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  • 1.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Channel Characterization and Wireless Communication Performance in Industrial Environments2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for wireless communication systems in industry has grown in recent years. Industrial wireless communications open up a number of new possibilities for highly flexible and efficient automation solutions. However, a good part of the industry refuses to deploy wireless solutions products due to the high reliability requirements in industrial communications that are not achieved by actual wireless systems. Industrial environments have particular characteristics that differ from typical indoor environments such as office or residential environments. The metallic structure and building dimensions result in time dispersion in the received signal. Moreover, electrical motors, vehicles and repair work are sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) that have direct implications on the performance of wireless communication links. These degradations can reduce the reliability of communications, increasingthe risk of material and personal incidents. Characterizing the sources of degradations in different industrial environments and improving the performance of wireless communication systems by implementing spatial diversity and EMI mitigation techniques are the main goals of this thesis work.

    Industrial environments are generally considered to be environments with a significant number of metallic elements and EMI sources. However, with the penetration of wireless communication in industrial environments, we realize that not all industrial environments follow this rule of thumb. In fact, we find a wide range of industrial environments with diverse propagation characteristics and degradation sources. To improve the reliability of wireless communication systems in industrial environments, proper radio channel characterization is needed for each environment. This thesis explores a variety of industrial environments and attempts to characterize the sources of degradation by extracting representative channel parameters such as time dispersion, path loss and electromagnetic interference. The result of this characterization provides an industrial environment classification with respect to time dispersion and EMI levels, showing the diverse behavior of propagation channels in industry.

    The performance of wireless systems in industrial environments can be improved by introducing diversity in the received signal. This can be accomplished by exploiting the spatial diversity offered when multiple antennas are employed at the transmitter with the possibility of using one or more antennas at the receiver. For maximum diversity gain, a proper separation between the different antennas is needed. However, this separation could be a limiting factor in industrial environments with confined spaces. This thesis investigates the implication of antenna separation on system performance and discusses the benefits of spatial diversity in industrial environments with high time dispersion conditions where multiple antennas with short antenna separations can be employed.

    To ensure reliable wireless communication in industrial environments, all types of electromagnetic interference should be mitigated. The mitigation of EMI requires interference detection and subsequent interference suppression.This thesis looks at impulsive noise detection and suppression techniques for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based on wide-band communication systems in AWGN and multi-path fading channels. For this,a receiver structure with cooperative detection and suppression blocks is proposed.This thesis also investigates the performance of the proposed receiver structure for diverse statistical properties of the transmitted signal and electromagnetic interference.

  • 2.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    RF Channel Characterization in Industrial, Hospital and Home Environments2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of electronic components has resulted in the emergence of newmobile applications targeted at industry and hospital sectors. Moreover, a lack of availablewireless frequencies as result of the growth of wireless systems is becoming a problem.In this thesis we characterize industrial and hospital environments in order to provide theknowledge necessary to asses present and future development of critical wireless applications.Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of using TV white space by analysingthe interference from secondary to primary user in home environments.

    Some of the wireless solutions used in industries and hospitals come directly fromsystems designed for home or office, such asWLAN and Bluetooth. These systems are notprepared to handle problems associated with interference of impulsive character found inindustrial processes and electrical systems.

    Typically, industrial environments have been classified as reflective environments dueto the metallic structure present in the buildings. In this thesis, we demonstrate that althoughthis may be generally true, some locations in the industry may have special propertieswith wave propagation characteristics in the opposite direction. Stored materials canabsorb wireless signals, resulting in a coverage problem. From the measurement campaignwe are able to distinguish three main classes of indoor environments (highly reflective,medium reflective and low reflective) with different propagation characteristics.

    Improving spectrum efficiency can be a solution to the growing demand for wirelessservices and can increase a system’s robustness against interference, particularly in criticalapplications in industrial and hospital environments. One improvement in spectrum efficiencycan be for secondary consumers to reuse unassigned portions of the TV spectrum ata specific time and geographical location. This thesis studies the effect of inserting whitespace devices in the TV broadcast spectrum. Note that any new model must state the maximumpower allocated to secondary users to avoid harmful interference with the primarysignal.

    The content of this thesis is divided into three parts. The first part is the most comprehensiveand addresses electromagnetic interference and multipath characterization ofindustrial environments. In this part, we have developed a method for channel characterizationfor complex electromagnetic environments and have produced results from differentindustrial environments. The second part presents a preliminary study that characterizesthe electromagnetic interference in a hospital environment. The third part is a study ofsecondary users reusing the TV white spaces.

  • 3.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Slimane, Ben
    KTH.
    Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Characterization in Factory Infrastructures2012Ingår i: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 708-711Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, industrial wireless applications have emerged rapidly. The use of short-range radio communication systems in factories increases the flexibility in industrial processes by reducing the use of cables. However, the technological challenges involved in wireless communication in industrial environments are not trivial; they result in disadvantages with respect to reliability and security because of electromagnetic interference. To gain an understanding of the performance limits of these wireless applications, knowing the characteristics of these environments is essential. In this approach, amplitude probability distribution and rms delay spread measurements have been used to perform electromagnetic site surveys in three factory automation infrastructures.

  • 4.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden.
    Choquehuanca, Juan José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, P.O. Box 1165, SE-58111, Sweden.
    Statistical Characterization of the Electromagnetic Environment in a Hospital2010Ingår i: 2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, APEMC 2010, 2010, s. 293-296, artikel-id 5475847Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thanks to advances in digital technology many hospitals are becoming populated with wireless medical applications to control life critical functions. Electromagnetic interference can cause severe performance degradations on these wireless applications. Several accidents have been reported which calls for a more thorough characterization of these interferences in areas where critical wireless applications are used. In this paper the results of electromagnetic interference measurements performed in a hospital are presented. The amplitude probability distribution (APD) and the inter arrival pulse probability distribution (PSD) are used to characterize these environments. In addition, Middleton parameters can be calculated from the measured data. This study is considered to be a first effort to characterize the 20 MHz -2500 MHz band in hospitals.

  • 5.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH.
    Dolz Martin de Ojeda, Jose
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. FOI.
    Marzal Romeu, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Industrial Indoor Environment Characterization: Propagation Models2011Ingår i: Proceedings of EMC Europe 2011 York - 10th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2011, s. 245-249Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of three years' field measurements on radio propagation in industrial environments have been analyzed using four propagation models: the Saleh-Valenzuela model, the twocluster model, the indoor power delay profile model, and our more recent adjusted model. In this study, we used the results of measurements performed at a steel mill, a paper mill, and in a laboratory environment for three frequency bands (183-683 MHz, 1640-2140 MHz, and 2200-2700 MHz) and for line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight cases.

  • 6.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    FOI.
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ultra-Wideband Propagation Channel-Measurements and Simulations in Industrial Environments2010Ingår i: 9th International Symposium on EMC joint with 20th International Wroclaw Symposium on EMC, 2010, s. 615-618Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology, Kista, Sweden .
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. FOI.
    Industrial environment characterization for future M2M applications2011Ingår i: Proc. 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, s. 960-963Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining electronics, telecommunications, and information technology to connect devices and remote systems is perhaps the best feature of the future Machine-to-Machine (M2M) technology. Wireless communication technologies for managing future M2M applications are becoming mature, but electromagnetic interference and time dispersion in industrial environments can limit the successful functioning of these wireless systems, leading to a failure in the control of critical functions. The characterization of these environments is necessary for collecting and specifying M2M requirements. In this paper, we present the conclusions from measurements carried out in four different industrial environments during the past three years.

  • 8.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Simulation and Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation Absorption in a Finished-product Warehouse2010Ingår i: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2010, s. 881-884, artikel-id 5711396Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have characterized industrial environments as being highly reflective. In this paper, we provide the data obtained from electromagnetic field measurements performed at the warehouse of a paper mill. The data is also compared to simulated data. This data proves the existence of non-reflective and very high absorption industrial environments where wireless communication is impossible at certain frequencies. Furthermore, in such environment, radio performance cannot be improved by multiple antenna solutions such as MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) since multiple reflections are effectively absorbed.

  • 9.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Slimane, Ben
    School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Detection and Suppression of Impulsive Noise in OFDM Receiver2015Ingår i: Wireless personal communications, ISSN 0929-6212, E-ISSN 1572-834X, Vol. 85, nr 4, s. 2245-2259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the use of wireless systems in industrial applications has experienced spectacular growth. Unfortunately, industrial environments often present impulsive noise which degrades the reliability of wireless systems. OFDM is an enhanced technology used in industrial communication to monitor the work and movement of employees using high quality video. However, OFDM is sensitive to high amplitude impulsive noise because the noise energy spreads among all OFDM sub-carriers. This paper proposes a receiver structure consisting of two stages: a detector stage combining Fisher’s Quadratic discriminant and Gaussian Hypothesis techniques, and a suppression stage optimized by setting well defined thresholds. The receiver structure has been tested by simulations and measurements providing an increment in the probability of detection and improving the system performance.

  • 10.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH.
    Slimane, Ben
    KTH.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    FOI.
    Impulsive noise detection in OFDM systems with PAPR reduction2014Ingår i: 2014 International symposium on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC Europe), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, s. 523-527Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Impulsive noise is a major source of degradation in industrial communications. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is an extended technique used in many industrial communications, however the performance of OFDM systems is reduced under an impulsive noise source. To increase the system performance, impulsive noise detection and suppression techniques can be designed in the communication system. OFDM has high levels of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), thus PAPR reduction techniques, such as selected mapping (SLM), are implemented in OFDM systems. This paper proposes an impulsive noise detection exploiting the statistical properties of the OFDM envelope when applying SLM. The proposed detection technique increases the probability of detection and improves the BER of the communication system compared to other impulsive detection techniques.

  • 11.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    FOI.
    Characterisation of electromagnetic properties in iron-mine production tunnels2012Ingår i: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 62-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern underground mines require reliable wireless communication for transmitting voice data, operating surveillance cameras, and monitoring mining equipment such as heavy vehicles. The electromagnetic characteristics of mines therefore have to be considered when determining the type of wireless technology for such critical applications. In this reported work, measurements of radio interference levels, path loss, and multipath propagation are performed in the world's now largest iron ore mine, situated in Sweden, to determine a suitable wireless technology for this mine.

  • 12.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Characterisation of highly absorbent and highly reflective radio wave propagation environments in industrial applications2012Ingår i: IET Communications, ISSN 1751-8628, E-ISSN 1751-8636, Vol. 6, nr 15, s. 2404-2412Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience has shown that Bluetooth, Wireless LAN (WLAN), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) and other Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) frequency band wireless technologies developed for office use, have encountered problems when used in critical industrial applications. The development of more reliable wireless solutions requires extensive knowledge of industrial environments with regards to both electromagnetic interference and wave propagation. This study presents the results of the analysis of two important classes of industrial environments having opposite characteristics, one being highly absorbent and the other being highly reflective, with respect to radio wave propagation. The analysis comprises both multipath and path loss characterisation. The results show that wireless solutions with different fundamental properties must be chosen for each of these environments to ensure high reliability. The conclusions of this work can be used as an important reference for further research in this area, as well as the design of new standards and guidelines for selecting wireless solutions in similar industrial environment classes.

  • 13.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Elofsson, Carl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. FOI.
    Antenna Cross Correlation and Ricean K-Factor Measurements in Indoor Industrial Environments at 433 and 868 MHz2013Ingår i: Wireless personal communications, ISSN 0929-6212, E-ISSN 1572-834X, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 587-593Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ricean K-factor and antenna diversity properties for indoor industrial environments have been characterized for 433 and 868 MHz. The high amount of metallic structures gives a multipath environment that heavily differs from other environments e.g. indoor office environments. The results show that low correlation between receiving antennas can be achieved for shorter antenna distances than in other environments.

  • 14.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Shabai, He
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut and Linköping University.
    Analysis of wireless communications in underground tunnels for industrial use2012Ingår i: 38TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY (IECON 2012), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, s. 3216-3220Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication is expected to improve the safety and the productivity in underground tunnels for industrial use. However the multiple shapes and structures of tunnels affect wireless communication characteristics in terms of signal propagation which is significantly different from terrestrial environments. This paper presents comprehensive broadband measurements and simulations of multipath propagation and path loss in two underground environments. The results can be used in the development of new communication systems in tunnels that provide industrial services.

  • 15.
    Hamid, Mohamed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH.
    Björsell, Niclas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium .
    Multi-Interference Detection Algorithm using Discriminant Analysis in Industrial Environments2013Ingår i: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON 2013), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 5600-5604Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a technique to detect multiple impulsive interference in an industrial environment is proposed and evaluated. The technique is based on discriminant analysis which iteratively peels-off the impulsive interferences. The probability of detection of the technique is tested with and without the iterative peeling-off part. The simulations show that the SIR can be improved by applying the detection technique and then blank or clip the impulsive interference components. The improvement in the SIR depends on the impulsive interference parameters and it can reach up to 17 dB.

  • 16.
    Karlsson, Carl
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    FOI.
    Outdoor electromagnetic interference measurements in industrial environments2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Obregon, E.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lei, Shi
    KTH.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Zander, J.
    KTH.
    A model for Aggregate Adjacent Channel Interference in TV White Space2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of white spaces and spectrum holes in the TV bands represents potential opportunities for alleviating the apparent spectrum scarcity. Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) has been proposed for the secondary user's operation and the main concern is the harmful interference that secondary systems could cause to the primary receivers. Existing studies have focused on establishing the limits for co-channel and adjacent channel interference when only one adjacent channel is used by a single secondary user. This paper presents a characterization of the aggregate adjacent channel interference (AACI) when different adjacent channels are simultaneously accessed by multiple secondary users or white space devices (WSDs). An analytical expression is proposed to approximate the limits of the tolerable AACI. Our model states that not only the interference received in each adjacent channel should stay below the corresponding threshold for that particular channel, but also the weighted sum of the total adjacent channel interference power should be kept below a certain threshold. Measurement campaigns show the cumulative effect of the adjacent channel interference (ACI) when multiple WSDs access multiple adjacent channels at the same time. The proposed analytical expression for AACI closely matches the measurement results.

  • 18.
    Obregon, Evanny
    et al.
    KTH.
    Shi, Lei
    KTH.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Zander, Jens
    KTH.
    Experimental Verification of Indoor TV White Space Opportunity Prediction Model2010Ingår i: The 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio: Wireless networks and communicacions, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Savic, Vladimir
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Department of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI), Linköping, Sweden .
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Department of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Measurement analysis and channel modeling for TOA-based ranging in tunnels2015Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 456-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A robust and accurate positioning solution is required to increase the safety in GPS-denied environments. Although there is a lot of available research in this area, little has been done for confined environments such as tunnels. Therefore, we organized a measurement campaign in a basement tunnel of Linköping university, in which we obtained ultra-wideband (UWB) complex impulse responses for line-of-sight (LOS), and three non-LOS (NLOS) scenarios. This paper is focused on time-of-arrival (TOA) ranging since this technique can provide the most accurate range estimates, which are required for range-based positioning. We describe the measurement setup and procedure, select the threshold for TOA estimation, analyze the channel propagation parameters obtained from the power delay profile (PDP), and provide statistical model for ranging. According to our results, the rise-time should be used for NLOS identification, and the maximum excess delay should be used for NLOS error mitigation. However, the NLOS condition cannot be perfectly determined, so the distance likelihood has to be represented in a Gaussian mixture form. We also compared these results with measurements from a mine tunnel, and found a similar behavior.

  • 20.
    Savic, Vladimir
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Department of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI), Linköping, Sweden .
    Kernel Methods for Accurate UWB-Based Ranging with Reduced Complexity2016Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 1783-1793Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and robust positioning in multipath environments can enable many applications, such as search-and-rescue and asset tracking. For this problem, ultra-wideband (UWB) technology can provide the most accurate range estimates, which are required for range-based positioning. However, UWB still faces a problem with non-line-of-sight (NLOS) measurements, in which the range estimates based on time-of-arrival (TOA) will typically be positively biased. There are many techniques that address this problem, mainly based on NLOS identification and NLOS error mitigation algorithms. However, these techniques do not exploit all available information in the UWB channel impulse response. Kernel-based machine learning methods, such as Gaussian process regression (GPR), are able to make use of all information, but they may be too complex in their original form. In this paper, we propose novel ranging methods based on kernel principal component analysis (kPCA), in which the selected channel parameters are projected onto a nonlinear orthogonal high-dimensional space, and a subset of these projections is then used as an input for ranging. We evaluate the proposed methods using real UWB measurements obtained in a basement tunnel, and found that one of the proposed methods is able to outperform state-of-the-art, even if little training samples are available.

  • 21.
    Savic, Vladimir
    et al.
    Dept. of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Dept. of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Kernel principal component analysis for UWB-based ranging2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE 15th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), 2014, nr October, s. 145-149Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate positioning in harsh environments can enable many application, such as search-and-rescue in emergency situations. For this problem, ultra-wideband (UWB) technology can provide the most accurate range estimates, which are required for range-based positioning. However, it still faces a problem in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments, in which range estimates based on time-of-arrival (TOA) are positively biased. There are many techniques that try to address this problem, mainly based on NLOS identification and NLOS error mitigation. However, these techniques do not exploit all available information from the UWB channel impulse response. In this paper, we propose a novel ranging technique based on kernel principal component analysis (kPCA), in which the selected channel parameters are projected onto nonlinear orthogonal high-dimensional space, and a subset of these projections is then used for ranging. We tested this technique using UWB measurements obtained in a basement tunnel of Linköping university, and found that it provides much better ranging performance comparing with standard techniques based on PCA and TOA. 

  • 22.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University and Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) .
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Challenges and conditions for wireless machine-to-machine communications in industrial environments2013Ingår i: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 187-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless solutions are rapidly growing in machine-to-machine communications in industrial environments. These environments provide challenging conditions in terms of radio wave propagation as well as electromagnetic interference. In this article, results from the characterization of radio channel properties are summarized in order to provide some guidelines for the choice of wireless solutions in industrial environments. In conclusion, it is essential to know the sensitivity of industrial processes to time delay in data transfer. Furthermore, it is important to be aware of the radio interference environment and the manner in which different wireless technologies react upon interference. These steps will minimize the risk of unforeseen expensive disturbances in industrial processes.

  • 23.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ferrer-Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Challenges and Conditions for Wireless Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communications2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ferrer Coll, Javier
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Chilo, José
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Sources of Disturbances on Wireless Communication in Industrial and Factory Environments2010Ingår i: 2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, APEMC 2010, 2010, s. 281-284Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical and mechanical machinery, highly reflective industrial facilities and co-existing communication systems are the major sources of disturbances in wireless industrial applications. Characterization of industrial environments is important for the development of standards, to assess current and future deployment of wireless technologies, and to provide systems integrators and end user with guidelines. In this paper some deductions from measurements carried out at three industrial environments using traditional electric field strength, amplitude probability distribution (APD) and multipath time dispersion measurements are presented. These measurements have given surprising and interesting results.

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