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  • 1. Berglund, E
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Johansson, I
    Parental reports of spoken language skills in children with Down syndrome.2001In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 179-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spoken language in children with Down syndrome and in children in a normative group was compared. Growth trends, individual variation, sex differences, and performance on vocabulary, pragmatic, and grammar scales as well as MaxLU (maximum length of utterance) were explored. Subjects were 330 children with Down syndrome (age range: 1-5 years) and 336 children in a normative group (1;4-2; 4 years;months). The Swedish Early Communicative Development inventory-words and sentences (SECDI-w&s) was employed. Performance of children with Down syndrome at ages 3;0 and 4;0 was comparable with that of children in the normative group at ages 1,4 and 1;8 respectively. In comparison with children in the normative group of similar vocabulary size, children with Down syndrome lagged slightly on pragmatic and grammar scales. The early development proceeded in most cases with exponential or logistic growth. This stresses the great potential of early intervention.

  • 2. Berglund, Eva
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Communicative development in Swedish children 16-28 months old: The Swedish early communicative development inventory - words and sentences2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To describe the development of words and sentences in Swedish children 16-28 months old, 900 parental reports on 336 children were analyzed. Subjects were randomly selected from the national birth register, and there was a response rate of 88%. The assessments were made using the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory-words and sentences (SECDI-w&s).

    Age-based norms for productive vocabulary, pragmatic skills, grammar skills, and maximum length of utterance (MaxLU) were determined. We describe the development of feedback morphemes, semantic categories, and single words and tasks. Correlation across measures was significant, and especially strong between vocabulary size and grammar skills. Optimized positive predictive values were high for 25 to 28 month predictions (71%-88%), and vocabulary scores were found to be of particular predictive importance. No significant gender differences were detected. The clinical relevance of the instrument is discussed.

  • 3. Berglund, Eva
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Reliability and content validity of a new instrument for assessment of communicative skills and language abilities in young Swedish children2000In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 176-185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Berglund, Eva
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Westerlund, Monica
    Communicative skills in relation to gender, birth order, childcare and socioeconomic status in 18-month-old children2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 485-491Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Univ Gavle, Gavle, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Univ Gavle, Gavle, Sweden..
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is perceived autonomy associated with health-related quality of life among adolescents?2016In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 25, p. 85-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    Institutionen för psykologi Uppsala universitet.
    Development of decontextualization in object naming1989In: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 389-405Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Narratives validate communicative development inventories2001In: Applied Psycholinguistics, ISSN 0142-7164, E-ISSN 1469-1817, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 45-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explores the criterion-related validity of the Swedish version of the Communicative Development Inventories-Word & Sentences (SECDI-W&S). In two follow-up procedures. SECDI-W&S was used to assess vocabulary and grammar skills in 32 children at ages 1;10 or 2;4. At the first follow-up. 14 months later (at ages 3:0 or 3;6). two grammar tasks from the SECDI-W&S and one narrative task (frog story) were given to 27 children. Predictive validity ranged from .50 to .60 for most assessed skills over the 14-month period, whereas concurrent validity scores at ages 3;0 or 3:6 ranged from .48 to .70. The second follow-up at 26 months (at ages 1;0 or 4;6) was conducted with the narrative task only. predictive validity from ages 1:10 or 2:3 for the second follow-up remained high for some of the measures: however, for other measures it diminished, which could be partly accounted for by ceiling effects, The overall results confirm that the criterion-related validity of the SECDI is sound.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Proceedings from the First European Network Meeting on the Communicative Development Inventories: May 24-28 2006 Dubrovnik Croatia2007Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Sex differences in language development as a topic for cross-cultural comparisons2007In: Proceedings from the First European Network Meeting on the Communicative Development Inventories: May 24-28 2006 Dubrovnik Croatia, 2007, p. 103-114Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Substantivsturbo hos tvåspråkiga barn2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många studier har hävdat att barn lär sig substantiv före verb och adjektiv, bland annat för att enkla substantiv har en klarare relation till det de betecknar än vad andra ord har (Gentner, 1978; 1982). Det har också hävdats att barn tillämpar en kontrastprincip i den tidiga ordinlärningen som gör att de inte lär sig synonymer (Clark, 1987; 1988). Samtidigt tvåspråkiga barn har enligt samma tanke inte tillägnat sig tvärspråkliga synonymer, dvs två språks ord för samma sak (Volterra & Teaschner, 1978). Inget av dessa påståenden har visat sig vara helt sant. I föreliggande studie undersöks sammansättningen av det tidiga ordförrådet hos 19 barn mellan 16 och 28 månader som växer upp i en finsk-svensk språkig omgivning. Uppgifter om barnens ordförråd inhämtades med den svenska och finska versionen av MB-CDI. Resultatet visar på en hög andel tvärspråkliga synonymer och att tvärspråkliga synonymer var speciellt vanliga för substantiv. Konsekvenser för kontrastprincipen och möjligheten att designa studier som prövar allmänna principer för språktillägnande i tvåspråkiga miljöer diskuteras.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    The Swedish Communicative Development Inventory III: Parent reports on language in preschool children2017In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 647-654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A revised form of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III (SCDI-III) was presented designed for Swedish speakingchildren aged 2 years 6 months–4 years 0 months with the objective to give a proxy measure of their language competence. The instrumentcontains a vocabulary checklist with 100 words, mainly predicates, from four areas; Food words, Body words, Mental words and Emotionwords. Two sections assess the child’s grammar skills and a final section appraises the child’s metalinguistic awareness. Assessments from1,134 parents are reported. Scales with adequate psychometric properties were formed for each section. Monthly median values andspread of score distributions are presented for each scale. Girls scored higher than boys on all scales. The revision, sampling procedures,demographic variables and issues of reliability and validity, are discussed. The general structure of the instrument can well be integrated insimilar instruments designed for other languages and cultures.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Berglund, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Instruments, scoring manual and percentile levels of the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory, SECDI2002Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Berglund, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Swedish early communicative development inventories: words and gestures1999In: First language, ISSN 0142-7237, E-ISSN 1740-2344, Vol. 19, no 55, p. 55-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the typical course and variability in major areas of communicative development for 228 Swedish-speaking children between 8 and 16 months of age. The assessments were made by parental reports with the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventories (SECDI) using a semi-longitudinal design. Age-based norms for understanding of phrases, vocabulary comprehension, vocabulary production and use of gestures are described at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile levels. More lexical verbs were found among the first words in comprehension than in production. An extensive variability within individuals in onset and development was found for the assessed skills. The individual differences proved to be stable over 4–6 months. No gender differences were found for comprehension of phrases, total gestures, vocabulary compre-hension, or for vocabulary production. Strong, unique associations were found between total gestures and vocabulary comprehension and between vocabulary comprehension and vocabulary production. In contrast, no unique association was found between gestures and vocabulary production. The results generally concur with those reported for English-speaking American children by Fenson et al. (1993, 1994).

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Short is beautiful: Dimensionality and measurement invariance in two length of the Basic Psychological need Satisfaction at work scale2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-determination theory proposes that all humans have three intrinsic psychological needs: the needs for Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness. These needs take different forms in different areas of life. The present study examines the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction at Work (BPNS-W) scale. The fit of 10-factor structures previously suggested for related versions of the scale were compared. Cross-sectional data from 1,200 participants were examined in a confirmatory factor analysis framework. Both the original 21-item version and a reduced 12-item version of the BPNS-W were examined. The General Health Questionnaire was used for validation. The results supported a three-factor solution with correlated error variances for the reversed items. Invariance testing of the long and short scales gave best support to the short scale, for which partial scalar invariance was achieved. The external validity of the short scale was supported by a hierarchical regression analysis in which each need made a unique contribution in predicting psychological well-being. In conclusion, the results corroborate a three-factor structure of BPNS-W. Although not perfect the short scale should, it is argued, be preferred over the long version. Directions for the future development of the scale are discussed.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Arbetsmarknadsförankring, psykisk hälsa och livssituation2000Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Marschik, Peter B
    Medical University of Graz, Austria.
    Tulviste, Tiia
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Almgren, Margareta
    University of the Basque Country, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
    Pérez Pereira, Miguel
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Wehberg, Sonja
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Marjanovič-Umek, Ljubica
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Gayraud, Frederique
    University of Lyon, France.
    Kovacevic, Melita
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Gallego, Carlos
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Differences between girls and boys in emerging language skills: Evidence from 10 language communities2012In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 326-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explored gender differences in emerging language skills in 13,783 European children from 10 non-English language communities. It was based on a synthesis of published data assessed with adapted versions of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) from age 0;08-2;06. The results showed that girls are slightly ahead of boys in early communicative gestures, in productive vocabulary and in combining words. The difference increased with age. Boys were not found to be more variable than girls. Despite extensive variation in language skills between language communities, the difference between girls and boys remained. This suggests that the difference is caused by robust factors that do not change between language communities.

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Vidman, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Josefsson, Barbro
    Vad i arbete är hälsofrämjande?2014In: Hälsa, livsmiljö och arbetsliv: ur ett socialt arbete-perspektiv / [ed] Fereshteh Ahmadi & Sam Larsson, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2014, p. 43-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Westerlund, M.
    Berglund, E.
    A screening version of the Swedish Communicative Development Inventories designed for use with 18-month-old children.2002In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 948-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An instrument designed to assess young children's communicative skills at 18 months is described. The instrument consists of a 103-item parental report checklist based on the Swedish version of the Communicative Development Inventories (SECDI). We present descriptive data from a study at the Swedish Community Health Care Centres, including parental reports of 1021 18-month-old children. The response rate was 88%. Performance at the 10th percentile consisted of 8 communicative gestures, 45 comprehended words, and 7 spoken words. The overall results indicate that the instrument is reliable and has validity approximating that of the SECDI. Furthermore, parents of the children with the poorest vocabulary indicated approval of the assessment procedure in interviews especially directed to this group.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Westerlund, Monica
    Central Unit for Child Health Care, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Children's Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Miniscalco, Carmela
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Problems and limitations in studies on screening for language delay2010In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 943-950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses six common methodological limitations in screening for language delay (LD) as illustrated in 11 recent studies. The limitations are (1) whether the studies define a target population, (2) whether the recruitment procedure is unbiased, (3) attrition, (4) verification bias, (5) small sample size and (6) inconsistencies in choice of "gold standard". It is suggested that failures to specify a target population, high attrition (both at screening and in succeeding validation), small sample sizes and verification bias in validations are often caused by a misguided focus on screen positives (SPs). Other limitations are results of conflicting methodological goals. We identified three such conflicts. One consists of a dilemma between unbiased recruitment and attrition, another between the comprehensiveness of the applied gold standard and sample size in validation and the third between the specificity of the gold standard and the risk of not identifying co-morbid conditions.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Ylikiiskilä, AnttiBerglund, Eva
    Tionde Nordiska Barnspråkssymposiet 18-20 november 2005, Högskolan i Gävle2006Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Langeborg, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Anchoring in numeric judgments of visual stimuli2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  • 22.
    Nayeb, Laleh
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lagerberg, Dagmar
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Monica
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lucas, Steven
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Modifying a language screening tool for three-year-old children identified severe language disorders six months earlier2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 9, p. 1642-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We examined if routine Swedish language screening for developmental language disorder (DLD) carried out at three years of age could be performed as effectively six months earlier. Methods: This study observed 105 monolingual Swedish-speaking children (53% boys) aged 29-31 months at three Swedish child health centres. We compared their ability to combine three words, as per the existing protocol, and two words. They also underwent a comprehension task. Speech and language pathologists clinically assessed the children for DLD and their results were compared with the nurse-led screening. Results: The results for the three-word and two-word criterion were the following: sensitivity (100% versus 91%) specificity (81% versus 91%), positive predictive (38% versus 56%) and negative predictive value (100% versus 99%). The three-word criterion identified 29 children with possible DLD, including 11 cases later confirmed, and the two-word criterion identified 18 possible cases, including 10 confirmed cases. DLD was overrepresented in the 10% of children who did not cooperate with the nurse-led screening. Conclusion: Changing the required word combinations from three to two words worked well. The three-word test identified one extra confirmed case, but resulted in 10 more false positives. Lack of cooperation during screening constituted an increased risk for DLD. 

  • 23. Peltola, Ulla
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Tecken som stöd i hörande barns tidiga språktillägnande2006In: Tionde Nordiska Barnsspråkssymposiet 18-20 november 2005, Högskolan i Gävle, Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle , 2006, p. 106-112Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Vocal age disguise: the role of fundamental frequency and speech rate and  its perceived effects2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between vocal characteristics and perceived age is of interest in various contexts, as is the possibility to affect age perception through vocal manipulation. A few examples of such situations are when age is staged by actors, when ear witnesses make age assessments based on vocal cues only or when offenders disguise their voice to appear younger or older. This paper investigates how speakers spontaneously manipulate two age related vocal characteristics (f0 and speech rate) in attempt to sound younger versus older than their true age, and if the manipulation corresponds to actual age related changes in f0 and speech rate (Study 1). Further aims of the paper is to determine how successful vocal age disguise is by asking listeners to estimate the age of generated speech samples (Study 2) and to examine whether or not listeners use f0 and speech rate as cues to perceived age. In Study 1, participants from three age groups (20-25, 40-45 and 60-65 years) agreed to read a short text under three voice conditions. There were 12 speakers in each age group (six women and six men). They used their natural voice in one condition, attempted to sound 20 years younger in another and 20 years older in a third condition. In Study 2, 60 participants (listeners) listened to speech samples from the three voice conditions in Study 1 and estimated the speakers’ age. Each listener was exposed to all three voice conditions. The results from Study 1 indicated that the speakers increased fundamental frequency (f0) and speech rate when attempting to sound younger and decreased f0 and speech rate when attempting to sound older. Study 2 showed that the voice manipulations had an effect in the sought-after direction, although the achieved mean effect was only 3 years, which is far less than the intended effect of 20 years. Moreover, listeners used speech rate, but not f0, as a cue to speaker age. It was concluded that age disguise by voice can be achieved by naïve speakers even though the perceived effect was smaller than intended.

  • 25.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Can you hear my age?: Influences of speech rate and speech spontaneity on estimation of speaker age2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive hearing science is mainly about the study of how cognitive factors contribute to speech comprehension, but cognitive factors also partake in speech processing to infer non-linguistic information from speech signals, such as the intentions of the talker and the speaker’s age. Here, we report two experiments on age estimation by “naïve” listeners. The aim was to study how speech rate influences estimation of speaker age by comparing the speakers’ natural speech rate with increased or decreased speech rate. In Experiment 1, listeners were presented with audio samples of read speech from three different speaker age groups (young, middle aged, and old adults). They estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older (60–65 years) speakers in comparison with younger (20–25 years) speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged (40–45 years) speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech. Potential implications for forensic investigations and other applied domains are discussed.

  • 26.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Inst för klinisk neurovetenskap, sektionen för försäkringsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Associations between scores of psychosomatic health symptoms and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents2013In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 11, no 176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aims of the present study are to investigate whether there are differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between girls and boys in two different age groups, to study how much of children’s variance in HRQoL can be explained by common psychosomatic health symptoms, and to examine whether the same set of psychosomatic symptoms can explain differences in HRQoL, both between girls and boys and between older and younger school children.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 253 children, 99 of ages 11-12 years (n=51 girls, n=48 boys) and 154 of ages 15-16 years (n=82 girls, n=72 boys), in Swedish schools. The KIDSCREEN-52 instrument, which covers 10 dimensions of HRQoL and additional questions about psychosomatic health symptoms, were used. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate differences between the genders and age groups, and in interaction effects on the KIDSCEEN-52 dimensions. Regression analyses were used to investigate the impacts of psychosomatic symptoms on gender and age group differences in HRQoL.

    Results: Boys rated themselves higher than girls on the KIDSCREEN dimensions: physical and psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, and autonomy. Main effects of age group were found for physical well-being, psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, autonomy, and school environment, where younger children rated their HRQoL more highly than those aged 15-16 years. Girls rated their moods and emotions dramatically lower than boys in the older age group, but the ratings of emotional status were more similar between genders at younger ages. Psychosomatic symptoms explained between 27% and 50% of the variance in the children’s HRQoL. Sleeping difficulties were a common problem for both girls and boys. Depression and concentration difficulties were particularly associated with HRQoL among girls whereas stomach aches were associated with HRQoL among boys.  

    Conclusions: Girls and adolescents experience poorer HRQoL than boys and younger children, but having psychosomatic symptoms seem to explain a substantial part of the variation. Strategies to promote health among school children, in particular to alleviate sleep problems among all children, depression and concentration difficulties among girls, and stomach aches among boys, are of great importance.

  • 27.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Effects of training on age estimation2007In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 131-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the possibility to improve accuracy of age estimates through training. Thirty-four participants were divided into an experimental and a control group. The sessions included a pre-test before training, six feedback or no-feedback training tests and a post-test after training. The experimental group performed the feedback tests and the control group the no-feedback tests. Training was found to improve age estimation accuracy, particularly estimations of old stimuli, and training with feedback seemed to be superior to training without feedback. No difference was found between the groups at pre-test, but at post-test the experimental group exhibited greater accuracy in age estimation. Moreover, the experimental group increased its accuracy between the pre- and post-tests.

  • 28.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Women Assimilate across Gender, Men Don’t: The Role of Gender to the Own-Anchor Effect in Age, Height and Weight Estimates2011In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 1733-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports two studies of the own-anchor effect (i.e., assimilation in age, height and weight estimates) in same- and cross-gender age, height and weight estimates. The own-anchor effect is believed to be stronger for same-gender estimates, but the investigation reported here is the first to test this hypothesis with participants and target persons of both genders. Several own-anchor effects were found in females’ same- and cross-gender estimates, whereas males only showed own-anchor effects in same-gender estimates. These results lean towards the possibility that women assimilate across gender, whereas men do not. Explanations of these results with reference to Krueger’s theory of social projection and the consequences for witness reliability are discussed.

  • 29.
    Vestlund, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Experts on age estimation: Cognition and neurosciences2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 301-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to study the biases and accuracy in age estimation of persons selling alcohol. Two experiments are reported, both suggesting that the accuracy in age estimation of Swedish alcohol salespersons is higher than that of control persons. This expertise in age estimation is probably the result of the extensive training Swedish alcohol salespersons go through as a natural part of their profession. Nonetheless, their estimates were not free from bias. Salespersons overestimated the age of target persons below 20 years of age and thus too young to buy alcohol. The results also revealed that controls, in contrast to salespersons, assimilated their estimates towards their own age (i.e. an own-anchor effect). Furthermore, female participants were shown to estimate the age of old target persons (56-65 years) more accurately than male participants. These results are discussed in relation to previous findings on training in age estimation and present jurisdiction.

  • 30.
    Westerlund, M.
    et al.
    Central Unit of Child Health Care, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berglund, E.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Can severely language delayed 3-year-olds be identified at 18 months?: Evaluation of a screening version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories2006In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's component yielded the best prediction, (b) compared the productivity figures of the SCS18 with those of the traditional method of identification, and (c) tried different cutoff criteria of the SCS18.

    Method: Half of the child health care (CHC) centers in a Swedish county were randomly selected to use the SCS18 (e.g., a checklist supporting parents in assessing their child's word production, word comprehension, and communicative gestures). Remaining CHC centers used an informal assessment. Expressive and receptive language was subsequently judged with an observation for 3-year-olds that is routine in the county. An unselected population of 2,080 children participated at 18 months of age and again at 3 years of age.

    Result: Number of spoken words yielded the best prediction, and SCS18 was superior to the traditional method. A sensitivity of 50%, however, was not enough, and a stricter criterion resulted in too many false positives to be acceptable as routine.

    Conclusion: Although the SCS18 has strength, the age of 18 months seems to be too early for identification of severe language disability.

  • 31. Westerlund, M.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Berglund, E.
    A short-term follow-up of children with poor word production at the age of 18 months2004In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 702-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: (a) To study the stability of poor language development assessed by a new screening instrument based on parents' recognition of words their 18-mo-old children use; (b) to evaluate the predictability of the less-than-eight-words cut-off used by Child Health Centres (CHCs) in Sweden at the present 18-mo check-up--an assessment based on parents' recall of their children's vocabulary. Methods: All failures of the less-than-eight-words criterion, corresponding to about 10% of 1000 children from a community-based study, were followed up within half a year after the first assessment. The follow-up instrument was an extensive, internationally well-known and structured parent questionnaire, standardized for Swedish children. Results: Almost half of the followed-ups performed below the 10th percentile and more than two-thirds were found below the 20th percentile. Thus, after a few months about one-third of the children had caught up to a fairly normal level of performance. Two of the children who had recovered performed above median. More relaxed cut-off criteria were applied ad hoc , reducing the proportion of children with a fast recovery.

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