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  • 1.
    Carpio, Antonio J.
    et al.
    Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS, CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    Guerrero-Casado, José
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Portoviejo, Manabí, Ecuador.
    Barasona, José A.
    SABIO IREC Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Tortosa, Francisco S.
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí (ESPAM), Calceta, Ecuador.
    Vicente, Joaquín
    SABIO IREC Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel
    Instituto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados (IESA, CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrario de Vairão, Vairão, Portugal; Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.
    Hunting as a source of alien species: a European review2017In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1197-1211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hunting activities are responsible for the translocation and restocking of millions of animals throughout Europe, including the introduction of alien species. In a context of the growing use of game translocations and of increasing concern about the impact of biological invasions, our goal is to review the role of alien species introduced primarily for hunting purposes on the European scale. In particular, we explore: (1) the relative importance of game species in the context of alien species introductions; (2) the temporal evolution of the number of species introduced for hunting purposes; (3) the contribution of different taxa; (4) the pattern of introduced game species composition across countries (in terms of similarity), and (5) the underlying human demographic factors driving the diversity of introduced game species per country. According to our results, 24.3% of the mammals and 30.2% of the birds introduced into Europe during the last century were released primarily for hunting purposes, in total, 93 species (63 birds and 36 mammals), the most important taxa being Artiodactyls, Anseriformes and Galliformes. The species composition differed among countries, with a higher diversity of introduced game species in larger countries and in those with a higher human population density and proportion of hunters. This review stresses that hunting was a significant pathway for the introduction of invasive species into Europe in the last century. Since some of the game species introduced have had severe environmental impacts on many European regions, and introductions of non-native game species are still occurring, it is essential to improve regulations and increase public awareness regarding invasive game animals. This will help to preserve biodiversity and improve the sustainability of current hunting schemes in increasingly managed European ecosystems.

  • 2.
    Carpio, Antonio J.
    et al.
    Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS, CSIC), Alameda del Obispo s/n, Córdoba, Spain ; Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, C-1 Rabanales, Córdoba, Spain.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Tortosa, Francisco S.
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, C-1 Rabanales, Córdoba, Spain.
    Effects of wild boar predation on nests of wading birds in various Swedish habitats2016In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 423-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wild boar has, over the past few decades, undergone an expansion in Europe, which may have negatively affected ground-nesting bird populations and particularly those of wading birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate predation on waders’ nests by wild boar in Sweden, where this species has been increasing since its reintroduction. This was done by placing artificial nests in seven different study areas. A comparison was then made of predation rates of the nests placed on control plots (areas in which no wild boar were present but other predators were) and plots containing different abundances of wild boar. Contrary to our expectations, the proportion of nests predated was significantly lower in those areas in which wild boar were present, with a predation rate of 54 %, whereas the predation rate was 87.5 % in the others. The wild boar was identified as the second most important nest predator in the plots in which it was present, accounting for 18 % of the predated nests. The main predator on both types of plots was the red fox, which was responsible for 28 and 38.5 % of the predated nests on plots with/without wild boar, respectively. Interestingly, predation by badgers occurred principally in areas in which the wild boar was absent (34.5 % of the predated nests), whereas only one nest was predated by this predator in areas containing wild boar. It is not, however, possible to state whether predation by badgers was lower because of the presence of wild boar or whether this was owing to the fact that badgers do not select those particular patches because of habitat features.

  • 3.
    Djerdali, Sofia
    et al.
    Département de Biologie, Université Farhat Abbes, Sétif, Algeria.
    Sanchez Tortosa, Francisco
    Univ Cordoba, Dept Zool, Cordoba, Spain.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Doumandji, Salaheddine
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie, El Harrach, Algeria.
    Food supply and external cues limit the clutch size and hatchability in the White Stork Ciconia ciconia2008In: Acta Ornithologica, ISSN 0001-6454, E-ISSN 1734-8471, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clutch size is an important life history trait and factors such as nest predation and food availability can both be of crucial importance for its variation in nature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of extra food on clutch size, laying date and hatching success in the White stork Ciconia ciconia. Three different colonies of White stork were studied over a three-year period where there was difference in both food availability and precipitation. This study demonstrated that an extra food supply during the pre-laying period had a positive effect on clutch size - nests with extra food had a larger clutch size. There was also an advance in laying date and a higher hatching success in nests with access to extra food. In addition to food supply, clutch size was independently affected by rainfall, which suggests that parents additionally also were sensitive to other external cues than to the extra food. Furthermore, this study also suggests that an extra food during the incubation period could probably help the parents to solve the conflict between incubation behaviour and minimizing the time off the nest, i.e. increasing nest attentiveness in nests with extra food.

  • 4.
    Hillström, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Enander, Angelica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Stenberg, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    The use of games for learning about health and diet: a study in preschools in Sweden2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hillström, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Gieg, Jennifer
    Lyon, Robert
    Siblicidal behavior in relation to food supply in the Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis: an experimental test of the food amount hypothesis2006In: Symposium number: 06, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Hillström, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Kilpi, Mikael
    Department of Ecology and Systematics, Zoological Laboratory, Helsinki University, 00014 Helsinki, Finland, FI.
    Lindström, Kai
    Department of Ecology and Systematics, Zoological Laboratory, Helsinki University, 00014 Helsinki, Finland, FI.
    Is asynchronous hatching adaptive in herring gulls ( Larus argentatus )?2000In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hatching asynchrony commonly induces a size hierarchy among siblings and the resultant competition for food between siblings can often lead to starvation of the smallest chicks within a brood. We created herring gull (Larus argentatus) broods with varying degrees of hatching synchrony by manipulating the timing of incubation while maintaining the originally laid eggs. The degree of hatching asynchrony affected sibling size hierarchy at the time of hatching of the last-hatched ”c-chick.” In unmanipulated broods, there was no disadvantage of being a c-chick. However, when asynchrony was experimentally increased, we found reduced survival of the c-chick only in the exaggerated asynchronous experimental group. The effects were observable only during the first 10 days of chick life. We recorded no cases of the chicks dying of starvation. Furthermore, behavioral observations indicated that there was no sibling competition, and no selective feeding of larger sibs in the study colony. We propose that the observed lower survival rates of c-chicks in exaggerated asynchronous broods resulted from their lesser motor abilities, affecting their chances of escaping predators. Fledging success for the whole colony was generally high and almost half of all pairs fledged all three chicks, which is indicative of a good feeding environment. We argue that normal hatching asynchrony is a favorable solution in a good feeding environment, but that increased asynchrony reduces breeding success. We do not view asynchrony in the herring gull as an adaptation for brood reduction and propose instead that it may come about because there has been selection for incubation to start before clutch completion.

  • 7.
    Hillström, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Pape Møller, Anders
    Laboratorie dÉcologie, Systématique et Evolution, CNRS UMR 8079, Université Paris-Sud, Batiment 362, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France.
    The evolution of reversed sexual dimorphism in birds: a comparative study in charadriiformes2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reversed size dimorphism is common in birds of prey, owls and in waders. Not much attention has been paid to the evolution of morphological characters such as wing morphology and variables related to flight agility. The aim of this study was to investigate if the morphological variables in shorebirds, related to flight performance, such as wing length, wing area, wing loading, and factors such as aspect ratio, are related to the display-flights performed by these different species of shorebirds. Data on morphological variables, e.g. body mass, wing length, wing area etc. was collected at the British Museum of Natural History, London, UK.

    Data on behavioral variables, e.g. duration of a display flight or height of display flight was extracted from the published literature. There was a significant difference in wing length dimorphism (t = 2.51, p= 0.0402), when comparing between species within the same genus that had higher versus lower level of flight performance. There was also a significant difference in wing area dimorphism (t = 2.84, p= 0.025), for higher versus lower level of flight performance. However, there was no such difference for weight dimorphism, nor for tarsus dimorphism, or for wing loading or aspect ratio, when comparing between species for higher versus lower level of flight performance. Further analyses will be presented and a suggestive explanation for the evolution of reversed sexual dimorphism will be discussed at the congress. The hypotheses for increased food- or incubation efficiency is with several arguments irrelevant to shorebirds (which will be discussed).

  • 8.
    Hillström, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Persson, Inga-Britt
    Gröna Kunskapshuset, Nedre Dalälvens Biosfärsområde.
    Creating Biosfärum- a gate to the Biosphere Reserve.2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hillström, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Österdal, Henrik
    Norränge Skog & Natur AB, Norrängevägen 57, 820 10 ARBRÅ.
    Evolution of antlers in the moose Alces alces: a comparison of two different populations in Sweden2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish moose population has during the last 60 years been going through rather drastic changes in numbers. Recently there also seemed to have been a shift towards males with less and less developed antlers, which is an important problem for the moose population breeding. The aim with the present study was to study how antler size in the moose is related to age, body mass and population density. Information on the antler and body mass characters was obtained from 425 males that were shot during the annual moose hunting in October between the years 1999-2006. Age and body mass were the variables that explained most of the variation in antler size in this study. A residual of antler points over age, demonstrated a positive correlation between residuals and carcass, such that males with larger antlers for their age, was on average heavier than other males. There was also a significant negative correlation between population density and carcass. The high mortality rate of older males have lead to that few males reach an age where the horns are fully developed and the age distribution has moved to younger ages. As a consequence of this fact the males start to reproduce at younger ages. As the rutting behaviour is a very energy demanding activity, the younger male’s body growth will be constrained and there will be a large cost to come in rutting stage early. As the percentage of males and male age is having an impact on the reproduction of the population, this is an important problem which should be considered in order to give the right prerequisites for a more productive population of moose with big males that have well developed horns.

  • 10.
    Lundin, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Calamnius, Linda
    Harmångers Maskin & Marin AB, Industriområdet 2, 820 74 Stocka, Sweden.
    Hillstrom, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Turistg. 5, SE-453 21 Lysekil, Sweden.
    Size selection of herring (Clupea harengus membras) in a pontoon trap equipped with a rigid grid2011In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable fishery in the Baltic and Bothnian Seas requires the development and introduction of fishing gear which fishes selectively and at the same time excludes raiding seals. The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to test and evaluate rigid grids as a method for retaining only larger herring in a pontoon trap, and secondly to analyze which factors were influencing the selection process. The results demonstrate that it is indeed possible to sort herring by size in a pontoon fish chamber. The efficiency of excluding undersized herring was at best 27%, using a selection grid covering just over 0.1% of the fish chamber wall. The factors which have most effect on the selection were the quantity of fish in the trap, the season of the year, the time of day and the presence of seals. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Lundin, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Ovegård, Mikael
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skolg. 6, SE-742 42 Öregund, Sweden.
    Calamnius, Linda
    Harmångers Maskin & Marin AB, Industriområdet 2, 820 74 Stocka, Sweden.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Turistg. 5, SE-453 21 Lysekil, Sweden.
    Selection efficiency of encircling grids in a herring pontoon trap2011In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 111, no 1-2, p. 127-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High bycatches of undersized herring constitute a major problem in the Baltic Sea herring trap fishery. In an attempt to reduce these bycatches, this field study evaluates the efficiency of rigid selection grids encircling a herring pontoon trap. The results show that 54-72% of the undersized herring were removed from the catch. The introduction of such grids would therefore represent a significant step towards a more efficient and sustainable herring fishery in the Baltic Sea. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  • 12.
    Sanchez Tortosa, Francisco
    et al.
    Departamento de Biología Animal, Edificio C-1, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071.
    Pérez, Lorenzo
    Departamento de Biología Animal, Edificio C-1, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Effect of food abundance on laying date and clutch size in the White Stork Ciconia ciconia2003In: Bird Study, ISSN 0006-3657, E-ISSN 1944-6705, Vol. 50, p. 112-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capsule- Food independently affects both laying date and clutch size, suggesting that seasonal decline in clutch size is related to a decrease in food availability.

    Aim - To test the effect of food abundance on laying date and clutch size of the White Stork and identify the cause of seasonal decline in the number of eggs laid.

    Methods - During 1991 and 1996 we recorded clutch size and laying date of pairs breeding next to rubbish dumps (food abundant and constant throughout the breeding season) and birds breeding far from rubbish dumps (using natural food sources).

    Results - In 1991 there was no difference in mean laying date between pairs nesting at rubbish dumps and control pairs. Clutch size was significantly larger at rubbish dump nests. In contrast, mean laying date was earlier in control pairs in 1996 and there was no significant differences in clutch sizes, even when controlling for laying date effect.

    Conclusion - The results support the hypothesis that food availability independently affects both laying date and clutch size. The seasonal decline in clutch size close to rubbish dumps was negligible (1991) or much smaller than in the control zone (1996) suggesting that a progressive deterioration of natural food sources is the most probable reason for a decline in clutch size as the season advances.

  • 13.
    Svanberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Mateo, Rafael
    Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM).
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Green, Andy J.
    Estación Biológica de Doñana-CSIC, Pabellon del Perú, Avenida Maria Luisa s/n, E-40013 Seville, Spain..
    Taggart, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Dr, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB24 3UU, UK.
    Raab, Andrea
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Dr, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB24 3UU, UK.
    Meharg, Andy A.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Dr, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB24 3UU, UK.
    Lead isotopes and lead shot ingestion in the globally threatened marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) and white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala)2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, no 2-3, p. 416-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) and concentrations in the livers and bones of marbled teal and white-headed duck were determined in order to establish the main Pb source in these waterfowl species. Lead concentrations in bone and liver were found to be very high in many of the white-headed ducks. Some of the marbled teal had high Pb levels in the bones but liver Pb levels were all low. Ingested Pb shot were found in both species but the white-headed duck had higher prevalence of shot in their gizzards than the marbled teal. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio in livers and bones of white-headed ducks showed no significant differences compared to the ratios obtained from Pb shot. Marbled teal liver and bone Pb ratios were similar to the Pb shot ratios, with no significant differences found. Marbled teal liver and bone ratios were, however, also similar to atmospheric Pb ratios described in Spain. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio in bones of marbled teal ducklings with the highest Pb concentrations tended to resemble the ratios of Pb shot, which supports the hypothesis that the Pb was derived from the mothers. We found that the Pb ratios of Pb shot and Pb ratios described in geological formations in the area overlapped. The principal source of Pb in many of these birds was, however, most likely derived from Pb shot, supported by the similar isotopic ratios, high Pb concentrations and evidence of ingested shot. There was a larger separation for the 206Pb/207Pb liver ratio between birds with and without ingested Pb shot compared to the 208Pb/207Pb liver ratio. The 206Pb/207Pb isotopic ratio hence seems to be the most useful ratio to determine recent Pb shot ingestion.

  • 14.
    Taggart, Mark A.
    et al.
    Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Green, Andy J.
    Department of Wetland Ecology, Estacion Biologica de Donana-CSIC, Pabellon del Peru, Avenida Maria Luisa s/n, E-40013 Seville, Spain.
    Mateo, Rafael
    a Instituto de Investigacio´n en Recursos Cinege´ticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Svanberg, Fredrik
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Meharg, Andy A.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Dr, Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3UU, UK.
    Metal levels in the bones and livers of globally threatened marbled teal and white-headed duck from El Hondo, Spain2009In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    El Hondo is a key area for marbled teal and white-headed duck. We present Pb, Cu, Zn, Se, and As data for bone and liver in birds found dead between 1996 and 2001. Several metals were higher in adult white-headed ducks than in marbled teal. They were higher in female than in male white-headed ducks, and did not differ with sex in marbled teal, but did by age. Lead in liver of adults was influenced by Pb shot ingestion, which was detected in 21% of marbled teal and in 71% of white-headed duck. No marbled teal had liver levels indicative of Pb poisoning, while 86% of white-headed ducks did. Selenium, Zn, and Cu were elevated in 13%, 7%, and 39% of birds, respectively. Whilst Pb shot poses the greatest threat to these species, further work should assess exposure via plants, invertebrates, water, and sediments for other metals, and investigate possible sub-lethal effects.

  • 15.
    Åhman, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Using a Game Theoretical Approach for Experimental Simulation of Brood Reduction: Conflict and Co-Operation, Effect on Brood Size with Limited Resources2005In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, 2005, p. 220-225Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of parental care includes typical caring behaviour, such as protecting or feeding offspring. Sibling rivalry is anthropogenic viewed as conflicting behaviour, and can ultimately lead to brood reduction. In this study we have used object oriented programming to simulate different scenarios in this sibling rivalry conflict. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the complex interactions occurring during brood reduction, but few simulation models successfully combines it with a hypothesis necessary to describe an ESS. In our solution we present a simple experimental simulation for brood reduction, where each sibling acts as an autonomous agent that has the ability to initiate actions for cooperation and competition against other siblings. Agents have a limited set of actions that can be activated during the onset of some specific environmental conditions, such as prey density, different climate variables etc. Parameters for food distribution are determined on a basis of a former known theory for maximizing inclusive fitness. In the computer simulations we have studied effects on sizes of siblings and fitness measures with varying degree of hatching patterns and prey density for siblings within the artificial brood. Results from the experimental simulations demonstrate interesting similarities with brood reduction in a real world setting, such as in raptorial birds that practice facultative siblicidal behaviour. Agents within the artificial brood respond with stronger conflicting behaviour whenever resources are limited and simulating increased hatching asynchrony lead to a lower survival rate (because of increased size hierarchy) of siblings within the simulated brood.

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