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  • 1.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Halmstad.
    Relationships and Networks in the Processes of Establishment of Firms in Transitional Economies: The case of Scandinavian firms in Eastern and Central Europe2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Focus on the particular entry mode a firm uses to enter a new market, rather than the process of establishment dominates in extant literature. To fill this void, we apply an establishment process model developed from the network approach to illuminate the web of relationship forms embedded in the establishment process of two Scandinavian firms as they attempt to establish themselves in transition economies. In one case, the results show that Statoil’s process of establishment in Estonia was less time- and resource-consuming because the firm drew support from significant actors in their network of exchange relationships. In the second case, a lack of home and host country support for Scania in Croatia resulted in an arduous and costly process and less stable position in the market, with the firm’s position changing several times as different problems cropped up. In light of the findings from the two cases, theoretical and practical implications for managing the establishment process are discussed.

  • 2.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Interactive (networked) internationalization: the case of Swedish firms2011In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 45, no 7/8, p. 1112-1129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha GEBREKIDAN, Desalegn
    Interactive internationalization: the case of Swedish firms2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The extant literature stresses that having foreign market presence is imperative for most firms these days. However, how firms conceive of which foreign markets to enter, the entry mode to take and the resource commitments to make are not information or decision-making processes solely confined to a firm that internationalizes its activities. The purpose of this study is to provide deeper insights into (1) reasons for a firm to internationalize its business activities and (2) the extent to which an independent actor (s) actively collaborates with the internationalizing firm so as to jointly determine the choice of market, the mode of entry and the level of investment committed in the market to be entered and even after the entry (i.e. the on-going activities). Based on two multiple case studies, one major finding of the study shows that independent actors, with their interconnected networks, have played and are still playing a major role in influencing the internationalization processes of each of the two firms in this study.

  • 4. Bennani, Az-Eddine
    et al.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lhajji, Dhiba
    An empirical study on the propensity of information technology use by hotels in France2006In: Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems: Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Venice, Italy. 5-9 October 2006, 2006, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extant literature has, to date, focused almost entirely on the use of interpersonal buyer-seller interactions during the process of creating service outcomes. This paper aims to fill this void by contributing to extant knowledge on customer interactions with technology-based self-service delivery options. The extent to which technological interface that enables customers to produce a service independent of a direct service employee involvement is used by hotels of various categories in France is, thus highlighted in this paper. It is, however, assumed in this paper that there can be significant dissimilarities in the response time when using e-mails to communicate with customers. These dissimilarities are investigated on the basis of an e-mailing action that encompasses sending a typical room-booking request to French hotels. Exhaustive samples of 240 hotels spread out in 120 cities located in France constituted the target group. One-way ANOVA testing differences between means was used to assess the impact of the hotel category (independent variable) on response time (dependent variable) among hotels in France. Our findings found significant dissimilarity in responsiveness across hotels categories. The implication of the findings for management is basically the fact that responsiveness is most likely the first step in providing good quality technology-based buyer-seller interactions to create service outcomes using the Internet/e-mail. One of the major concepts in customer relationship management is speed at which firms respond to questions and problems during the service encounter.

    Keywords: information and communication technology (ICT), Buyer-seller interactions, Internet/e-mail, technology-based self-service delivery options, responsiveness.

  • 5.
    Fremont, Vincent
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    Uppsala Universitet Ekonomisk-Historiska Institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Interaction through boundary objects: controversy and friction within digitalization2019In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 111-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze friction and controversies with interaction processes and their effects on forming new resource interfaces, through the lens of boundary objects. Design/methodology/approach The empirical setting consists of two organizations that are trying to enhance their competitive advantage through digitalization. During the process of data collection four different boundary objects were identified. The study illustrates how these boundary objects were characterized in terms of their modularity, standardization, abstractness and tangibility. This paper provides an analysis of how respondents perceived that the development of these boundary objects affected the creation of novel resource interfaces, and the resulting friction and controversy between new and old structures. Findings The study concludes that within a producer?user setting a focal boundary object will take on tangible and standardized properties, and the interaction process will expose friction in terms of both power struggles and resource incompatibilities. On the other hand, a boundary object?s modularity gives the actors central to the interaction room to maneuver and avoid resource incompatibilities and the development setting will hence be characterized by controversies. Originality/value The analysis indicates that the way individuals perceive boundary objects is central to interaction processes, answering calls for studies that investigate the role of objects within subject-to-object interaction.

  • 6.
    Fremont, Vincent
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Understanding interaction through boundary objects: How digitalization affects activity coordination2017In: , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focus on analyzing interaction processes and their effects on activity coordination through the lens of boundary objects. The empirical setting is organizations that are trying to enhance their competitive advantage by technological innovation and the use of big data.This study also contributes by addressing the cognitive dimensions of interactions by analyzing how activity links are being viewed by the involved actors based on their perceptions of the boundary objects.

  • 7. Hellsten, Lars
    et al.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Internationell ekonomi: resurser och handel i en gränslös värld2003Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Hinson, Robert
    et al.
    University of Ghana Business School, Accra, Ghana.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Okoe, Abednego Feehi
    University of Professional Studies, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
    Determinants of Bank Selection: A Study of Undergraduate Students in the University of Ghana2013In: Journal of Service Science and Management, ISSN 1940-9893, E-ISSN 1940-9907, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 197--205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is twofold: first, to investigate bank selection criteria among undergraduate students in the Uni- versity of Ghana, and second, to relate this study with previous findings on the same phenomenon. Extant studies have adopted mainly quantitative approach. In order to bridge this gap and contribute to existing knowledge, qualitatively inspired research design was adopted, thus facilitating in-depth understanding of the determinants of bank selection. Findings show that convenience, bank staff-customer relations and banking services/financial benefits are the first three most important determining factors. Furthermore, happiness, joyfulness, cheerfulness and delight are feelings derived after a banking service; whiles sadness, anger and deceit are avoided. Studies on the bank selection criteria employed by undergraduates are scanty in West Africa, and this study makes a contribution in that direction. Future studies will con- tinue from this one

  • 9.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Partial or total integration in a cross-border merger?: Building a Nordic bank culture2018In: Thunderbird International Business Review, ISSN 1096-4762, E-ISSN 1520-6874, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 477-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of failure for international mergers and acquisitions (M&As) is exceptionally high, since the integration of merging firms does not function well. Using a process perspective, this study aims to analyze the integration process in a cross-border merger and the development of a common organizational culture. A framework based on premerger cultural and organizational fit, synergy, and resulting organizational culture is developed to study the growth of Nordea, a merger of four Nordic banks. Data include in-depth interviews and secondary sources. This case study shows how cultural and managerial differences are dealt with and synergies realized. Building a broad organizational culture involving human resource management, decision making, technology, competitiveness, and customer relationships is necessary for merger integration, but it is costly and difficult. We suggest that success in mergers lies in managers creating a new cultural identity with unique values and perspectives.

  • 10.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Cross-border merger among Nordic banks - a longitudinal study2017In: Global and national business theories and practice: Bridging the past with the future / [ed] Vrontis, D., Weber, Y., Tsoukatos, E., EUROMED PRESS , 2017, p. 2134-2136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have found that even international mergers are popular, they usually fail for its complexity. Recently few studies have tried with process perspective to penetrate into merger integration without much success. We argue that focus on pre-and post-merger stages is good but not enough to provide a total picture of the process. By using a longitudinal approach this study analyzes the establishment, development and consolidation of a cross-border merger between banks from four countries. Based on theories on strategic motives and culture, a theoretical framework has been developed showing how merger process can lead to better competitiveness and performance. Data has been collected through semi-structured interviews with officials from the merging firms, and secondary materials during 1997-2015. The merger is described in four stages. The first stage deals with the initiation and establishment of the merger. Critical period and cultural clashes are covered in the next stage. The third stage concentrates on the development of synergy. The final stage reflects on how the process has consolidated and what result it has so far achieved.

  • 11.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Cross-border merger among nordic banks: a longitudinal study2017In: Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic development, Innovation Management, and Global Growth / [ed] Soliman K. S., International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2017, p. 855-857Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have found that even international merger and acquisition (M&A) are popular, they usually fail for its complexity. A large number of studies looked on the failure from financial, non-financial, managerial and HRM perspectives, but reasons for the failure is not yet understood. Recently few studies have tried with process perspective to penetrate into merger integration without much success. We argue that focus on pre- and post-merger stages is good but not enough to provide a total picture of the process. This study uses a longitudinal approach to analyze the establishment, development and consolidation of a cross-border merger between banks from four Nordic countries. Based on theories on strategic motives and culture, a theoretical framework has been developed showing how merger can lead to better competitiveness and performance. By using a qualitative method, data has been collected through semi-structured interviews with officials from the merging firms, and secondary materials and documents during the period of 1997-2015. The merger process is described in four stages. The first stage deals with the initiation and establishment of the merger. Critical period and cultural clashes are covered in the next stage. The third stage concentrates on the development of synergy and other measures. The final stage reflects on how the process has consolidated and what result it has so far achieved.

  • 12.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Rydback, Michelle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Borg, Erik
    Södertörns högskola, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Medical tourism in emerging markets: the role of trust, networks and word of mouth2019In: Health Marketing Quarterly, ISSN 0735-9683, E-ISSN 1545-0864, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 203-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the growing popularity of medical tourism (MT) in emerging markets (EMs), little is known about how healthcare providers operationalize. This paper analyzes how healthcare providers meet different challenges to market MT in an EM setting. A qualitative method was used for data collection and conducting case studies on healthcare services in the Philippines. The results show that trust and network building are necessary for mitigating the unfavorable characteristics, instability and lack of legitimacy caused by institutional constraints in EM. Word of mouth is found to be important to attract new customers and disseminate information about MT services

  • 13.
    Komunda, Mabel
    et al.
    Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Remedy or Cure for Service Failure?: Effects of Service Recovery on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty2012In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 82-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to a growing body of service recovery knowledge by examining the relationship between service recovery, consumer satisfaction and loyalty in a commercial banking environment.

    Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual framework encompassing the concepts of service recovery, communication, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the commercial bank setting is developed. A questionnaire is designed to focus on issues related to efforts made to investigate causes of service failure and to develop recovery strategies that meet customer expectations of how their banks should handle such problems.

    Findings: Results show that communication had a significant relationship with service recovery and that higher levels of redress independently increase positive consumer responses. The findings also show that the interaction of employee responsiveness and courtesy can also have a positive impact on consumer evaluations. Satisfaction was highest and negative word-of-mouth intentions lowest only under conditions of high responsiveness and courtesy.

    Research limitations/implications: Service recovery is process-oriented, and does not assess whether the reported problem that led to the actual complaint has actually been resolved. This aspect of the study opens a number of directions for future research with the goal of increasing the still limited understanding of Service Recovery issues in commercial banks. To achieve an indepth view, a more comprehensive qualitative study that pursues the same research questions may be appropriate.

    Practical implications & Originality: An implication is that, when managing complaints related to customer dissatisfaction, the approaches undertaken by service quality leaders should aim to provide just resolutions/fairness in service recovery. This study also provides insight into a company’s customer relationship management practices. However, in order to encourage customers to complain directly, a company needs to enhance the perception of a possible outcome if complained to. A conceptual framework is developed and used to investigate the relationship between service recovery, consumer satisfaction and loyalty

  • 14.
    Kuthea Nguti, Lucy Esther
    et al.
    Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kiraka, Ruth N.
    Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya.
    A Study of the Relationship between Social Cognitive Factors and Career Choice Satisfaction within the Technology Career Path: A Gendered Perspective2019In: Global Business Review, ISSN 0972-1509, E-ISSN 0973-0664Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology workforce is plagued by a diversity issue caused by women leaving the field at an alarming rate. This global phenomenon afflicts developing nations in particular, since women are believed to make up only 30% of the technology workforce. However, there is little empirical data from developing nations on the phenomenon since most studies on the topic have been conducted in industrialized countries. This paper therefore explores the relationship between socio-cognitive mechanisms (self-efficacy, outcome expectation, perceived social support, academia-family role conflict) and career choice satisfaction, which is posited to be one of the key influencers in an individual’s decision to continue along a particular career path. A questionnaire was used to collect data from students pursuing technology courses, such as in bachelor programmes in informatics and telecommunications, at a private university in Kenya. The findings reveal that self-efficacy, outcome expectations and perceived social support positively influence career choice satisfaction, especially among female students, whereas academic-family role conflict negatively influences career choice satisfaction of female students only. This means that government, higher education institutions and employers need to be attentive to socio-cognitive mechanisms that influence women and use this information to reduce the exodus of women from careers in technology.

  • 15.
    Ojiaku, O. C.
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Determinants of customers’ choice and continuance intentions with mobile data service provider: The role of past experience2017In: Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic development, Innovation Management, and Global Growth / [ed] Soliman, K. S., International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2017, p. 4926-4939Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the determinants of customers’ brand choice and continuance intentions with mobile service providers in the context of Mobile Data Service (MDS). This study also captures the impact of past experience on behavioral outcomes. Data was collected from 304 customers of mobile data service firms and analyzed using regression analyses. Results indicate that mobile service quality, pricing structure and promotion, but not brand image affects brand choice whereas continuance intentions is affected by the mobile service quality, brand image and price. Customers’ past experience relates significantly and negatively with brand choice but not continuance intention. The contribution and implication of the study is discussed.

  • 16.
    Ojiaku, Obinna C.
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Determinants of Customers’ Brand Choice and Continuance Intentions with Mobile Data Service Provider: The Role of Past Experience2018In: Global Business Review, ISSN 0972-1509, E-ISSN 0973-0664, Vol. 19, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of mobile data services has intensified competition and structured the market for mobile telecommunication services, resulting in decreased revenue particularly from voices services and high churn rate. Mobile service providers therefore seek ways to increase revenue by attracting and retaining mobile data users. This study investigates the determinants of customers’ brand choice and continuance intentions with mobile service providers in the context of mobile data service. This study also captures the impact of past experience on behavioural outcomes. Data were collected from 304 customers of mobile data service firms and analysed using regression analyses. Results indicate that mobile service quality, pricing structure and promotion, but not brand image, affect brand choice, whereas continuance intentions are affected by the mobile service quality, brand image and price. Customers’ past experience relates significantly and negatively to brand choice but not continuance intention. The contribution and implication of the study are discussed.

  • 17.
    Ojiaku, Obinna C.
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Determinants of Customers’ Brand Choice and Continuance Intentions with Mobile Data Service Provider: The Role of Past Experience2018In: Global Business Review, ISSN 0972-1509, E-ISSN 0973-0664, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1478-1493Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of mobile data services has intensified competition and structured the market for mobile telecommunication services, resulting in decreased revenue particularly from voices services and high churn rate. Mobile service providers therefore seek ways to increase revenue by attracting and retaining mobile data users. This study investigates the determinants of customers’ brand choice and continuance intentions with mobile service providers in the context of mobile data service. This study also captures the impact of past experience on behavioural outcomes. Data were collected from 304 customers of mobile data service firms and analysed using regression analyses. Results indicate that mobile service quality, pricing structure and promotion, but not brand image, affect brand choice, whereas continuance intentions are affected by the mobile service quality, brand image and price. Customers’ past experience relates significantly and negatively to brand choice but not continuance intention. The contribution and implication of the study are discussed.

  • 18.
    Ojiaku, Obinna C.
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria..
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Determinants of Customers’ Intention to ‘Port’ Mobile Phone Numbers in Times of Proliferating use of Multi-Sims2017In: International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, ISSN 0972-7302, Vol. 15, no 22, p. 621-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates factors that influence customers’ intentions to “port” mobile numbers in the Nigerian mobile telecommunications market. The study specifically investigates the effects of service quality, customer satisfaction, switching barriers and multiple SIMs on customers’ intentions to port their numbers to a new provider. A sample of 363, a cross-section of mobile phone subscribers in Anambra State, Nigeria, was surveyed and their responses analysed using simple percentages and descriptive statistics. Regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses, and the results confirm the effects of service quality, customer satisfaction, switching costs and attractiveness of the alternatives on porting intention. The effect of multiple SIM cards was, however, not confirmed. Demographic effects were also found, with age and occupation influencing subscribers’ intentions to port. Implications of the study include that regulatory efforts should be geared towards increasing consumer education on mobile number portability (MNP) and licensing of universal SIM cards to allow porting between operators with short codes. Efforts should also be made to improve service quality and increase brand attractiveness. The paper discusses the contributions and implications for theory, society/policy and managers.

  • 19.
    Okoe, Abednego F.
    et al.
    University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Adjei, Judith Serwaa
    All Nations University College, Koforidua, Ghana.
    Online Corporate Social Responsibility Reportage of an Indigenous Ghanaian Bank: A Case of Cal Bank Ltd2014In: The Development and Sustainability of African Business: The Role of the African Diaspora / [ed] PD Rwelamila and Anita Spring, International Academy of African Business Development (IAABD) , 2014, p. 141-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The management literature in recent years has been paying attention to the concept of corporate social responsibility. This could be attributed to stakeholder concerns of ethical practices of companies globally. This study focuses on how an indigenous Ghanaian bank reports its CSR activities online. A conceptual framework was adopted from the extant literature and was used as the basis of content analysis of CAL Bank’s online CSR reportage. “Elite interviews” were conducted with senior management of the bank to ascertain whether or not there was an over or under reportage of the bank’s online CSR activities. This study adopted a qualitative research approach drawing on information from CAL Bank’s website and conducting “elite interviews” with senior managers of the bank. It was noted there was under reportage of the bank’s online CSR activities as their CSR online reportage focuses mainly on external disclosures. It also came to light that the bank’s CSR reportage is fragmented and is not integrated into a marketing communication plan. These findings demonstrate the challenges the bank faces in coordinating and integrating its marketing communication plan.

  • 20.
    Okoe, Abednego Feehi
    et al.
    University of Professional Studies, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hinson, Robert
    University of Ghana Business School, Accra, Ghana.
    Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Framework to Study Bank Selection Criteria of Students in Institute of Professional Studies in Ghana2013In: Journal of Strategy and Management., ISSN 1755-425X, E-ISSN 1755-4268, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 27-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate bank selection criteria among students at the Institute of Professional Studies, Ghana. Extant literature has employed mainly quantitative approach. In order to contribute to existing knowledge, qualitative research design was adopted using the Analytical Hierarchy Process which demands that the decision problem is structured into a three level hierarchy, thus ensuring in-depth appreciation of the factors determining bank selection. The findings indicate that undergraduates in IPS place high emphasis on the convenience, customer service, and speed dimensions of bank services. Studies focusing on undergraduates’ bank selection in developing countries context are limited. This study will make important contribution in helping bridge the gap but more importantly provide information on the importance of the selection criteria.

  • 21.
    Okoe, Abednego Feehi
    et al.
    Institute of Professional Studies, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
    Serwa Adjei, Judith
    All Nations University College, Koforidua, Ghana.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Service Quality in the Banking Sector in Ghana2013In: International Journal of Marketing Studies, ISSN 1918-719X, E-ISSN 1918-7203, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary business milieu and “era of customer”, delivering quality service is a sine qua non in ongoing strategy of most business firms and constitutes integral ingredient for success and survival in present day´s competitive environment. This study investigates the role that service quality plays in the Ghanaian banking sector and its impact on service delivery. A sample of 400 customers encompasses four major indigenous and foreign banks. SERVQUAL dimensions of service quality were used to structure the questionnaire. William L. Boyd, Myron Leonard, and Charles White’s Standard Instrument for weighting of rating of service quality attributes was the sampling procedure adopted. Data collected was analyzed using one sample T- test of the mean weighted differences between perception and expectation of customers. This, in an attempt to determine whether there is a significant gap between expectation and perception at 5% level of significance. Empirical findings from this study show that gaps exist between customers’ expectations and perceptions of service delivery in all the banks even though the banks performed better on the tangibility dimension. Despite this observation, the banks retained their customers. This study, therefore, concludes that where a gap exists between customer expectation and perception of service delivery, service quality is perceived as low and customer dissatisfaction results. However, dissatisfied customers did not necessarily defect. The study therefore confirms the theory that service quality is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for maintaining strong relationship with customers.

  • 22.
    Okoe, Abednego Feehi
    et al.
    Institute of Professional Studies, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
    Serwa Adjei, Judith
    All Nations University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Service Quality in the Banking Sector in Ghana2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service quality in the delivery of banking services is considered as giving firms’ a competitive edge and increasingly it is becoming a critical success factor. This research investigates the role that service quality plays in the Ghanaian banking sector and its impact on service delivery. A sample of 400 customers was taken from a combination of four leading indigenous and foreign banks and questionnaires administered to them based on the SERVQUAL dimensions. Using the William L. Boyd, Myron Leonard, and Charles White’s Standard Instrument for weighting of rating of service quality, results indicated that gaps exist between customers’ expectations and perceptions of service delivery in all the banks even though the banks performed better on the tangibility dimension. Despite this observation, the banks retained their customers. The study concluded that service quality is necessary but not a sufficient condition to maintain customers.

  • 23.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    A Coopetition Strategy: A study of inter-firm dynamics between competition and cooperation2010In: Business Strategy Series, ISSN 1751-5637, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 343-362Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    A framework for understanding the imperative role of the informal sector as enabler of economic development in developing countries2008In: African Businesses and Economic Growth: Institutions, Firms, Practice and Policy / [ed] Imani Silver Kyaruzi, London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd , 2008, 1, p. 147-174Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    A study of inter-firm dynamics between competition and cooperation - A coopetition strategy2010In: Journal of Database Marketing and Customer Strategy Management, ISSN 17412439, Vol. 17, no 3-4, p. 201-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little attention has been devoted in extant literature to inter-firm dynamics that entails both cooperation and competition- also known as coopetition. This article contributes to extant knowledge by highlighting the complementarity-based nature of coopetition strategy and its impact on collective strategies for value generation among actors in three network settings. The empirical data collection draws on three cases encompassing three empirical contexts. The results show that managerial leadership and development of trust are the key success factors. Furthermore, this hybrid level of inter-organizational relationship encompassing both competition and cooperation- coopetition- fosters collective intelligence through information and knowledge sharing. This article concludes that coopetition strategy enhances the internal resources and market shares of competing actors. Thus, coopetitive relationships offer the advantage of a combination of the need to innovate in new areas as a result of competition while accessing new resources as a consequence of cooperation. From a managerial perspective, the findings demonstrate the multifaceted nature of coopetition. Additional work on the impact of the concept of coopetition strategy on business practice is needed to add to this valuable endeavour. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

  • 26.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    A Study of the Driving Forces Behind Non-sequential Model of Internationalisation Among Firms2004In: International conference on Globalisation, Internationalisation of Companies and Cross Cultural management: Hosted by International Business Research group, Aalborg University, Denmark, October 27-29, 2004, 2004, p. 23-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalisation process is commonly envisaged as a product of a series of incremental decision, experiential learning and risk aversion. This paper posits the notion that even though the sequential approach in the process model is intuitively appealing, not all firms follow such path. Thus this paper aims to fill this gap by explaining how the international market entry process has changed in relation to the sequential approach. Consequently, an integrative framework depicting the main drivers of non-sequential internationalisation process is presented. Empirical data was gathered through the use of in-depth interviews. Some of the findings are that the sequential model is by no means reflective of, or appropriate for all firms approaches to international business; the usefulness to be gained from using an international relationship approach to study the international activity of a firm; and the interplay between the identified driving forces behind non-sequential internationalisation process.

    Key words: Sequential, non-sequential, internationalisation process, born globals, Uppsala model, technology, relationships, networks.

  • 27.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    An integrated framework for understanding the driving forces behind non-sequential process of internationalisation among firms2009In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 286-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Is non-sequential internationalization process solely technology enabled or a product of mutually interdependent forces? This paper aims to show that even though the sequential approach in the process model is intuitively appealing, not all firms follow such a path. Hence, integrated framework to explain how the international market entry process has changed with respect to the sequential approach is presented. Design/methodology/approach: The data banks of the Swedish Trade Council and the Chambers of Commerce are used to identify small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with between 50 and 250 employees (in compliance with European Union's definition of SMEs). Data are collected through the use of questionnaires and in-depth interviews from 60 Swedish SMEs operating in other countries and foreign SMEs operating in Sweden that tends not to develop in incremental stages with respect to the international. Findings: Some of the findings are: that the sequential model is by no means reflective of, or appropriate for all firms' approaches to international business; the usefulness gained by using an international network approach to study the international activity of a firm; and the interplay between the identified driving forces behind a non-sequential internationalization process. Research limitations/implications: Even though market entry patterns of firms investigated demonstrate a non-sequential internationalization process, they are still within the general theoretical framework where the basic assumption of the sequential internationalization model can maintain its validity. Firms are indeed exposed to irrecoverable transaction costs that hamper their behaviours and complicate export supply responses in international markets. However, the magnitude of the costs and speed of internationalization is dependent on the ability of the firms to take advantage of the enablers of non-sequential internationalization pattern. This is particularly important for firms to and from developing countries and emerging markets and their propensities to succeed in their internationalization endeavours. Originality/value: Knowledge acquired from the empirical study of firms that tend not to develop in incremental stages with respect to their international activities, and therefore start international activities by entering very distant markets and multiple countries right from birth without prior experience, is used to develop an integrated framework which aptly depicts that non-sequential internationalization process is not solely enabled by technology, as commonly envisaged in literature, but a product of mutually interdependent forces. Consequently, this study provides a holistic view on the driving forces behind the rapid internationalization process encountered by many SMEs today.

  • 28.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Analysis of the Process of Strategy Formulation and Implementation in the Vattenfall Group2015In: Towards sustainable African business development: integrating formal and informal business : peer-reviewed proceedings of the 16th IAABD annual conference / [ed] PD Rwelamila and Anita Spring, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall’s vision is to be a leading European power company. Five strategic ambitions, which will serve as guidelines for decision-making and activity, have been formulated for the years 2006 – 2012. From Vattenfall’s five strategic directions, the area to ‘be number one for the customer’ is chosen for this project. The objective of this study, therefore, is to examine how the strategy formulated at the Corporate Group level of the company, interplays and aligns with requirements and targets set at the Business Group level and its implementation into concrete actions at the Business Unit level.

    A case study approach was deemed a more appropriate methodological approach. Qualitative data drawn together from both primary and secondary sources of information was used to build the case study. Secondary data sources encompassed access to and analysis of company internal documents and literature review. Primary data sources were collected through communication in the form of open-ended in-depth interviews.

    The research question is how aligned the process of strategy formulation and strategy making from the corporate level to the business unit level in the Vattenfall Group. The question was posed from the perspective of the levels of strategy. The study adopted Pettigrew’s conceptual model representing three formulation and implementation dimensions at which top managers are required to operate: the content, process and context of strategy. The process of strategy formulation and implementation in the Vattenfall Group is strictly influenced and controlled by top management with regards to the time schedule and approved content stipulated in group directive. The processes are continuously evaluated with checkpoints planned in for coordination and alignments. The strategy planning process guarantees alignment of the approved strategy at the different levels of strategy.

    This study shows that the strategy process is complex involving different functions in the value chain. Bottom-up views are covered but the strategies that are finally formulated, resourced and implemented are those that are approved by top management. The managerial implications include reconciling and balancing inherent strategic tensions, adapting offers to attract customers as well as encouraging continuous learning and creating strategic learning processes.

  • 29.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Customer-centric strategy: A longitudinal study of implementation of a customer relationship management solution2006In: International journal of technology marketing, ISSN 1741-878X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 115-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to contribute to extant literature on how to integrate IT to support the successful implementation of a CRM solution. Relevant writings are reviewed to address the question of: What are the key factors that influence the integration of IT to enhance business efficiency, focusing on CRM and its implementation? A longitudinal case study was conducted. Findings include: the importance of managerial commitment and a corporate vision that incorporates a relationship orientation; wider actor involvement from the project’s inception; and managers who themselves are convinced of the value of customer-centric strategy and communicate their commitment to their subordinates and develop positive attitude towards change in order to properly manage the change process. Among other conclusions, the paper finds that there is currently too much reliance on a technological perspective of CRM. The paper recommends that the business problem first be defined, business processes be defined for the solution, and that technology then be used as an enabler.

  • 30.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Economics of Strategic Marketing Management: A discourse on conceptual and operational definition of customer relationship management2004In: 13th International Research conference on Management of Technology, 2004, p. 25-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the interface between strategic marketing management and information technology. It aims to identify suitable means of information technology to be used to enhance business efficiency with a focus on customer relationship management. The Internet and other technological developments are enabling marketers to reach customers in more interactive ways and to form much closer relationships with them. Customers are also discovering more of a voice, and realising that the information they provide so freely in questionnaires, coupons and so on is actually of immense value to present day company.

    These and other developments are leading to a new marketing manifesto for marketing, advertising and branding. At the same time, it is next to impossible today to open a business publication without seeing an article about customer relationship management (CRM). But while many have been quick to describe customer relationship management potential and offer advice about how to make it work, findings from a pilot study conducted in conjunction with this study show that, only a handful of companies have succeeded in doing so. Moreover, majority of customer relationship management projects do not meet their return on investment objectives.

    This study arrives at a number of conclusions. First, customer relationship management (CRM) initiatives not only failed to deliver profitable growth, but also had damaged long-lasting relationships. Second, CRM is a strategic business and process issue, not only a technology solution as most often conceived. Third, the theoretical and methodological limitations inherent in current literature on CRM is attributed not only to their questionable empirical base and normative bent, but also, attempts so far made to define CRM have been varied and many neatly reflecting the diverse academic and socio-political backgrounds of CRM scholars. Thus, a lack of consensus and conflict over the “basic” meaning of CRM. Fourth, a theoretical model upon which future empirical analysis should be based when conceptualising CRM should consists of a business strategy, a business philosophy and a database application, thereby forming a tripod. Moreover, a systematic analysis of both the supply and demand side of the company should be envisaged. Otherwise, the current marketing theory which guides the movement of CRM, the so-called one to one marketing philosophy, which is more profit-centric than customer-centric that it claims to be will, continue to prevail.

    Keywords: Customer relationship management process, customer-centrism philosophy, business philosophy, actual and strategic values, strategic marketing management, strategy theory, service management system

  • 31.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Implications of managerial response to customer dissatisfaction on customer loyalty2016In: Vision 2020: Innovation Management, Development Sustainability, and Competitive Economic Growth 2016: Vols. I - VII / [ed] Khalid S. Soliman, 2016, p. 3615-3626Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore the concept of customer complaint behaviour with a view to establishing relationship between handling customer complaints, customer satisfaction and loyalty. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed to investigate customer complaint behaviour among retailers in four supermarkets in Kampala, Uganda. Findings show that there is a need for customer complaints to be handled by competent and service-minded staff. Issues such as lack of courtesy and professionalism characterize the retail sector in Uganda. Concluded that complaints should be handled quickly, and feedback on complaint handling process should be encouraged by management in order to use the feedback as starting point for improving future complaint management. A major managerial implication is that organizations should pay attention to failure attribution, and that providing detailed explanation may be an effective organizational response that will have an impact on behavioural aspects of brand loyalty.

  • 32.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    Stockholms universitet.
    Improving Food Products Distribution in Developing Countries: an analysis of environmental forces influencing food distribution and recommendation for policy reforms1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Avhandlingens övergripande syfte kan sägas vara att finna vägar och medel att effektivisera distributionen av livsmedelsprodukter i ett marknadssystem. Avhandlingen utnyttjas empiriska observationer i form av minifall som återspeglar olika

    kritiska händelser avseende distributions och inköp av livsmedel. Detta används för en brett anlagd teoretisk analys med normativa slutsatser.

  • 33.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Reflections on prerequisites for implementation of a sustainable customer-centric strategy2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A synthesis of extant knowledge on customer-centric strategy shows that attempts to define customer relationship management (CRM) in terms of what they perceive as its key conceptualisations have been inconsistent. The literature reflects remarkably little efforts to develop a framework for understanding the implementation of a customer-centric strategy. This study attempts to provide insights on a model that may facilitate implementation of a sustainable customer-centric strategy in the future. This was motivated by the unprecedented high rate of failure inherent in CRM initiatives in the past. Methodological triangulation approach facilitated the use of multiple data collection methods from 30 companies operating in both consumer and industrial markets. An in depth longitudinal study was also conducted. The empirical findings show that CRM is a strategic and process issue, not merely a technology solution, as most often conceived. Relationship is defined and interpreted differently by the participants in the exchange process. Moreover, the importance of an effective communication in strategy implementation process is underestimated by the companies investigated.

  • 34.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The business culture of a firm applying a customer-intimate philosophy: a conceptual framework2009In: International Journal of Business and Systems Research, ISSN 1751-200X, E-ISSN 1751-2018, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 257-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What characterises the culture of a market-oriented firm applying customer-intimacy philosophy? A conceptual framework, inspired by the resource-based perspective, is used as a descriptive and analytical device rather than as a prescriptive model to highlight the business culture of a company that has achieved competitive advantage in the Swedish market. Findings include: outcome of the firm's strategy is attributed to the prevailing culture in the organisation; the firm's commitment to continuous improvement and the behaviour of people in the organisation toward their customers and each other are vital sources for firms to attain sustainable competitive advantage. Concludes that moving from sales to customer-intimacy philosophy requires appreciation of current and changing needs of customers that continuously finetune the strategy's compatibility with corresponding values in the firm's business culture. Implications are that in a complete customer-intimacy philosophy, all business processes and individuals are focused on identifying and meeting the needs of customer.

  • 35.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The Economics of Strategic Marketing Management: a discourse on the conceptual and operational definition of customer relationship management2003In: Efterskalv: företagsekonomiska bidrag presenterade på NFF konferens i Reykjavik 2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    THE MANAGEMENT OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS: COMMENTS ON THE FORCES INFLUENCING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A SUSTAINABLE CUSTOMER-CENTRIC STRATEGY.2004In: International business in an enlarging Europe: integration, coopetition and collaboration, Academy of International Business (AIB), UK chapter , 2004, p. 20-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new forms of competition and the structural modifications of exchange processes, partly due to the emerging economy of virtual network are forcing firms to give top priority to customer relationship management (CRM). The impetus for the development of this new paradigm has come from the globalisation of business, information technology (IT) advances, shorter product life cycles and the evolving recognition of the relationship between customer retention and profitability. Attempts to define CRM in terms of what they perceive as its key conceptualisations have been varied and inconsistent. Moreover, the literature reflects remarkably little efforts to develop a framework for understanding the implementation of a customer-centric strategy. The consequence of the lack of consensus has resulted to the strategy been operationalised wrongly in practice thereby inhibiting the probability of implementing a sustainable customer-centric strategy.

    The empirical findings show that many CRM initiatives have ended in failure in terms of technically not delivering the anticipated business benefits partly because, the role of technology in the strategy implementation process is interpreted differently by the actors in both the demand and supply sides of the value chain. A model for implementing a customer-centric strategy is empirically tested in this study. The model takes into consideration not only the hardware (technical aspects), as commonly done in practice, but also the software (the human and cognitive elements) requirements for a sustainable customer-centric startegy.

  • 37.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The Oxymoron of Informal Sector: A framework for conceptualising informal sector as enabler of economic development in developing countries2009In: Journal of International Business and Economics, ISSN 1544-8037, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 118-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive attention has been given to the role of entrepreneurship in facilitating global economic development, with research indicating that much employment growth originates from the “entrepreneurial sector” of the economy. Paradoxically enough, in discussions of economic development, industrial dualism is often ignored. This paper fills this gap by acknowledging the Informal Sector, sometimes regarded as an unorganised “nuisance” sector, as an oxymoron. We show that the importance of informal activities is highly correlated with a nation’s level of economic development and the quality of its institutions. Furthermore, the informal sector emphasises small-scale, unskilled-labour intensive, self-financed activities and under capitalisation. In the light of this, we introduce a framework for understanding the role of the informal sector in the process of economic development. The framework developed also aims to accentuate the continuum, interplay and interconnectedness between the informal and the formal sectors and the role entrusted on some change agents such as  international NGOs, small community based or local NGOs as well as government authorities in this process. The conclusions and implications drawn for theory development and public policy recognise the role of industrial dualism in economic progress.

    Keywords: Informal Sector, Formal Sector, Economic development, Dualism, Oxymoron.

  • 38.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    What characterizes the culture of A Relationship-focused Organization applying a Customer Intimacy Strategy2008In: Journal of Database Marketing and Customer Strategy Management, ISSN 1741-2439, EISSN 1741-2447, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 169-190Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    What characterizes the culture of a relationship-focused organization applying a customer intimacy strategy2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What characterizes the culture of a market-oriented firm applying customer intimacy philosophy? To answer this question, a theoretical lens that enables focus on the resources embodied in the people and culture that underlie any advantages on the product market is adopted. This is the second paper from a six-year longitudinal case study conducted at a Swedish insurance company. Findings: the outcome of the firm’s strategy is attributed to its culture; the firm’s commitment to continuous improvement is considered as a point of parity and the passion and behaviour of people in the firm toward their customers and each other is the point of difference of the strategy. Concludes that moving from sales to a customer intimacy philosophy requires an appreciation of the current and changing needs of customers that continuously fine-tune the strategy’s compatibility with corresponding values in the firm’s business culture, and maintain an informed workforce that is aligned with the philosophy. This paper demonstrates how cultural reasoning can lead to useful insights for practitioners, particularly with regard to strategies for dealing with a firm’s internal and external environments. Implications are that practitioners of systems thinking must understand a new definition of a system, especially when dealing with new market forces and empowered customers.

  • 40.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Relationships and networks in the processes of establishment of firms in transition economies: Scandinavian firms in central and eastern Europe2008In: International Journal of Strategic Management, ISSN 1555-2411, E-ISSN 2378-8615, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A focus on the particular entry mode a firm uses to enter a new market, rather than on the process of establishment, dominates in extant literature. To fill this void, we apply an establishment process model developed from the network approach to illuminate the web of relationship forms embedded in the establishment process of two Scandinavian firms as they attempt to establish themselves in transition economies. In one case, the results show that Statoil’s process of establishment in Estonia was both less time-consuming and less resource-consuming because the firm drew support from significant actors in their network of exchange relationships. In the second case, a lack of home and host country support for Scania in Croatia resulted in an arduous and costly process and less stable position in the market, with the firm’s position changing several times as different problems cropped up. In light of the findings from the two cases, theoretical and practical implications for managing the establishment process are discussed.

  • 41.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Bennani, Az-Eddine
    Reims Management School, Reims, France.
    An exploratory study of implementation of customer relationship management strategy2007In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 139-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an unprecedented resurgence of academic as well as practitioner interest in customer relationship management (CRM) in recent years. However, efforts made in extant literature to link the components of CRM strategy to its implementation are insufficient. We argue that relationship management is the process of implementing it. This paper aims to provide insights on the core components of CRM and the implementation of CRM strategy. An integrative framework for implementing CRM strategy guides our exploratory effort. Other major contributions offered by this paper are its deep anchorage in extant literature and the exploratory study of CRM implementation at a Swedish company serving consumer, business, institutional and government markets. The case study illustrates that relationships are not only a tactical weapon, but represent a different, strategic approach to buyer-seller exchange. It further epitomises that a more useful way to think of CRM is as a process that helps to bring together a variety of information about customers, sales, marketing effectiveness, responsiveness and market trends. The study also highlights the fact that implementing CRM strategy requires the endorsement by and commitment from top management, systematic cross-functional communication, and mandatory customer loyalty training programmes for all employees.

  • 42.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Bennani, Az-Eddine
    Reims Management School & Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.
    Scandic Hotel Chain in the Baltic: A case of strategic marketing2011In: Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies (EEMCS) / [ed] Dr Jyoti Bachani, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2011, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Subject Area: Strategic marketing/Marketing Management

     Study Level and Applicability: Undergraduate and Post graduate courses in Principles of Marketing, Strategic Management/Strategic Marketing, Marketing Strategy, Marketing Management, Services Marketing Relationship Marketing, and Hospitability Management.

     Case Overview: This case focuses on the critical success factors of Scandic hotel chain by highlighting its road to becoming the leading hotel chain in the Baltic region. This case covers a wide range of situations in which strategic marketing decisions were made. E.g Scandic Sustainability Fund supports initiatives to promote sustainable social development. “Scandic is Scandic – wherever you stay”. To achieve this, Scandic carry out regular quality assurance activities. Mornings at Scandic hotel chain revolve around organic buffet breakfast which includes organic and Fairtrade foodstuffs as well as gluten- and lactose-free items. Special attention is devoted to how the case company´s business philosophy is implemented and used to identify and differentiate its customers in order to sustain a customer centric strategy and develop long lasting relationships with its customers and other stakeholders. 

     Expected Learning Outcomes: How a company can devise marketing strategies to differentiate itself effectively from its competitors by capitalising on its distinctive strengths to deliver better value to its stakeholders; A company operates within a given environment and its marketing strategy deals with the interplay of “the strategic 3 Cs” (customer, competition and corporation); and marketing strategy is an endeavour of the firm to differentiate itself from the competitors using its corporate strengths to better satisfy customer needs, in a given environmental settings.

    Supplementary Materials: A teaching note for the first 15 and concluding 15 minutes lecture, discussion questions and suggested answers to discussion questions and some photographs of Scandic Hotel chain´s operations in some Baltic nations incorporated in the case.

     

  • 43.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Bennani, Az-Eddine
    Strategic marketing in the hospitality industry: a case study of Scandic hotel chain2006In: Management Case Studies, New Delhi: Wiley International , 2006Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This case covers a wide range of situations and circumstances in which strategic marketing decisions were made. This case focuses on a company operating in the hospitality sector (a hotel chain) whose products (accommodations, food and beverages services) constitute a large portion of tourist consumption. The case illuminates what makes Scandic Hotel Chain special and different from its competitors. For example its loyalty programme where members can earn both points and airline kilometres on the same stay. Special attention is devoted to how the case company uses information technology (IT) to identify and differentiate its customers through the relationship ladder in order to sustain a customer centric strategy and develop long lasting relationships with its customers.

    The domain of this case is strategic management. Strategically, the case company focuses its intentions in a market and developed a variety of products and programmes to realise those intentions. Essentially, Scandic Hotel Chain operates within a given environment; its marketing strategy deals with the interplay of three forces, known as “the strategic 3 Cs” the customer, the competition and the corporation. Scandic Hotel Chain devised marketing strategies in which it could differentiate itself effectively from its competitors, capitalising on its distinctive strengths to deliver better value to its customers. The case shows that a good strategy is characterised by: a) a clear market definition; b) a good match between corporate strengths and the need and preferences of the market and c) superior performance, relative to the competition. The company put together the strategic 3 Cs to form the marketing triangle. In this regard, marketing strategy is thus an endeavour of the firm to differentiate itself from the competitors using its relatively corporate strengths to better satisfy customer needs, in a given environmental settings. The long-term orientation of this case is demonstrated through among others, its great concern for the environment as environmental changes are more probable in the long run than in the short run.

    The Scope of the case

    This case is suitable for use in undergraduate and Post graduate courses such as: Strategic Management/Strategic Marketing, Marketing Strategy, Marketing Management, Services Marketing.

  • 44.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Bennani, Az-Eddine
    Reims Management School, Reims, France.
    Komunda, Mabel
    School of Business, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Technology-based Service Encounter: An empirical study of the propensity to use e-mail as a booking tool in hotel industry2013In: 5th Annual EuroMed Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business: Building New Business Models for success through competitiveness and responsibility / [ed] Vrontis et al, Marseille: Euromed Management , 2013, p. 1230-1240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to review relevant literature on interpersonal and technology-based buyer-seller interactions in hospitality sector. Also highlighted is the extent to which technological interface that enables customers to produce a service outcome, independent of a direct service employee involvement, is used by hotels of various categories in France. An e-mailing action that encompasses sending a typical room-booking request to 240 hotels spread out in 120 cities located in France constituted the empirical setting. One-way ANOVA testing differences between means was used to assess the impact of the hotel category (independent variable) on response time (dependent variable) among hotels. Findings show that there is significant variation in responsiveness across hotels categories. A major implication of the findings for management is the fact that the speed of response to enquiries from current and potential customers is most likely a prelude to providing good quality technology-based buyer-seller interactions. The main contributions of this study are the review of relevant literature and it builds on interpersonal and technological interface literature.

  • 45.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Bennani, Az-Eddine
    Reims Management School, France.
    Lhajji, Dhiba
    Université Pierre Mendès, France.
    A study of prerequisites for successful deployment and governance of implementation2007In: Asian Journal of Information Technology, ISSN 1682-3915, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical success factors and how they influence successful implementation of technological innovations have received significant attention in extant literature. Comparatively fewer attempts have been made to define the yardstick for determining the outcome and the magnitude of “enablers” of the implementation process of technological innovations. The empirical aim is addressed through survey and case study of comparable number of IT projects. The knowledge acquired from the empirical and theoretical investigations is used to develop an “interactive framework” aimed at creating an understanding of the things an organisation does to enable innovation, the “enablers”, and what an organisation achieves, the “results”. The prerequisites are defined in an assessment context to interact with the most profound “disenablers” from our findings (failure of senior management to lead; technology has outpaced the sophistication of the user community to properly utilise the tools, particularly in the sense of enterprise deployment; delivery of less functionality that originally planned; integrator cost out of control, etc.) and thereby discover the need for leadership and involvement. Furthermore, the interactive framework provides the tools required to get senior management properly engaged in the initiative and thereby significantly raise the potential for success.

  • 46.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Birungi Komunda, Mabel
    Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    A Study of Customer Complaint Behaviour and its Impact on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: The case of supermarkets in Kampala, Uganda2011In: Presented at 12th International Academy of Business Development conference hosted by Athabasca University, Edmonton, Canada, 17-20 May, 2011: Challenges in the Era of Globalization / [ed] Emmanuel Obuah, Edmonton, Canada: University of Athabasca, Edmonton, Canada/International Academy of Business Development , 2011, p. 114-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When customer expectations are not met, some customers may complain about bottlenecks in the service delivery system, others may walk away without saying anything, and still others may complain but regret the time spent complaining. This study aims to explore the concept of customer complaint behaviour with a view to establishing the relationship between handling customer complaints and customer satisfaction and loyalty. The empirical study investigated the state of customer complaint behaviour among retailers in four supermarkets located in Kampala, Uganda. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design and used a quantitative approach. The findings show that 47% of customers were satisfied with the services of the supermarkets; According to the respondents, 34% of staff willing to handle complaints but 52% of staff not willing to handle complaints. It is further revealed that there is a need for customer complaints to be handled by competent staff with good knowledge about the products. Moreover, service managers should handle service failure as a critical task. Furthermore, issues such as lack of courtesy, incompetent staff and a lack of authority and professionalism characterize the retail sector in Uganda. It is concluded that complaints should be handled quickly by all supermarket staff, and feedback on the complaint handling process should be encouraged by supermarket management in order to use the feedback as a starting point for improving future complaint management. A major managerial implication is that organizations should pay particular attention to failure attribution, and that providing customers a detailed explanation may be the most effective organizational response that will have an impact on the behavioural aspects of customers.

  • 47.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Birungi Komunda, Mabel
    University of Makerere Business School, Kampala, Uganda.
    Redress For Customer Dissatisfaction and its Impact on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty2013In: Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, ISSN 2155-2843, E-ISSN 2155-2843, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 102-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore the concept of customer complaint behaviour with a view to establishing relationship between handling customer complaints, customer satisfaction and loyalty. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed to investigate customer complaint behaviour among retailers in four supermarkets in Kampala, Uganda. Findings show that there is a need for customer complaints to be handled by competent and service-minded staff. Issues such as lack of courtesy and professionalism characterize the retail sector in Uganda. Concluded that complaints should be handled quickly, and feedback on complaint handling process should be encouraged by management in order to use the feedback as starting point for improving future complaint management. A major managerial implication is that organizations should pay attention to failure attribution, and that providing detailed explanation may be an effective organizational response that will have an impact on behavioural aspects of brand loyalty.

  • 48.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Birungi Komunda, Mabel
    Makerere University Business School, Uganda.
    Mbiito Byarugaba, Jotham
    Makerere University Business School, Uganda.
    Service Quality as a Mediator of Customer Complaint Behaviour and Customer Loyalty2017In: International Review of Management and Marketing, ISSN 2146-4405, E-ISSN 2146-4405, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 197-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims to examine the mediating role of service quality (SQ) in customer complaint behaviour (CCB) and customer loyalty (CL). Adopts a quantitative cross-sectional research design and uses the MedGraph program, Sobel tests and the Baron and Kenny method to test for mediation effect of SQ on the relationship between CCB and CL. SQ is a significant mediator in the relationship between CCB and CL of Ugandan mobile phone subscribers. Adding SQ to the relationship boosts the relationship between CCB and CL by 45% among the mobile phone subscribers studied. Findings suggest that when SQ is low, a high level of CL may not be attained among mobile phone subscribers. Managers, policy-makers, and mobile telephone companies should advocate and strive for improvements across all dimensions of SQ to boost the loyalty of cell phone customers. This study is the first to test the mediating role of SQ in the relationship between CCB and CL among mobile phone subscribers in a developing nation context. Contributes to the positive significant influence of SQ in enhancing the level of CL based on CCB.

  • 49.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Byarugaba, Jotham
    Makere University, Business School.
    Service Quality Perceptions: A Case of Ugandan Telephony Users2012In: Journal of Relationship Marketing, ISSN 1533-2667, E-ISSN 1533-2675, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 149-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential disparity between expected and actual service quality (Gap 5) among telephony users was investigated. A sample of 262 mobile telephone users from 4 networks in Uganda were investigated. Pilot tests indicated that the instrument had good internal consistency, with all Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than .8 for both expected and actual service perceptions. Three focus group interviews were conducted. Structural equation modelling was used to test the theory through confirmatory factor analysis and goodness-of-fit tests. Goodness-of-fit tests established that the model did not fit the subsample data. The paired samples t test indicated that Gap 5 was nonexistent among telephony users in Uganda. Qualitative findings showed that Gap 5 existed among users of telephony services. Similar findings are not available for underdeveloped countries. This study should be replicated in countries that mirror the socioeconomic characteristics of Uganda. A methodological contribution through adoption of triangulation approach.

  • 50.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Byarugaba, Jotham
    University of Makerere Business School, Kampala, Uganda.
    Service Quality Perceptions of Foreign Direct Investment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate a potential disparity between actual service experience and clients’ service quality expectations (Gap 5) among FDI clients in Uganda and how this impacts FDI inflows to the Ugandan economy.  A double-column research instrument was used to source 215 FDI clients’ perceptions of investment service quality in this study. The pilot tests indicated that the instrument had good internal consistency with all Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.8 for both expected and actual service perceptions. For the phenomenological part, two focus groups each comprising between six and ten participants was assembled for FDI clients.  Structural equations modelling (SEM) was used to test the theory through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and goodness-of-fit tests. The CFA established that the hypothetical model used did not meet the required minimum specifications. The goodness-of-fit tests established that the researchers’ model did not fit its sub-sample data. The paired samples t-test indicated that Gap 5 existed among FDI clients in Uganda. Qualitative findings too indicated that gap 5 existed among the DFI clients. The paper provided Government of Uganda´s investment officials with knowledge on service quality perceptions of their FDI clients and the strategies to close clients’ Gap 5

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