by solving the Vening-Meinesz Moritz inverse problem of isostasy. The same estimation model is applied to evaluate the differences between the isostatic and seismic models. We demonstrate that the application of the ice and sediment density contrasts stripping gravity corrections is essential for a more accurate determination of the Moho geometry. We also show that the application of the additional non-isostatic correction further improves the agreement between the Moho models derived based on gravity and seismic data. Our conclusions are based on comparing the gravimetric results with the CRUST2.0 global crustal model compiled using results of seismic surveys.

  • 43.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. KTH.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sjöberg, L.E.
    Wuhan University, Wuhan, China .
    Moho depth uncertainties in the Vening-Meinesz Moritz inverse problem of isostasy2014In: Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, ISSN 0039-3169, E-ISSN 1573-1626, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 227-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We formulate an error propagation model based on solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy. The system ofobservation equations in the VMM model defines the relation between theisostatic gravity data and the Moho depth  by means of a second-order Fredholm integralequation of the first kind. The corresponding error model (derived in aspectral domain) functionally relates the Moho depth errors with the commissionerrors of used gravity and topographic/bathymetric models. The error model alsoincorporates the non-isostatic bias which describesthe disagreement, mainly of systematic nature, between the isostatic andseismic models. The error analysis is conducted at the study area of theTibetan Plateau and Himalayas with the world largest crustal thickness. TheMoho depth uncertainties due to errors of the currently available globalgravity and topographic models are estimated to be typically up to 1-2 km,provided that the GOCE gravity gradient observables improved themedium-wavelength gravity spectra. The errors due to disregarding sedimentarybasins can locally exceed ~2 km. The largest errors (which cause a systematic bias betweenisostatic and seismic models) are attributed to unmodeled mantleheterogeneities (including thecore-mantle boundary) and other geophysical processes. These errors aremostly less than 2 km under significant orogens (Himalayas, Ural), but canreach up to ~10 km under the oceanic crust.

  • 44.
    Baranov, Alexey
    et al.
    Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.
    Combined Gravimetric-Seismic Moho Model of Tibet2018In: Geosciences, E-ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, no 12, article id UNSP 461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial progress has been achieved over the last four decades to better understand a deep structure in the Himalayas and Tibet. Nevertheless, the remoteness of this part of the world still considerably limits the use of seismic data. A possible way to overcome this practical restriction partially is to use products from the Earth’s satellite observation systems. Global topographic data are provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Global gravitational models have been derived from observables delivered by the gravity-dedicated satellite missions, such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE). Optimally, the topographic and gravity data should be combined with available results from tomographic surveys to interpret the lithospheric structure, including also a Moho relief. In this study, we use seismic, gravity, and topographic data to estimate the Moho depth under orogenic structures of the Himalayas and Tibet. The combined Moho model is computed based on solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy, while incorporating seismic data to constrain the gravimetric solution. The result of the combined gravimetric-seismic data analysis exhibits an anticipated more detailed structure of the Moho geometry when compared to the solution obtained merely from seismic data. This is especially evident over regions with sparse seismic data coverage. The newly-determined combined Moho model of Tibet shows a typical contrast between a thick crustal structure of orogenic formations compared to a thinner crust of continental basins. The Moho depth under most of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau is typically within 60-70 km. The maximum Moho deepening of similar to 76 km occurs to the south of the Bangong-Nujiang suture under the Lhasa terrane. Local maxima of the Moho depth to similar to 74 km are also found beneath Taksha at the Karakoram fault. This Moho pattern generally agrees with the findings from existing gravimetric and seismic studies, but some inconsistencies are also identified and discussed in this study.

  • 45.
    Baranov, Alexey
    et al.
    Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation; Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Combined Gravimetric–Seismic Crustal Model for Antarctica2018In: Surveys in geophysics, ISSN 0169-3298, E-ISSN 1573-0956, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 23-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest seismic data and improved information about the subglacial bedrock relief are used in this study to estimate the sediment and crustal thickness under the Antarctic continent. Since large parts of Antarctica are not yet covered by seismic surveys, the gravity and crustal structure models are used to interpolate the Moho information where seismic data are missing. The gravity information is also extended offshore to detect the Moho under continental margins and neighboring oceanic crust. The processing strategy involves the solution to the Vening Meinesz-Moritz’s inverse problem of isostasy constrained on seismic data. A comparison of our new results with existing studies indicates a substantial improvement in the sediment and crustal models. The seismic data analysis shows significant sediment accumulations in Antarctica, with broad sedimentary basins. According to our result, the maximum sediment thickness in Antarctica is about 15 km under Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. The Moho relief closely resembles major geological and tectonic features. A rather thick continental crust of East Antarctic Craton is separated from a complex geological/tectonic structure of West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains. The average Moho depth of 34.1 km under the Antarctic continent slightly differs from previous estimates. A maximum Moho deepening of 58.2 km under the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in East Antarctica confirmed the presence of deep and compact orogenic roots. Another large Moho depth in East Antarctica is detected under Dronning Maud Land with two orogenic roots under Wohlthat Massif (48–50 km) and the Kottas Mountains (48–50 km) that are separated by a relatively thin crust along Jutulstraumen Rift. The Moho depth under central parts of the Transantarctic Mountains reaches 46 km. The maximum Moho deepening (34–38 km) in West Antarctica is under the Antarctic Peninsula. The Moho depth minima in East Antarctica are found under the Lambert Trench (24–28 km), while in West Antarctica the Moho depth minima are along the West Antarctic Rift System under the Bentley depression (20–22 km) and Ross Sea Ice Shelf (16–24 km). The gravimetric result confirmed a maximum extension of the Antarctic continental margins under the Ross Sea Embayment and the Weddell Sea Embayment with an extremely thin continental crust (10–20 km).

  • 46.
    Dashtbazi, Arash
    et al.
    Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 19967-15433, Iran.
    Voosoghi, Behzad
    Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 19967-15433, Iran.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    A High-Resolution Global Moho Model from Combining Gravimetric and Seismic Data by Using Spectral Combination Methods2023In: Remote Sensing, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 15, no 6, article id 1562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-resolution Moho depth model is required in various geophysical studies. However, the available models’ resolutions could be improved for this purpose. Large parts of the world still need to be sufficiently covered by seismic data, but existing global Moho models do not fit the present-day requirements for accuracy and resolution. The isostatic models can relatively reproduce a Moho geometry in regions where the crustal structure is in an isostatic equilibrium, but large segments of the tectonic plates are not isostatically compensated, especially along active convergent and divergent tectonic margins. Isostatic models require a relatively good knowledge of the crustal density to correct observed gravity data. To overcome the lack of seismic data and non-uniqueness of gravity inversion, seismic and gravity data should be combined to estimate Moho geometry more accurately. In this study, we investigate the performance of two techniques for combining long- and short-wavelength Moho geometry from seismic and gravity data. Our results demonstrate that both Butterworth and spectral combination techniques can be used to model the Moho geometry. The results show the RMS of Moho depth differences between our model and the reference models are between 1.7 and 4.7 km for the Butterworth filter and between 0.4 and 4.1 km for the spectral combination.

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  • 47.
    Eshagh, M.
    et al.
    K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Department of Geodesy, Tehran, Iran .
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Quality description for gravimetric and seismic moho models of Fennoscandia through a combined adjustment2012In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, ISSN 1217-8977, E-ISSN 1587-1037, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 388-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gravimetric model of the Moho discontinuity is usually derived based on isostatic adjustment theories considering floating crust on the viscous mantle. In computation of such a model some a priori information about the density contrast between the crust and mantle and the mean Moho depth are required. Due to our poor knowledge about them they are assumed unrealistically constant. In this paper, our idea is to improve a computed gravimetric Moho model, by the Vening Meinesz-Moritz theory, using the seismic model in Fennoscandia and estimate the error of each model through a combined adjustment with variance component estimation process. Corrective surfaces of bi-linear, bi-quadratic, bi-cubic and multi-quadric radial based function are used to model the discrepancies between the models and estimating the errors of the models. Numerical studies show that in the case of using the bi-linear surface negative variance components were come out, the bi-quadratic can model the difference better and delivers errors of 2.7 km and 1.5 km for the gravimetric and seismic models, respectively. These errors are 2.1 km and 1.6 km in the case of using the bi-cubic surface and 1 km and 1.5 km when the multi-quadric radial base function is used. The combined gravimetric models will be computed based on the estimated errors and each corrective surface.

  • 48.
    Gholamrezaee, Sara
    et al.
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Parvazi, Kamal
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Farzaneh, Saeed
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    A study on the quality of GNSS signals for extracting the sea level height and tidal frequencies utilizing the GNSS-IR approach2023In: GPS Solutions, ISSN 1080-5370, E-ISSN 1521-1886, Vol. 27, no 2, article id 72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal global navigation satellite system (GNSS) stations equipped with a standard geodetic receiver and antenna enable water level measurement using the GNSS interferometry reflectometry (GNSS-IR) technique. By using GNSS-IR, the vertical distance between the antenna and the reflector surface (e.g., water surface) can be obtained in the vertical (height) reference frame. In this study, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data from four selected stations over three months are used for this purpose. We determined the predominant multipath frequency in SNR data that is obtained using Lomb–Scargle periodogram (LSP) method. The obtained sea surface heights (SSH) are assessed using tide gauge observations regarding accuracy and correlation coefficients. In this study, we investigated daily and hourly GNSS observations and used single frequencies of GPS (L1, L2 and L5), GLONASS (L1 and L2), Galileo (L1, L5, L6, L7 and L8), and BeiDou (L2 and L7) signals to estimate the SSH. The results show that the optimal signals for extracting the SSH are the L1 signal for the GPS, Galileo, and GLONASS systems and the L2 signal for the BeiDou system. The accuracy and correlation parameters for the optimal GPS signal in the daily mode are 2 cm and 0.87, respectively. The same parameters for the optimal GLONASS signal are 4 cm and 0.91. However, the obtained accuracy and correlation coefficients using the best Galileo and BeiDou signals are reduced, i.e., 4 cm and 0.88 using Galileo and 12 cm and 0.52 by employing the Galileo signals, respectively. Our results also show that the GPS L1 signal is more consistent with the tide gauge data. In the following, using the time series derived from the L1 signal and tide gauge readings, the tidal frequencies are extracted and compared using the Least Square Harmonic Estimation (LS-HE) approach. The findings demonstrate that 145 significant tidal frequencies can be extracted using the GNSS-IR time series. The existence of an acceptable correlation between the tidal frequencies of the GNSS-IR and the tide gauge time series indicates the usefulness of the GNSS-IR time series for tide studies. From our results, we can conclude that the GNSS-IR technique can be applied in coastal locations alongside tide gauge measurements for a variety of purposes.

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  • 49.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Satellite monitoring of mass changes and ground subsidence in Sudan’s oil fields using GRACE and Sentinel-1 data2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring environmental hazards, due to natural and anthropogenic causes, is one of the important issues, which requires proper data, models, and cross-validation of the results. The geodetic satellite missions, e.g. the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Sentinel-1, are very useful in this aspect. GRACE missions are dedicated to model the temporal variations of the Earth’s gravity field and mass transportation in the Earth’s surface, whereas Sentinel-1 collects Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data which enables us to measure the ground movements accurately. Extraction of large volumes of water and oil decreases the reservoir pressure, form compaction and consequently land subsidence occurs which can be analyzed by both GRACE and Sentinel-1 data. In this paper, large-scale groundwater storage (GWS) changes are studied using the GRACE monthly gravity field models together with different hydrological models over the major oil reservoirs in Sudan, i.e. Heglig, Bamboo, Neem, Diffra and Unity-area oil fields. Then we correlate the results with the available oil wells production data for the period of 2003-2012. In addition, using the only freely available Sentinel-1 data, collected between November 2015 and April 2019, the ground surface deformation associated with this oil and water depletion is studied. Due to the lack of terrestrial geodetic monitoring data in Sudan, the use of GRACE and Sentinel-1 satellite data is very valuable to monitor water and oil storage changes and their associated land subsidence over our region of interest. Our results show that there is a significant correlation between the GRACE-based GWS change and extracted oil and water volumes. The trend of GWS changes due to water and oil depletion ranged from -18.5 to -6.2mm/year using the CSR GRACE monthly solutions and the best tested hydrological model in this study. Moreover, our Sentinel-1 SAR data analysis using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) method shows high rate of subsidence i.e. -24.5, -23.8, -14.2 and -6 mm/year over Heglig, Neem, Diffra and Unity-area oil fields respectively. The results of this study can help us to control the integrity and safety of operations and infrastructure in that region, as well as to study the groundwater/oil storage behavior.

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  • 50.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Satellite Monitoring of Mass Changes and Ground Subsidence in Sudan’s Oil Fields Using GRACE and Sentinel-1 Data2020In: Remote Sensing, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring environmental hazards, owing to natural and anthropogenic causes, is an important issue, which requires proper data, models, and cross-validation of the results. The geodetic satellite missions, for example, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Sentinel-1, are very useful in this respect. GRACE missions are dedicated to modeling the temporal variations of the Earth’s gravity field and mass transportation in the Earth’s surface, whereas Sentinel-1 collects synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, which enables us to measure the ground movements accurately. Extraction of large volumes of water and oil decreases the reservoir pressure and form compaction and, consequently, land subsidence occurs, which can be analyzed by both GRACE and Sentinel-1 data. In this paper, large-scale groundwater storage (GWS) changes are studied using the GRACE monthly gravity field models together with different hydrological models over the major oil reservoirs in Sudan, that is, Heglig, Bamboo, Neem, Diffra, and Unity-area oil fields. Then, we correlate the results with the available oil wells production data for the period of 2003–2012. In addition, using the only freely available Sentinel-1 data, collected between November 2015 and April 2019, the ground surface deformation associated with this oil and water depletion is studied. Owing to the lack of terrestrial geodetic monitoring data in Sudan, the use of GRACE and Sentinel-1 satellite data is very valuable to monitor water and oil storage changes and their associated land subsidence over our region of interest. Our results show that there is a significant correlation between the GRACE-based GWS anomalies (ΔGWS) and extracted oil and water volumes. The trend of ΔGWS changes due to water and oil depletion ranged from –18.5 ± 6.3 to –6.2 ± 1.3 mm/year using the CSR GRACE monthly solutions and the best tested hydrological model in this study. Moreover, our Sentinel-1 SAR data analysis using the persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) method shows a high rate of subsidence, that is, –24.5 ± 0.85, –23.8 ± 0.96, –14.2 ± 0.85, and –6 ± 0.88 mm/year over Heglig, Neem, Diffra, and Unity-area oil fields, respectively. The results of this study can help us to control the integrity and safety of operations and infrastructure in that region, as well as to study the groundwater/oil storage behavior.

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