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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Catharina
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klang-Söderkvist, Birgitta
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Erika
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björkholm, Magnus
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Haugesund, Norway.
    Assessing nursing students’ knowledge and skills in performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters2017In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 23, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Venepuncture and the insertion of peripheral venous catheters are common tasks in health care, and training in these procedures is included in nursing programmes. Evidence of nursing students’ knowledge and skills in these procedures is limited. The main aim of this study was to assess nursing students’ knowledge and skills when performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters. Potential associations between level of knowledge and skills, self-training, self-efficacy, and demographic characteristics were also investigated. The assessment was performed by lecturers at a university college in Sweden using the two previously tested instruments "Assess Venepuncture"€ and "Assess Peripheral Venous Catheter Insertion". Between 81% and 100% of steps were carried out correctly by the students. The step with the highest rating was "€œUses gloves", and lowest rating was "€˜Informs the patients about the possibility of obtaining local anaesthesia"€™. Significant correlations between degree of self-training and correct performance were found in the group of students who registered their self-training. No associations between demographic characteristics and correct performances were found. Assessing that students have achieved adequate levels of knowledge and skills in these procedures at different levels of the nursing education is of importance to prevent complications and support patient safety.

  • 2.
    Ahlin, Catharina
    et al.
    karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Klang, Birgitta
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Development of instruments for assessment of nursing students’ knowledge and skills in performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahlin, Catharina
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Klang Söderkvist, Birgitta
    Karolinska instituet.
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Instituet.
    Development of instruments for assessment of knowledge and skills in performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters2013In: Journal of Vascular Access, ISSN 1129-7298, E-ISSN 1724-6032, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 364-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Performing venepuncture is one of the most routinely performed invasive procedures in nursing care. The aim of this study was to develop instruments for the assessment of nursing students' knowledge and skills when performing venepuncture and inserting a peripheral venous catheter. 
Methods: Two instruments were developed using the following steps. 1) Assessment items of importance for the procedures (venepuncture 48 items and peripheral venous catheter 51 items) were collected from focus groups including nurses, lecturers and patients. 2) The number of items was reduced using a method based on the Delphi method. Experts (n=51) reviewed the instruments in two rounds. The revised versions included 31 items for venepuncture and 33 items for peripheral venous catheter insertion. 3) Usability tests were conducted by nurses who tested the instruments to confirm that items were possible to assess. 4) Inter-rater reliability was assessed by twelve lecturers who in pairs, but independently of each other, used the instruments to assess 50 nursing students. 
Results: Proportion of agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient were calculated for each item to determine inter-rater reliability. Among the tested items for both instruments, the median proportion of agreement was 1 (range 0.66-1) and the median kappa was 0.52 (range 0.22-1). 
Conclusions: The instruments developed for assessing nursing students' knowledge and skills of venepuncture and peripheral venous catheter insertion showed satisfactory inter-rater reliability.

  • 4.
    Bos, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Centre for Family and Community Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Törnkvist, Lena
    Centre for Family and Community Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Huddinge, Sweden.
    District nurses' experience of supervising nursing students in primary health care: A pre- and post-implementation questionnaire study2009In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 361-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing students go through clinical supervision in primary health care settings but district nurses' (DNs) circumstances when supervising them are only briefly described in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate DNs experience of supervising nursing students before and after the implementation of a new supervision model. Ninety-eight (74%) DNs answered a questionnaire before and 84 (65%) after implementation of the new supervision model. The study showed that DNs in most cases felt that conditions for supervision in the workplace were adequate. But about 70% lacked training for the supervisory role and 20% had no specialist district nurse training. They also experienced difficulty in keeping up-to-date with changes in nurse education programmes, in receiving support from the university and from their clinic managers, and in setting aside time for supervision. Improvements after the implementation of a new model chiefly concerned organisation; more DNs stated that one person had primary responsibility for students' clinical practice, that information packages for supervisors and students were available at the health care centres, and that conditions were in place for increasing the number of students they supervised. DNs also stated that supervisors and students benefited from supervision by more than one supervisor. To conclude, implementation of a new supervision model resulted in some improvements.

  • 5.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, China .
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Faculty of Health Education, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Ugland Vae, Karen Johanne
    Faculty of Health Education, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nursing students' perceptions of using the Clinical Education Assessment tool AssCE and their overall perceptions of the clinical learning environment: a cross-sectional correlational study2017In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 51, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Clinical education is a vital part of nursing students' learning; the importance of assessment tools and feedback in stimulating student learning has been stressed, but this needs to be studied in more detail.

    Objectives

    To examine relationships between nursing students' perceptions of using an Assessment tool in Clinical Education (AssCE) during their mid-course discussion and final assessment, the content discussed during these meetings between the student, preceptor and nurse teacher and the students' overall perception of the clinical learning environment.

    Design

    A cross-sectional, correlational design was used.

    Setting and Participants

    A convenience sample of 110 nursing students from one Norwegian university college with two campuses.

    Methods

    Data were collected with self-developed questionnaires and analysed using logistic regression with SPSS and the PROCESS macro for mediation analysis.

    Results

    There was a positive relationship between nursing students' perceptions of using the assessment tool AssCE and their overall perception of the clinical learning environment. This relationship was, in turn, mediated by the content discussed during the formative mid-course discussion and summative final assessment.

    Conclusions

    Our conclusion is that the assessment tool AssCE supported students' clinical learning and that this relationship, in turn, was mediated by the degree to which the conversation during the assessment meeting focused on the student's knowledge, skills and professional judgement.

  • 6.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Department of Health Sciences, Haugesund, Norway.
    Nursing students' perceptions of clinical supervision: The contributions of preceptors, head preceptors and clinical lecturers2013In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1252-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aims of the study were 1) to investigate to what extent nursing students were satisfied with the supervision provided by facilitators (preceptor, head preceptor, and clinical lecturer), 2) to compare nursing students' ratings of facilitators' contribution to supervision as supportive and challenging, and 3) to examine relationships between facilitators' supportive and challenging behavior in supervision and nursing students' perception of fulfillment of expected learning outcomes in clinical education.

    Background: Although there are many studies on support of students in clinical education, few have addressed this from the students' point of view or made comparisons between different facilitators.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted during April to November 2010, where 107 nursing students, from a university in central Sweden, answered a questionnaire about supervision immediately after their period of clinical education.

    Result: Supportive behavior in supervision was rated higher by students for all facilitator groups as compared with challenging behavior. The students rated preceptors and clinical lecturers as more supportive than head preceptors and clinical lecturers as providing more challenges than the two other facilitator groups. Supportive and challenging behavior in supervision explained 39% of the variance in students' overall learning outcomes. However, the regression coefficient was only significant for students' ratings of supportive behavior for the preceptor.

    Conclusions: Nursing students were satisfied with facilitators' supervision and by their contribution to fulfillment of overall learning outcomes. Comparisons showed that preceptors in a higher degree were perceived as supportive while clinical lecturers were perceived as more important as challengers for critical thinking, reflection and exchange of experiences between students. The model of supervision seems to be promising, but the roles across facilitators need to be made clearer, especially the head preceptor's role, which seemed to be the most unclear role in this model.

  • 7. Lidskog, Marie
    et al.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Ahlstrom, Gerd
    Learning through participating on an interprofessional training ward.2009In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 486-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning in clinical education can be understood as a process of becoming a legitimate participant in the relevant context. Interprofessional training wards (IPTWs) are designed to give students from educational programmes in health and social care a realistic experience of collaboration for the purpose of developing teamwork skills. IPTWs have been found to be appreciated by the students and to influence students' understanding of each other's professions. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the students' learning on an interprofessional training ward in care for older persons through focusing on the students' ways of participating in the communities of practice on the ward. A case study design was chosen. Multiple data sources were used. The findings show that the students engaged as active participants in the care. At the same time there was sometimes a discrepancy between on the one hand expectations and goals, on the other hand actual participation. There were difficulties in making the training relevant for all the student groups involved. The findings indicate that in the planning of interprofessional education the choice of setting and learning situations is crucial with regard to the learning that will occur.

  • 8.
    Lidskog, Marie
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Department of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; School of Health Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Interprofessional education on a training ward for older people: students' conceptions of nurses, occupational therapists and social workers2007In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 387-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration between professionals in health and social care is essential to meet the needs of the patient. The collaboration is dependent on knowledge and understanding of each other's roles. One means of improving communication and collaboration among professionals is interprofessional education. The aim of this study was to describe the variation in how students in nursing, occupational therapy and social work perceived their own and the other professions. Over a three-week period two interviews were conducted with each of 16 students who were on an interprofessional training ward for older people in a municipal setting in Sweden. A phenomenographical approach was used in the analysis of the interviews. The findings showed great variation in how the students perceived the professions, from simplistic in terms of tasks to a more complex conception in terms of knowledge, responsibility and values. Differences in the ways professions were described concerning their professional stance towards the patients were especially accentuated. The findings indicate that the students need opportunities for reflection on and scrutiny of each other's beliefs and knowledge. The influence of interprofessional education involving reflection on the different health-care professions needs to be explored in future research.

  • 9.
    Lidskog, Marie
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Learning about each other: students´conceptions before and after interprofessional education on a training ward2008In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 521-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In interprofessional work the striving of the members of each profession to establish their own positive in-group identity can be a source of conflict and have a negative effect on care. To counteract this, interprofessional training wards (IPTWs) have been developed in Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate similarities and differences in how student nurses, student occupational therapists and student social workers perceived their own and the other two professions before and after clinical education on an IPTW. Sixteen students were interviewed before and after the training on an IPTW in municipal care for older people in Sweden. A coding scheme developed in an earlier study was used in the analysis of the interviews. The findings indicate that there are changes in the students' stereotyped views, enhancing understanding of each other's professions after three weeks' clinical education on the IPTW. In some areas, however, there are still discrepancies between the description of own profession and the others' understanding of this profession that need to be confronted. In interprofessional training during education in social and health care there needs to be a balance between on the one hand the particular professional identity, on the other the shared identity implied by membership of the health-care team focusing on a common goal.

  • 10. Lidskog, Marie
    et al.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Students´ learning experiences from interprofessional collaboration on a training ward in municipal care.2008In: Learning in Health and Social Care, ISSN 1473-6853, E-ISSN 1473-6861, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology. Section of Caring Sciences, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wikblad, Karin
    Department of Medicine and Care, Division of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Student nurses’ ability to perform pain assessment.2003In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 3, p. 133-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate student nurses' ability to handle a pain assessment situation. A systematic way of working based on knowledge within the area is emphasised in nursing education today. The performance of 32 student nurses at a university college in Sweden took place in an arranged assessment situation that closely simulated clinical practice. The conversation between the student and the patient (a voluntary patient) was videotaped and analysed with content analysis according to predetermined components of pain assessment. The results showed that one-third of the students had performed adequately based on the requirements for pain assessment in the curriculum for nursing education. Two-thirds of the group did not handle the situation systematically and also showed a lack of knowledge of pain assessment, and among these was a group of students whose performance was inadequate. The results indicate that during their education it is very important for student nurses to obtain experience and guidance in how to work systematically and to have their knowledge and skills in pain assessment evaluated.

  • 12.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Department of Health Sciences, Haugesund, Norway.
    H Larssen, Birte
    Centre of Nursing Research –Viborg, Denmark and Clinical Associate Professor School of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Medicine, Nursing and Behavioural Science, Deakin University, Australia.
    Slettebo, Åshild
    University of Agder, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, Grimstad and Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Råholm, Maj-Britt
    Sogn og Fjordane University College, Faculty of Health Studies, Førde, Norway .
    Adjustment of the Clinical Part of Nursing Education in the Scandinavian Countries to Governing European Educational Reforms2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Hansebo, Görel
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Marina
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm.
    Törnkvist, Lena
    Centre for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nursing students' views on learning opportunities in primary health care2008In: Nursing Standard, ISSN 0029-6570, E-ISSN 2047-9018, Vol. 23, no 13, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To evaluate a new supervision model for nursing students' placements in primary care in Sweden and to document students' opinions on their learning experiences in this setting. METHOD: Nursing students' (n=238) opinions were collected using a questionnaire administered before and after implementation of a new supervision model for student placements in primary care. RESULTS: Respondents were generally satisfied with their placements and rated factors that supported the new model: distinct structure for following students during the placement period; continuous caring experiences with some patients; having more than one district nurse as a mentor during the period; and seminars in primary care settings. However, just one third of respondents felt that they gained insight into how nursing research could be used in patient care. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of the new supervision model and learning opportunities in primary care were positively rated by respondents. Application of nursing research and planned time for reflection were ranked low, findings that are noteworthy and should be investigated further.

  • 14.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Lindaas, Ingrid
    Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Berland, Astrid
    Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Vae, Karen Johanne
    Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Bentsen, Signe Berit
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    The Norwegian version of The Assessment of Clinical Education tool (AssCE) A translation and cross-cultural equivalence study2016In: Nordisk sygeplejeforskning, ISSN 1892-2678, E-ISSN 1892-2686, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 342-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this paper are to describe the Assessment of Clinical Education tool (AssCE) and the translation process and cross-cultural adaption of the AssCE tool into Norwegian. Developed in Sweden, the AssCE tool comprises 21 factors to support the assessment dialogue among students, preceptors (supervising nurses) and lecturers at the specialist nursing level. The AssCE tool was translated into Norwegian using standard procedures for forward and back-translation. In the translation process, different steps were integrated to secure cross-cultural equivalence using an expert committee of seven intensive and critical care nursing students and seven intensive and critical care nurses. The committee reviewed the AssCE tool and examined whether the tool is understandable and usable for the assessment of dialogue during students' clinical practice. The rigorous steps to ensure cross-cultural adaptation support the conclusion that the AssCE tool can be used in other countries for intensive and critical care nursing education and to create support in the dialogue between students, preceptors and lecturers.

  • 15.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Master's level in primary health care education: students and preceptors perceptions and experiences of the alteration in the clinical areas2010In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 9, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many Western European countries are undergoing reforms with changes in higher education according to the Bologna declaration for Higher European Education Area. In accordance with these changes, the Master's degree was introduced in specialist nurse education in Sweden in 2007, and as a result changed the curriculum and modified theoretical and clinical areas. The aim of this study was to investigate students' and preceptors' perceptions and experiences of Master's level education in primary health care with a focus on the clinical area.

    Methods: A descriptive design and qualitative approach was used. Interviews with ten students and ten preceptors were performed twice, before and after the clinical practice period. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and themes formulated.

    Results: Students perceived alteration in the content of the education at the Master's level such as more independence and additional assignments. The preceptors perceived benefits with the Master's level but were unsure of how to transform theoretical and abstract knowledge into practice. Writing the Master's thesis was seen by students to take time away from clinical practice. For some students and preceptors the content of the Master's level clinical practice area was experienced as vague and indistinct. The students had not expected supervision to be different from earlier experiences, while preceptors felt higher demands and requested more knowledge. Both students and preceptors perceived that education at the Master's level might lead to a higher status for the nurses' profession in primary health care.

    Conclusions: Students and preceptors experienced both advantages and disadvantages concerning the change in specialist nurse education in primary health care at the Master's level. The altered educational content was experienced as a step forward, but they also questioned how the new knowledge could be used in practice. The relevance of the Master's thesis was questioned. Supervision was seen by students as an introduction to the work of the district nurses' work. Preceptors perceived high demands and did not feel enough qualified for student supervision. Both groups considered it an advantage with the change in education that could result in higher status for nurses working in primary health care.

  • 16.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Vad betyder en utbildning på avancerad nivå i den kliniska verkligheten?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Health, Stord/Haugesund University College, Stord, Norway.
    Morberg, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Öhlund, Lennart S.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap. Department of Health Sciences, Aalesund University College, Aalesund, Norway.
    Ilicki, Julian
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Supervising Mentors' Lived Experience on Supervision in Teaching, Nursing and Social Care Education. A Participation-Oriented Phenomenological Study2009In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 107-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research concerning the supervisor role in separate educational programmes has been undertaken, but cross-professional studies are few. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of supervising mentors in Sweden during the practice-based, off-campus sections of the education in teaching, nursing, and social care. The study used a participatory phenomenological approach in which four researchers and nineteen supervising mentors worked together in the research process which was accomplished in four different phases. The data collecting method used was interview. The results constituted a main essence entitled "Struggle of power and control of professional quality enhancement" built upon four themes: "Constitutes a motivating force", "Feelings of responsibility", "Feelings of frustration" and "Wishes for alteration". Conclusions from the study are that communication, information and contact between the professionals in the fields and university teachers need to be strengthen to keep up supervising mentors' motivating force and to give them support.

  • 18.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Department of Caring Sciences, Haugesund, Norge .
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Using peer learning in elderly care: exploring the experiences of an alternative supervision model2014In: NET 2014 25th International Networking for Healthcare Education Conference: Education in clinical practice and practice development 1, Core paper and theme paper abstracts, 2014, p. 16-17Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Department of Health Sciences, Haugesund, Norway.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Validation of the tool Assessment of Clinical Education (AssCE): a study using Delphi method and clinical experts2017In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 50, p. 82-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to establish the validity of the tool Assessment of Clinical Education (AssCE). The tool is widely used in Sweden and some Nordic countries for assessing nursing students' performance in clinical education. It is important that the tools in use be subjected to regular audit and critical reviews. The validation process, performed in two stages, was concluded with a high level of congruence. In the first stage, Delphi technique was used to elaborate the AssCE tool using a group of 35 clinical nurse lecturers. After three rounds, we reached consensus. In the second stage, a group of 46 clinical nurse lecturers representing 12 universities in Sweden and Norway audited the revised version of the AssCE in relation to learning outcomes from the last clinical course at their respective institutions. Validation of the revised AssCE was established with high congruence between the factors in the AssCE and examined learning outcomes. The revised AssCE tool seems to meet its objective to be a validated assessment tool for use in clinical nursing education.

  • 20.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Stord/Haugesund University College.
    Slettebo, Åshild
    University of Agder and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences.
    Råholm, Maj-Britt
    Sogn og Fjordane University College, Faculty of Health Studies, Førde, Norway.
    H Larssen, Birte
    Centre of Nursing Research, Viborg, Denmark and School of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Medicine, Nursing and Behavioural Science, Deakin University, Australia.
    Similar and different: adjustment of clinical nursing education to educational reforms in the Scandinavian countries2015In: Nordisk sygeplejeforskning, ISSN 1892-2678, E-ISSN 1892-2686, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 93-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing education in Europe has undergone two reforms, the EU Directives and the Bologna Declaration, during the last decades aimed to create a unified European platform and integration of nursing education into the higher education system. The aim of this study was to describe the adjustment of the nursing education in the Scandinavian countries and especially the clinical parts of the education to these reforms. A review was done of the EU Directives and the Bologna Declaration and overall nationally regulating documents for nursing education in each of the Scandinavian countries with focus on the clinical parts described in for each country. The results show that there were more similarities than differences in the way the Scandinavian countries have adjusted clinical nursing education to the reforms. Denmark, Finland and Norway fulfil according to each qualification ordinance the EU Directives, while the Swedish qualification ordinance contains parts of this information. All Scandinavian countries meet the requirements in the Bologna Declaration e.g. offer a Bachelor´s degree and all have a national accreditation system for quality assurance of the education.

  • 21.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Smide, Bibbi
    Wikblad, Karin
    Competence of newly-graduated nurses: a comparison of the perceptions of qualified nurses and students2006In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 721-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper reports a study that compares opinions of final year nursing students, rating their own competence, with the opinions of experienced nurses on the competence of newly-graduated nurses. BACKGROUND: The transition of nursing preparation into higher education is regarded as positive, although it has led to differences in opinion about the competence of newly-graduated nurses and their readiness to enter the nursing profession. There are studies showing that newly-graduated nurses perceive themselves as holistically focused, professional practitioners, while other nurses are concerned that newly-graduated nurses do not have necessary skills. METHODS: A convenience sample of 106 nursing students in the final week of their course and 136 nurses who had experience of supervising nursing students completed a questionnaire. The data were collected in 2002. RESULTS: Own competence, in the form of ability to perform nursing care, was rated by nursing students to be good or strongly developed in most of the investigated areas of nursing care. Experienced nurses also estimated newly-graduated nurses' competence to be good or strongly developed, although to a lesser extent. Nurses qualified within the previous 5 years rated newly-graduated nurses' competence to be higher in comparison with those with less recent education. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to broaden our understanding of why some areas of nursing care, such as ethical awareness, were rated very highly, while others, like informing and teaching of co-workers and planning and prioritizing interventions had the lowest rating.

  • 22.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Thorell-Ekstrand, Ingrid
    An assessment form for clinical nursing education: a Delphi study2004In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 291-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This paper reports a study to develop further the existing assessment form and to capture new aspects of assessment for the nursing profession of the future for inclusion in the form.

    Background. Since nursing education became part of the higher education system, the assessment of clinical periods of the programme has become more complicated and requirements are more demanding. Changes in the health care sector, such as demographic changes and shorter hospitalization, create demands upon the independent nursing role of the future. Many educational documents, such as an assessment form, must continuously be up-dated and adapted to changes in society.

    Method. A Delphi study concerning the content of this assessment form was carried out using two rounds. Through this process, an expert panel gave their opinions about the form and possible changes to it.

    Results. There was general acceptance of the content in the current assessment form. Suggested changes were the addition of two factors concerning collaboration with the family and society, and development of the student's independence. Two new area headings were suggested: one about ability to use the nursing process, and the other about development of a professional stance.

    Conclusions. The suggested changes in the assessment form match expected changes in the health care sector and the demands of an academic nursing education

  • 23.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Department of Health Sciences, Haugesund, Norway .
    Thorell-Ekstrand, Ingrid
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nursing students' and preceptors' perceptions of using a revised assessment form in clinical nursing education2014In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 275-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of students' learning is a crucial question when great changes occur in the higher education sector. One such educational reform is the Bologna declaration, the requirements of which have resulted in significant modifications in documents as assessment forms for clinical education. The aim of this study was to investigate students' and preceptors' perceptions of using the revised version of an assessment form, the AssCE form. Using convenience sampling, a questionnaire survey was completed by 192 nursing students and 101 preceptors. Most of the participants found that the revised AssCE form was possible to use during different years of the programme, and factors in the AssCE form were possible to combine with learning outcomes in the course syllabus. Most participants perceived that the scale added to each factor facilitated the assessment dialogue and offered possibilities to illustrate the students' development during clinical periods. Findings also showed that students were most often prepared with self-assessment before the assessment discussions. More information about the use of the AssCE form, also in combination with learning outcomes in the course syllabus, may further support the use of the form and contribute to students' development during clinical practice.

  • 24.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. epartment of Health, Stord/Haugesund University College, Stord, Norway.
    Thorell-Ekstrand, Ingrid
    Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strengthening and updating supervising staff nurses in educational workshops: an international partnership project2010In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 262-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of a collaborative project involving Tanzania and Sweden, workshops were arranged for staff nurses in order to develop a forum for discussing the raised demands for supervision of nursing students during their clinical education. The aim was to meet nurses in educational workshops to initiate a dialogue on their views and experiences of supporting and supervising nursing students in their clinical studies. Their experiences of the workshops were also requested. Two groups of nurses in Tanzania (n = 30), and six groups in Sweden (n = 60) participated. The content, which was agreed between the project leaders in Tanzania and Sweden was carried out either on a whole day workshops or divided at three different occasions. Questionnaires were given before and about two months after, and workshops were also evaluated with an open-ended question immediately after. The nurses both in Tanzania and in Sweden appreciated the workshops as a possibility to create a dialogue and to discuss challenges in the supervision of students. Their views and experiences of the supervision role showed awareness of staff nurses as role models and teachers. Accomplishment of this partnership co-operation through arranging workshops has shown to be an easy and simple way of giving support to staff nurses for the supervision task.

  • 25.
    Löfmark, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Health, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway .
    Thorkilsen, Kari
    Department of Health, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway .
    Råholm, Maj-Britt
    Sogn og Fjordane University College, Faculty of Health Studies, Førde, Norway.
    Natvig, Gerd Karin
    Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Nursing students' satisfaction with supervision from preceptors and teachers during clinical practice2012In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last two decades have seen widespread changes in nursing education. The clinical environment remains important for the development of nursing students' confidence in and fulfillment of intended learning outcomes. Preceptors and university teachers are an invaluable resource in preparing students for the reality of their professional roles. The current study examined Norwegian nursing students' perceptions of preceptors' and university teachers' supervision. Participants were invited to complete a version of the Nursing Facilitator Clinical Questionnaire (NFCQ) after the completion of their latest clinical practice periods. Three hundred and eighty students representing all three years of education completed the questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. It was found that students highly valued teachers' and preceptors' supervision, although teachers' supervision was rated somewhat more highly. Fulfillment of learning outcomes for clinical practice was also rated highly, and the teachers' supervision was estimated, to some extent, more highly than the preceptors' supervision in this respect. The study underlines that, in addition to the estimation of satisfaction with supervision, it is important to relate supervision to the intended learning outcomes, which can be seen as a realization of that which students should know.

  • 26.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Studenters och handledares uppfattning om den förändrade utbildningsnivån inom den verksamhetsförlagda delen av utbildningen i specialist-sjuksköterskeprogrammet med inriktning mot distriktssköterska: Nationell konferens, Stockholms Universitet, den 6-7 november 2008. Poster 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27. Mogensen, Ester
    et al.
    Thorell-Ekstrand, Ingrid
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Klinisk utbildning i högskolan: perspektiv och utveckling i verksamhetsförlagd utbildning2010 (ed. 2)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Morberg, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Elm, Annika
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Andersson, Monica
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Norlén, Agneta
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Öhlund, Lennart S
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Anledning till handledning: ett tvärprofessionellt samarbete kring den verksamhetsförlagda delen i lärarutbildningen, den klinisk/praktiska delen i sjuksköterskeutbildningen och den praktiska delen i sociala omsorgsutbildningen2001In: Didaktisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1101-7686, Vol. 11, no 3-4, p. 213-337Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Morberg, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Öhlund, Lennart S.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Ilicki, Julian
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Handledning i yrkesutövning: ett samverkansprojekt mellan tre akademiska yrkesutbildningar2006In: Verklighet verklighet: teori och praktik i lärarutbildning / [ed] Agneta Bronäs och Staffan Selander, Stockholm: Norstedts akademiska förlag , 2006, p. 188-197Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Avslutande klinisk examination i sjuksköterskeprogrammet: OSCE samt "bedside" observation2012In: Verksamhetsförlagd utbildning i högskolans vårdutbildningar - möjligheter och utmaningar / [ed] SSF, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Development, implementation and student evaluation of a model for clinical final examination in nursing education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Development, Implementation and Student Evaluation of a Model for Clinical Final Examination in Nursing Education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Stord Haugesund University College, Haugesund, Norway.
    Implementation and student evaluation of clinical final examination in nursing education2013In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 1563-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Clinical examinations have a distinct focus, the overall aim being to demonstrate through action whether nursing students have acquired the knowledge and skills necessary to be safe and accountable practitioners. This complexity of knowledge cannot be assessed using single examinations, thus there is a need to develop multiple assessment approaches.

    Objectives

    To describe the process of developing valid clinical examinations for nursing students at the end of the final semester and to evaluate students' perceptions of these examination formats.

    Outline of the developmental process

    Based on earlier research, overall goals for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing and guided by both task-related and relational aspects of nursing, two clinical final examinations were developed and tested. One was a standardized test of performance in vitro using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) based on five specific areas in which newly graduated nurses had shown deficiencies. The other was a test of performance in real conditions, in vivo, using Bedside Observation Examination (BOE) assessing nurse–patient relation, entirely based on patients' needs.

    Nursing Students' Evaluation

    Three classes of students (n = 203) were asked to participate and answer a study-specific questionnaire. The students highly valued the two examinations and perceived that the knowledge and skills tested were relevant to nurses' work. They found the examinations stressful, but at the same time meaningful, and felt they could do themselves full justice through this form of examination.

    Recommendations

    The assessment test should be chosen depending on the preferred outcome. The OSCE, with its high degree of standardization, is appropriate to use to assess task-related aspects of nursing (show how), while the BOE, with its low degree of standardization, is suitable in real settings and has the potential to capture the relational aspects of nursing (does).

  • 34.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Kliniska slutexaminationer – en kombination av OSCE och BOE2015In: Kliniska examinationer: Handbok för sjuksköterskestudenter på grund- och avancerad nivå / [ed] Almerud Österberg, C. Elmqvist, C. (red), Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 139-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Department of Health Sciences, Haugesund, Norway.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Preceptors' reflections on their educational role before and after a preceptor preparation course: a prospective qualitative study2016In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 19, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During clinical practice, preceptors play an important educational role in helping nursing students become secure and effective practitioners. For this educational role they need adequate preparation. The aim of the present prospective study was to describe preceptors' experiences of their educational role before and after attending a university preceptor preparation course. This 7.5-credit, Master's level course is offered on a part-time basis and covers one semester. The theoretical approach was self-directed and reflective learning. Twentyseven preceptors participated in group interviews before and after the course, and data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed a shift in preceptors' perceptions. Their view of the educational role changed from being characterized by individual experiences and notions to being guided by personal and formal demands. Before the course, the lack of sufficient preconditions for preceptorship predominated, whereas after the course participants described ways of creating such preconditions. Before the course, the supervisory process was described as teaching, whereas after the course it was described as a learning process for students. Using reflective learning in a preceptor preparation course can develop and strengthen preceptors' view of their educational role and help them manage and create the preconditions for preceptorship.

  • 36.
    Råholm, Maj-Britt
    et al.
    Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Hedegaard, Birte Larsen
    Viborg School of Nursing/The Regional Hospital, Denmark.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Slettebø, Ashild
    Oslo University College, Norway.
    Nursing education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden: from Bachelor's degree to PhD2010In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 2126-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Råholm, Maj-Britt
    et al.
    Sogn og Fjordane University College, Førde, Norway.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Haugesund, Norge.
    Henriksen, Jette
    VIAUniversityCollege, Horsens, Denmark.
    Slettebo, Åshild
    University of Agder, Kristiansand S, Norway.
    Nurse Education — Role Complexity and Challenges2016In: International journal for human caring, ISSN 1091-5710, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 76-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous factors in today’s health care environment make nursing education a critical priority and challenge. Changes are needed in order to provide quality education, and nursing education must drive this change instead of trying to keep pace. This study aims to evaluate nurse educators’ experience of their current role and future challenges within nursing education in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. A qualitative, explorative study was used by means of four focus-group interviews with 18 participants in Scandinavia. The data were processed using content analysis to identify several relevant themes. This study revealed four themes that feature the role complexity and challenges faced by nurse educators: role complexity, the tension between academia and practice, the ideal role as a nurse educator, and future challenges within nursing education. 

  • 38.
    Råholm, Maj-Britt
    et al.
    Sogn og Fjordane University College, Faculty of Health Studies, Førde, Norway.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Department of Health Science, Haugesund, Norway.
    Slettebo, Åshild
    University of Agder, Akershus University College of Applied Science, Oslo, Norway.
    H Larssen, Birte
    Centre of Nursing Research, Viborg, Denmark and Clinical Associate Professor School of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Medicine, Nursing and Behavioural Science, Deakin University, Australia.
    Post Bologna - Master Level Nurse Education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden: A Literature Review2014In: International journal for human caring, ISSN 1091-5710, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 51-59Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Råholm, Maj-Britt
    et al.
    Sogn and Fjordane University College, Norway.
    Slettebo, Åshild
    University of Agder, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, Grimstad.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Hedegaard Larsen, Birte
    Centre of Nursing Research – Viborg, Denmark .
    Nursing education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden – from Bachelor´s degree to PhD2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Råholm, Maj-Britt
    et al.
    Stord/Haugesund University College, Department of Health Care Studies, Norway.
    Thorkildsen, Kari
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Translation of the Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire (NCFQ) to Norwegian language2010In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 196-200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Slettebo, Åshild
    et al.
    University of Agder, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, Grimstad and Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Råholm, Maj-Britt
    Sogn og Fjordane University College, Faculty of Health Studies, Førde, Norway .
    H Larssen, Birte
    Centre of Nursing Research –Viborg, Denmark and Clinical Associate Professor School of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Medicine, Nursing and Behavioural Science, Deakin University, Australia.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. , Stord/Haugesund University College, Department of Health Sciences, Haugesund, Norway .
    Doctoral programmes in the Scandinavian countries according to the Bologna Directive2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Slettebo, Åshild
    et al.
    University of Agder and Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Råholm, Maj-Britt
    Sogn og Fjordane University College, Faculty of Health Studies, Førde, Norway.
    H Larssen, Birte
    Centre of Nursing Research, Viborg, Denmark and Clinical Associate Professor School of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Medicine, Nursing and Behavioural Science, Deakin University, Australia.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Doctoral programs in the Scandinavian countries after the Bologna directives2013In: Nordisk sygeplejeforskning, ISSN 1892-2678, E-ISSN 1892-2686, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 313-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the doctoral programs for PhD in nursing and caring sciences and compare them within the Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). Design: The design is a review of selected doctoral programs in the Scandinavian countries. In Berlin in 2003, the Ministers in Europe decided to adopt a third cycle in the common educational system in the Bologna process, the doctoral education. Data sources: A review of educational programs in doctoral studies at different universities in Scandinavian countries is presented, namely Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with an analysis of the programs and comparing them with general requirements for doctoral education in the different countries and the Bologna process requirements. Results: There are differences in length (3–4 years / 180 – 240 ECTS) which is in accordance with Bologna declaration that recommends 3–4 years for doctoral programs / third cycle. In addition the length of requirements for doctoral courses varies. A difficulty in deciding which scientific paradigm the programs support is discussed.Conclusion: Different structure may create problems for mobility. Possible lack of scientific paradigm in the programs may cause difficulties in building nursing as a discipline.

  • 43.
    Vae, Karen Johanne U.
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Education, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, China.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Löfmark, Anna
    Faculty of Health Education, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Nursing students' and preceptors’ experience of assessment during clinical practice: a multilevel repeated-interview study of student–preceptor dyads2018In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 30, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing students' learning process during clinical practice is dependent on the quality of their assessment, and the feedback that is given, however an issue that is very little examined. The aim of this study was to investigate student-preceptor dyads and their experiences of mid-course discussions and final assessment. Data were collected through repeated semi-structured individual interviews with 13 dyads close in time to the assessment discussions, and were analyzed by searching for similarities and differences in their experiences. Both students and preceptors shared the view that the preparations before the discussions caused uncertainty, but they described different reasons. Both students and preceptors meant that the assessment tool was used in a structured way. The feedback mediated to students emphasized what was important to concentrate on in the next part or next period, but less about the individual students' progress. The student-preceptor dyads did not share the view of what content had been in focus in the discussions and there were variations in the details. Conclusions can be drawn that one of the crucial elements of an assessment discussion, to give students constructive feedback in relation to learning outcomes, was not fulfilled.

  • 44.
    Ädel, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Pålsson, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    The interaction of peers: promotive and hindering aspects for learning and well-being using peer-learning during clinical education2017In: Article in journal (Other academic)
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