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  • 1.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Ervasti, Per-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Evaluating physical work load by position duing match in elite bandy2018In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve current understandings of physical Workload (WL) in elite Bandy, ten bandy players were monitored for heart rate (HR) during thirteen matches over one championship season. Participants were divided into five subgroups according to playing position - libero, defender, halves, midfielder and forward. HR measurements were analyzed with two different methods to compute physical WL - (i) percentage of total time spent in different HR zones (HRres) and (ii) WL based on the Edwards method. Also determined was the time spent at HR levels above the lactate threshold (LT). A one-way ANOVA was used for analysis. For WL according to the Edwards method, significant differences (p=0.05) were shown between groups with defenders presenting the highest scores and forwards and liberos the lowest. A significant difference (p=0.05) was found between liberos and halves and the other positions as to how much time they spent in zone 70-80% of HRres. In 91-100% of HRres there was a distinct difference between defenders and the other positions and also forwards differed significantly from liberos, defenders and halves (p=0.05). The libero spent only one percent of the time over the LT, whereas the midfielder spent about 27% of the time over the LT. Overall, defenders showed the greatest WL during a match and liberos the lowest. The practical implications of these findings can help coaches and trainers design training methods specific to each position as well as individualized training sessions for each player in elite bandy.

  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Center for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Olsson, Josefin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Wallin, Louise
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Adolescents with intellectual disability have reduced postural balance and muscle performance in trunk and lower limbs compared to peers without intellectual disability2013In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 198-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For adolescent people with ID, falls are more common compared to peers without ID. However, postural balance among this group is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare balance and muscle performance among adolescents aged between 16 and 20 years with a mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID) to age-matched adolescents without ID. A secondary purpose was to investigate the influence of vision, strength, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) on balance. A group of 100 adolescents with ID and a control group of 155 adolescents without ID were investigated with five balance tests and three strength tests: timed up and go test, one leg stance, dynamic one leg stance, modified functional reach test, force platform test, counter movement jump, sit-ups, and Biering-Sørensen trunk extensor endurance test. The results showed that adolescents with an ID in general had significantly lower scores in the balance and muscle performance tests. The group with ID did not have a more visually dominated postural control compared to the group without ID. Height, BMI or muscle performance had no strong correlations with balance performance. It appears as if measures to improve balance and strength are required already at a young age for people with an ID.

  • 3.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Rehn, Börje
    Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering, Fysioterapi, Umeå universitet.
    Fysisk aktivitet och hälsa för personer med utvecklingsstörning2015In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 1, p. 26-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsa är en förutsättning för att kunna förverkliga sina mål i livet. Personer med utvecklingsstörning, cirka 90 000 i Sverige, har nedsatt hälsa jämfört med personer utan utvecklingsstörning och det leder till att denna grupp har svårare att uppfylla sina mål. Personer med utvecklingsstörning drabbas i större utsträckning av övervikt, typ 2-diabetes, hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar, högt blodtryck, benskörhet och depression. Undersökningar visar också på nedsatt fysisk aktivitet, motorik, syreupptagningsförmåga, muskelstyrka och postural balans hos denna grupp. Dessa sjukdomar och nedsatta förmågor går att påverkai positiv riktning med fysisk aktivitet. Fysioterapeuter som har bred kunskap om hälsa och anpassning av fysisk aktivitet kan vara till stor hjälp vid prevention, bedömning och träning.

  • 4.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Validity and reliability of the Dynamic One Leg Stance (DOLS) in people with vision loss2007In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests the concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of a new functional balance test – the Dynamic One Leg Stance (DOLS) in blind subjects and sighted, blindfolded subjects. Twelve blind and 12 sighted men and women between 19 and 61 years volunteered to participate. The correlation between DOLS and the commonly used One Leg Stance balance test (OLS) and the force platform test (FPT) was tested for both the right and left leg. The test–retest reliability of DOLS was analysed using three measurements at least 2 h apart. The correlation between DOLS and FPT and between DOLS and OLS for blind subjects was −0.13 (n.s.) and 0.77 for the left leg and −0.78 and 0.89 for the right leg. For blindfolded subjects, the correlations were −0.56 (n.s.) and 0.93 for the left leg and −0.61 and 0.71 for the right leg. The weighted Kappa values for DOLS were between 0.47 and 0.88 for blind subjects and between 0.47 and 0.72 for blindfolded subjects. Based on these findings, DOLS appears to be a fairly valid and reliable balance test for subjects with vision loss, acquired and experimental. However, further tests of DOLS are necessary.

  • 5.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education.
    Lönnberg, Lisa
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Physical exercise frequency seem not to influence postural balance but trunk muscle endurance in young persons with intellectual disability2017In: Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management, ISSN 2373-2156, E-ISSN 2373-2164, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 38-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The influence of various physical exercise frequencies on postural balance and muscle performance among young persons with intellectual disability (ID) is not well understood.

    Method Cross-sectional data from 26 elite athletes were compared with 37 students at a sports school and to 57 students at a special school, all diagnosed with mild to moderate ID and with different exercise frequencies. Data were also compared with a group of 149 age-matched participants without ID.

    Results There were no significant differences in postural balance between young ID groups regardless of physical exercise frequency, all of them had however impaired postural balance compared to the non-ID group. The group with high exercise performed better than the other ID groups in the trunk muscle endurance test.

    Conclusions It appears as if physical exercise frequency don’t improve postural balance but endurance in the trunk muscles for young persons with ID.

  • 6.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Elin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundkvist, Hillevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Postural stability, physical activity, aerobic capacity and their associations for young people with and without intellectual disabilities2014In: European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, ISSN 1803-3857, E-ISSN 1803-3857, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies show that people with intellectual disability (ID) appear to have impaired postural stability, a lower level of physical activity, and lower aerobic capacity compared to persons without ID, limitations that could affect their health. This study investigates these physical functions and their associations in a group of young people with ID compared to an age-matched group without ID. In total, this cross-sectional study included 106 high school students (16-20 years): 57 students with mild to moderate ID and 49 age-matched students without ID (control group). Tests were performed for postural stability, level of physical activity, and aerobic capacity. Both females and males with ID had significantly lower estimated maximum oxygen uptake (l O2/min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.004 for males) and a lower aerobic capacity expressed relative to body weight (ml O2/ kg*min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.012 for males) compared to age-matched peers. Analyses of associations were made using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multivariate linear regression analysis. No significant associations could be found. Physical status appears impaired for young people with ID and functions, such as postural stability, should be evaluated separately.

  • 7.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden; Umeå universitet.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Postural muscle responses and adaptations to backward platform perturbations in young people with and without intellectual disability2014In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 904-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines postural muscle responses to backward perturbations in young people (16-20 years) with and without intellectual disability (ID). The study included 56 young people with ID and 43 age-matched without ID volunteers. The subjects stood on a platform that was moved backwards in a surface translation. Lower and upper leg muscles and lower back spine muscles were recorded with surface electromyography (EMG). Muscle onset latency, time to peak amplitude (EMG), adaptation of muscle responses to repeated perturbations (using integrated EMG (IEMG) for epochs), and synergies and strategies were assessed. The result showed no differences between the two groups in muscle onset latency, synergies, and strategies. Young people with ID reduced their time to peak amplitude in investigated muscles, a response that was different from the group without ID. Also, young people with ID tended to adapt their IEMG less compared to the controls. These findings suggest that young people with ID have limited ability to use somatosensory information and adapt their postural muscle responses to repeated external perturbations.

  • 8.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden .
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden .
    Test-retest reliability, smallest real difference and concurrent validity of six different balance tests on young people with mild to moderate intellectual disability2012In: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 313-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    Some studies have reported that people with intellectual disability may have reduced balance ability compared with the population in general. However, none of these studies involved adolescents, and the reliability and validity of balance tests in this population are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of six different balance tests and to investigate their concurrent validity.

    DESIGN:

    Test-retest reliability assessment.

    SETTINGS:

    All subjects were recruited from a special school for people with intellectual disability in Bollnäs, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    Eighty-nine adolescents (35 females and 54 males) with mild to moderate intellectual disability with a mean age of 18 years (range 16 to 20 years).

    INTERVENTIONS:

    All subjects followed the same test protocol on two occasions within an 11-day period.

    MAIN OUTCOMES:

    Balance test performances.

    RESULTS:

    Intraclass correlation coefficients greater than 0.80 were achieved for four of the balance tests: Extended Timed Up and Go Test, Modified Functional Reach Test, One-leg Stance Test and Force Platform Test. The smallest real differences ranged from 12% to 40%; less than 20% is considered to be low. Concurrent validity among these balance tests varied between no and low correlation.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results indicate that these tests could be used to evaluate changes in balance ability over time in people with mild to moderate intellectual disability. The low concurrent validity illustrates the importance of knowing more about the influence of various sensory subsystems that are significant for balance among adolescents with intellectual disability.

  • 9.
    Connick, Mark J.
    et al.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Beckman, Emma
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Malone, Laurie A.
    Lakeshore Foundation, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Tweedy, Sean M.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Cluster analysis of novel isometric strength measures produces a valid and evidence-based classification structure for wheelchair track racing2017In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, article id 097558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Para athletics wheelchair-racing classification system employs best practice to ensure that classes comprise athletes whose impairments cause a comparable degree of activity limitation. However, decision-making is largely subjective and scientific evidence which reduces this subjectivity is required.

    AIM: To evaluate whether isometric strength tests were valid for the purposes of classifying wheelchair racers and whether cluster analysis of the strength measures produced a valid classification structure.

    METHODS: Thirty-two international level, male wheelchair racers from classes T51-54 completed six isometric strength tests evaluating elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, trunk flexors and forearm pronators and two wheelchair performance tests-Top-Speed (0-15 m) and Top-Speed (absolute). Strength tests significantly correlated with wheelchair performance were included in a cluster analysis and the validity of the resulting clusters was assessed.

    RESULTS: All six strength tests correlated with performance (r=0.54-0.88). Cluster analysis yielded four clusters with reasonable overall structure (mean silhouette coefficient=0.58) and large intercluster strength differences. Six athletes (19%) were allocated to clusters that did not align with their current class. While the mean wheelchair racing performance of the resulting clusters was unequivocally hierarchical, the mean performance of current classes was not, with no difference between current classes T53 and T54.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cluster analysis of isometric strength tests produced classes comprising athletes who experienced a similar degree of activity limitation. The strength tests reported can provide the basis for a new, more transparent, less subjective wheelchair racing classification system, pending replication of these findings in a larger, representative sample. This paper also provides guidance for development of evidence-based systems in other Para sports.

  • 10.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Tsaklis, Panagiotis
    Alexander Technological Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Ervasti, Per-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    W. Söderström, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    A Strong Correlation Between Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex And Vastus Lateralis Activity During Running To Fatigue2016In: Medicine and science in sports and exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 854-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue is a phenomenon of pronounced importance in sports. Recently, there is strong evidence of interplay between the prefrontal cortex and motor output during fatiguing contractions. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC) due to its large involvement in cognitive and motor activities is believed to be involved but this requires physiological clarification. AIM: We investigated the relationship between DLPC activity - responses in oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and total hemoglobin (HbT) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) activity - quantified as root-mean-square (RMS) of the EMG signal, during a fatigue protocol.

    METHODS: Four male runners (32±12 yrs) with probes for NIRS over the DLPC and EMG over the VL performed a track running test at a constant speed to fatigue (exhaustion). The running speed was individually determined as the average speed of a 1200-m time trial performed ~3 days prior to testing. For NIRS changes in μmole/L of HbO2 and HbT were computed. The VL EMG-RMS of the contraction of each step was normalized as a percent of a submaximal reference contraction (%RMS), thus removing the non-activity between steps. Data of 10s epochs at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of time for each lap were averaged for analyses. Regression analyses performed with HbO2 and with HbT as dependent variables and %RMS as the independent variable.

    RESULTS: Over time there was an increase in HbO2 and HbT in the DLPC, and in VL-%RMS. Both HbO2 and HbT correlated strongly with EMG-RMS during running to fatigue (see figures below); p<0.001 for both.

    CONCLUSION: The strong relationship between DLPC and VL activities during running to fatigue suggests the involvement of the DLPC in the central processing of fatigue.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Rehn, Börje
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi..
    Blomqvist, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Umeå Univeristet.
    Muscle function among healthy adult athletes before and after a postural balance training period2016In: Jacobs Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 2376-9432, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Postural balance training is primarily used by athletes as rehabilitation after previous injuries or for prevention. A few studies have been made with the aim of investigating whether postural balance training can improve other physical functions in healthy participants. However, there is no consensus regarding effects.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether postural balance training can improve muscle function in healthy adult athletes.

    Method: Seventeen healthy adult (6 males and 11 females) athletes between the ages of 21 and 50 years performed three postural balance exercises once a day 3x30 seconds per exercise on each leg. This intervention was performed daily for six weeks. Their muscle function were assessed with squat jump, heel rise and grip strength (control). Evaluation was done before and after the training period.

    Results: Jump height, number of repetitions in heel rise and duration in standing on one leg increased with statistical significance. There were no improvements in postural sway and grip strength.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that a postural balance training period can provide a better local muscle function regarding explosive strength and endurance among adult athletes even if postural sway is not affected.

  • 12.
    Sundahl, Lina
    et al.
    Department Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Zetterbreg, Marie
    Department Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Physical activity levels among adolescent and young adults women and men with and without intellectual disability2016In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 93-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical activity level was associated with the body mass index (BMI).

    Materials and methods

    Fifty-two adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability and 48 without intellectual disability, between the ages 16 and 20 years, BMIs ranging from 16.3 to 50.3 kg/m2, were measured for number of steps taken with a pedometer for five consecutive days (Sunday–Thursday).

    Results

    The only group to meet recommendations regarding number of steps (10 000–12 000/day) was women without intellectual disability. No significant associations were found between total number of steps taken and BMI.

    Conclusion

    As the majority of adolescents and young adults with intellectual disability, especially women, did not reach recommended activity levels regardless of their BMIs, this call for broad measures to increase physical activity.

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