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  • 1. Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E.
    et al.
    Vitti, Antonella
    Nuzzaci, Maria
    El-Attar, Ahmad K.
    Piazzolla, Giuseppina
    Tortorella, Cosimo
    Harandi, Ali M.
    Olson, Olof
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Piazzolla, Pasquale
    Plant-Based Vaccines: Novel and Low-Cost Possible Route for Mediterranean Innovative Vaccination Strategies2014In: Advances in Virus Research / [ed] Maramorosch, K; Murphy, F A, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 89, p. 1-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses. Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was derived from the HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) CP tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) CP as expression vectors into tobacco plants. Expressed recombinant protein has not only been confirmed as a therapeutic but also as a diagnostic tool. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), HSV-2 gD, and HSV-2 VP16 subunits were transfected into tobacco plants, using TMV CP TMGMV CP expression vectors.

  • 2.
    Amein, T
    et al.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University.
    Olsson, C H B
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University.
    Wikstrom, M
    Findus R & D AB, Bjuv, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University.
    First report in Sweden of downy mildew on parsley caused by Plasmopara petroselini2006In: Plant Disease, ISSN 0191-2917, E-ISSN 1943-7692, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 111-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Amein, Tahsein
    et al.
    Dept Cell & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Univ Studi Molise, Dipartimento Sci Anim Vegetali & Ambiente, Italy .
    Wikstroem, Mariann
    Jordbruksverket Växtskyddscentralen Alnarp, Sweden .
    Koch, Eckhard
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Schmitt, Annegret
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Stephan, Dietrich
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Jahn, Marga
    JKI, Inst Strategies & Technol Assessment Plant Protec, Kleinmachnow, Germany .
    Tinivella, Federico
    Univ Turin, Italy .
    Gullino, M. Lodovica
    Univ Turin, Italy .
    Forsberg, Gustaf
    Seedgard AB, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Werner, Sigrid
    Hild Samen GmbH, Marbach Am Neckar, Germany.
    van der Wolf, Jan
    Plant Res Int, Netherlands.
    Groot, Steven Pc
    Plant Res Int, Netherlands.
    Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds2011In: Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, ISSN 1861-3829, E-ISSN 1861-3837, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effectively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of greenhouse and field experiments in which non-chemical seed treatments were tested for control of A. brassicicola on cabbage seeds naturally infested with the pathogen. In greenhouse experiments, significant improvements were obtained by seed treatment with some commercialised and experimental microbial biocontrol agents, an emulsion of thyme oil in water (0.1%) and by the tested physical seed treatments methods (i.e. hot water, aerated steam and electron seed treatment). Resistance inducers tended to increase the percentage of healthy plants, but the effects were statistically not significant. Generally the combination of physical treatments with the effective agents did not result in improved performance. Positive effects on crop establishment and yield by the same treatments were also observed in field tests. Overall the results indicate that several options for non-chemical control of A. brassicicola on Brassica seeds exist that are comparable in efficacy to the chemical standard Aatiram (active ingredient thiram) used in this study.

  • 4.
    Brady, S F
    et al.
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Lee, J C
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Sutton, A E
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Zumoff, C H
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Wodzinski, R S
    Ithaca Collage, Ithaca NY USA.
    Beer, S V
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Clardy, J
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Pantocin B, an antibiotic from Erwinia herbicola discovered by heterologous expression of cloned genes1999In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 121, no 50, p. 11912-11913Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Castoria, Raffaello
    et al.
    Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy .
    Mannina, Luisa
    Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy .
    Duran-Patron, Rosa
    Univ Cadiz, Spain .
    Maffei, Francesca
    Univ Bologna, Italy .
    Sobolev, Anatoly P.
    CNR, Rome, Italy .
    De Felice, Dario V.
    Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy .
    Pinedo-Rivilla, Cristina
    Univ Cadiz, Spain .
    Ritieni, Alberto
    Univ Naples Federico 2, Portici, Italy .
    Ferracane, Rosalia
    Univ Naples Federico 2, Portici, Italy .
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy .
    Conversion of the Mycotoxin Patulin to the Less Toxic Desoxypatulinic Acid by the Biocontrol Yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae Strain LS112011In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 59, no 21, p. 11571-11578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The infection of stored apples by the fungus Penicillium e., pansum Causes the contamination of fruits and fruit-derived products with the mycotoxin patulin, which is a major issue in food safety Fungal attack can be prevented by beneficial microorganisms, so-called biocontrol agents Previous time-course thin layer chromatography analyses showed that the aerobic incubation of patulin with the biocontrol yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae strain LS11 leads to the disappearance of the mycotoxin spot and the parallel emergence of two new spots, one of which disappears over time In this work, we analyzed the biodegradation of patulin effected by LS11 through HPLC The more stable of the two compounds was purified and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance as desoxypatulinic acid, whose formation was also quantitated in patulin degradation experiments After R. kratochvilovae LS11 had been incubated m the presence of (13)C-labeled patulin, label was traced to desoxypatulinic acid, thus proving that this compound derives from the metabolization of patulin by the yeast Desoxypatulinic acid was much less toxic than patulin to human lymphocytes and, in contrast to patulin, did not react in vitro with the thiol-bearing tripeptide glutathione The lower toxicity of desoxypatulinic acid is proposed to be a consequence of the hydrolysis of the lactone ring and the loss of functional, groups that react with thiol groups The formation of desoxypatulinic acid from patulin represents a novel biodegradation pathway that is also a detoxification process

  • 6.
    Castoria, Raffaello
    et al.
    Università degli studi del Molise.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gothenburg and Università degli studi del Molise.
    Host responses to biological control agents2010In: Post-harvest pathology / [ed] D. Prusky & M.L. Gullino, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 171-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Falk, Anders B.
    et al.
    SLU.
    Lindström, Svante
    University of Gävle, Central University Administration.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Influence of some weather parameters on the susceptibility of apple fruit to postharvest grey mould attack2018In: Proceedings 2018, 2018, p. 124-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several cultural and weather factors during the season influence the susceptibility of apple fruit to post-harvest pathogens. In the present study, the effect of different weather parameters on postharvest susceptibility of apples of the cv. ‘Ingrid Marie’ to grey mould was investigated. In 2015, apple fruit were collected from orchards in Southern Sweden, where local weather stations monitored different parameters. After harvest, the fruit were tested for susceptibility to grey mould by artificially inoculating them with%FLQHUHD. Lesion development was monitored over a 10-day-period. Analysis of results for a few orchards showed that cold weather for over a month preceding harvest and a low total number of growth degree days gave apples that were more susceptible to grey mould. This study was carried out in conventional orchards, but the conclusions can be important also for organic production, since they deal with the general effect of sunshine, temperature and rain, factors that may strengthen fruit during cultivation, regardless of production type. Future studies may focus on organic production to investigate whether these effects are general and also apply to organic production.

  • 8.
    Ianiri, G.
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Ambiente e Alimenti, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy, and Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA.
    Idnurm, A.
    Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA .
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology. Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Ambiente e Alimenti, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Durán-Patrón, R.
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Spain .
    Mannina, L.
    Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Rome, Italy .
    Ferracane, R.
    Dipartimento di Scienza degli Alimenti, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy .
    Ritieni, A.
    Dipartimento di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy .
    Castoria, R.
    Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA .
    Searching for Genes Responsible for Patulin Degradation in a Biocontrol Yeast Provides Insights into the Basis for Resistance to This Mycotoxin2013In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 79, no 9, p. 3101-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Ianiri, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Univ Missouri, Kansas City, USA, and Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy .
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Univ Missouri, Campobasso, Italy .
    Castoria, Raffaello
    Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy .
    Idnurm, Alexander
    Univ Missouri, Kansas City, USA .
    Development of resources for the analysis of gene function in Pucciniomycotina red yeasts2011In: Fungal Genetics and Biology, ISSN 1087-1845, E-ISSN 1096-0937, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 685-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pucciniomycotina is an important subphylum of basidiomycete fungi but with limited tools to analyze gene functions. Transformation protocols were established for a Sporobolomyces species (strain IAM 13481), the first Pucciniomycotina species with a completed draft genome sequence, to enable assessment of gene function through phenotypic characterization of mutant strains. Transformation markers were the URA3 and URA5 genes that enable selection and counter-selection based on uracil auxotrophy and resistance to 5-fluoroorotic acid. The wild type copies of these genes were cloned into plasmids that were used for transformation of Sporobolomyces sp. by both biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated approaches. These resources have been deposited to be available from the Fungal Genetics Stock Center. To show that these techniques could be used to elucidate gene functions, the LEU1 gene was targeted for specific homologous replacement, and also demonstrating that this gene is required for the biosynthesis of leucine in basidiomycete fungi. T-DNA insertional mutants were isolated and further characterized, revealing insertions in genes that encode the homologs of Chs7, Erg3, Kre6, Kexl, Pik1, Sad 1, Ssu1 and Tlg1. Phenotypic analysis of these mutants reveals both conserved and divergent functions compared with other fungi. Some of these strains exhibit reduced resistance to detergents, the antifungal agent fluconazole or sodium sulfite, or lower recovery from heat stress. While there are current experimental limitations for Sporobolomyces sp. such as the lack of Mendelian genetics for conventional mating, these findings demonstrate the facile nature of at least one Pucciniomycotina species for genetic manipulation and the potential to develop these organisms into new models for understanding gene function and evolution in the fungi.

  • 10.
    Jin, M
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Liu, L
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA, and SLU, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Beer, S V
    Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Clardy, J
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA. .
    Structural and functional analysis of pantocin A: An antibiotic from Pantoea agglomerans discovered by heterologous expression of cloned genes2003In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 42, no 25, p. 2898-2901Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jin, M
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA, and SLU Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsaka.
    Beer, S V
    Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, USA.
    Clardy, J
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, USA.
    The biosynthetic gene cluster of pantocin A provides insights into biosynthesis and a tool for screening2003In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 42, no 25, p. 2902-2905Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Johansson, P M
    et al.
    SLU, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Low-temperature isolation of disease-suppressive bacteria and characterization of a distinctive group of pseudomonads2003In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 6464-6474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of environmental factors during isolation on the composition of potential biocontrol isolates is largely unknown. Bacterial isolates that efficiently suppressed wheat seedling blight caused by Fusarium culmortun were found by isolating psychrotrophic, root-associated bacteria and by screening them in a bioassay that mimicked field conditions. The impact of individual isolation factors on the disease-suppressive index (DSI) of almost 600 isolates was analyzed. The bacteria originated from 135 samples from 62 sites in Sweden and Switzerland. The isolation factors that increased the probability of finding isolates with high DSIs were sampling from arable land, Swiss origin of samples, and origination of isolates from plants belonging to the family Brassicaceae. The colony morphology of the isolates was characterized and compared to DSIs, which led to identification of a uniform morphological group containing 57 highly disease-suppressive isolates. Isolates in this group were identified as Pseudomonas sp.; they were fluorescent on King’s medium B and had characteristic crystalline structures in their colonies. These isolates were morphologically similar to seven strains that had previously been selected for suppression of barley net blotch caused by Drechslera teres. Members of this morphological group grow at 1.5degreesC and produce an antifungal polyketide (2,3-deepoxy-2,3-didehydrorhizoxin [DDR]). They have similar two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles, phenotypic characteristics, and in vitro inhibition spectra of pathogens. In summary, in this paper we describe some isolation factors that are important for obtaining disease-suppressive bacteria in our system, and we describe a novel group of biocontrol pseudomonads.

  • 13.
    Koch, Eckhard
    et al.
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Schmitt, Annegret
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Stephan, Dietrich
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Kromphardt, Carola
    JKI, Inst Strategies & Technol Assessment Plant Protec, Germany .
    Jahn, Marga
    JKI, Inst Strategies & Technol Assessment Plant Protec, Germany .
    Krauthausen, Hermann-Josef
    DLR Rheinpfalz, Agr Serv Ctr, Neustadt, Germany .
    Forsberg, Gustaf
    Seedgard AB, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Werner, Sigrid
    Hild Samen GmbH, Marbach, Germany .
    Amein, Tahsein
    Dept Cellular & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Dept Plant & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden ; Univ Molise, Fac Agr, Dipartimento Sci Anim Vegetali & Ambiente, Campobasso, Italy .
    Tinivella, Federico
    Univ Torino, Ctr Competence Innovat Agroenvironm Sector, Grugliasco, Italy .
    Gullino, Maria L.
    Univ Torino, Ctr Competence Innovat Agroenvironm Sector, Grugliasco, Italy .
    Roberts, Steven J.
    Plant Hlth Solut, Warwick, England .
    van der Wolf, Jan
    Plant Res Int, Wageningen, Netherlands .
    Groot, Steven P. C.
    Plant Res Int, Wageningen, Netherlands .
    Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina on carrot seeds2010In: European journal of plant pathology, ISSN 0929-1873, E-ISSN 1573-8469, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and agents of natural origin (resistance inducers, plant derived products, micro-organisms) as seed treatments of carrots for control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina. Control of both Alternaria species by seed treatment with the resistance inducers was generally poor. Results were also not satisfactory with most of the formulated commercial micro-organism preparations. Based on the average of five field trials, one of these, BA 2552 (Pseudomonas chlororaphis), provided a low but significant increase in plant stand. Among the experimental micro-organisms, the best results were obtained with Pseudomonas sp. strain MF 416 and Clonostachys rosea strain IK726. A similar level of efficacy was provided by seed treatment with an emulsion (1%) of thyme oil in water. Good and consistent control was generally achieved with the physical methods aerated steam, hot water and electron treatment. Aerated steam treatment was, apart from the thiram-containing chemical standard, the best single treatment, and its performance may at least partially be due to extensive pre-testing, resulting in dosages optimally adapted to the respective seed lot. In some of the experiments the effect of the hot water treatment, which was tested at a fixed, not specifically adapted dosage, was significantly improved when combined with a Pseudomonas sp. MF 416 or C. rosea IK726 treatment. The results are discussed in relation to the outcome of experiments in which the same seed treatment methods and agents were tested in other seed-borne vegetable pathosystems.

  • 14.
    Oksinska, M. P.
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Pietr, S. J.
    Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Resistance to oxidation products of caffeic acid is important for efficient colonization of wheat seedlings by Pseudomonas proteolytica strain PSR1142013In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Applied Soil Ecology, ISSN 0929-1393, E-ISSN 1873-0272, Vol. 66, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interrelationships between plants and rhizosphere bacteria are strongly dependent on the quality and quantity of root exudates. The ability to colonize roots is crucial for pseudomonads to function as biological control agents of root- and soil-borne pathogenic microbes. The multiplication of rhizosphere bacteria is restricted in the presence of simple phenolic compounds, which are components of the resistance mechanisms of plants to pathogens. Caffeic acid is a phenolic compound, which is commonly found in wheat tissues. It is prone to oxidation into o-quinones, which are toxic to microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the ability of microorganisms to resist caffeic acid and its oxidation products could play a role in the early colonization of wheat seedlings. Among the fluorescent pseudomonads that we have studied, strain PSR114 is one of the most efficient colonizers of wheat seedlings during the first 48h after seed germination, and it is particularly resistant to products resulting from the spontaneous oxidation of caffeic acid. This strain was isolated from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape and identified as being closely related to Pseudomonas proteolytica through the analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences. At pH 7.0, this strain grew intensively in the presence of 1.50mgmL-1 of caffeic acid. Its multiplication was partially reduced in the presence of oxidized caffeic acid at concentrations above 0.21mgmL-1, and completely inhibited at concentrations above 0.38mgmL-1. A Tn5 transposon mutant of PSR114 had lower level of resistance to the oxidation products of caffeic acid, as well as reduced capacity to colonize wheat seedlings when compared to the wild type strain. This work demonstrates that resistance to oxidation products of caffeic acid can be important for successful bacterial colonization of wheat seedlings.

  • 15.
    Oksinska, Malgorzata P.
    et al.
    Wroclaw Univ Environm & Life Sci, Dept Agr Microbiol, Wroclaw, Poland .
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Univ Molise, Dept Anim Plant & Environm Sci, Campobasso, Italy .
    Pietr, Stanislaw J.
    Wroclaw Univ Environm & Life Sci, Dept Agr Microbiol, Wroclaw, Poland .
    Colonization of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) by strains of Pseudomonas spp. with respect to their nutrient utilization profiles2011In: European journal of soil biology, ISSN 1164-5563, E-ISSN 1778-3615, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 364-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrients that leach out from roots constitute a major source of food for root-colonizing bacteria. The role of specific nutrients in this interaction is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether colonization ability could be attributed to specific nutrient utilization profiles. Twenty fluorescent pseudomonads were tested for colonization ability of 48-h-old wheat seedlings. Analyses of RFLPs of amplified 165 rRNA gene and of BIOLOG GN2 data demonstrated that colonization ability did not associate with any particular RFLP or metabolic group. The best colonizers PPS96, PSR2, PSR21, good colonizer PSR6 and four of ineffective colonizers were identified through 16S sequence analysis as Pseudomonas reactans. The best and good colonizers distinguished themselves from the less efficient colonizers by specifically utilizing: p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, bromosuccinic acid, benzoic acid, methyl pyruvate. N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, D-trehalose and adonitol. However, there was no specific sole nutrient utilization profile that predicted excellent root colonization ability of wheat, since the best colonizers did not have identical profiles. This work indicates that strains of P. reactans are present in the rhizosphere of oil seed rape and wheat and that some of them are effective colonizers of wheat roots.

  • 16.
    Pinedo, Cristina
    et al.
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Universitario Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Collado, Isidro G.
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Universitario Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Goss, Rebecca J. M.
    School of Chemistry, Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
    Castoria, Raffaello
    Dipartimento Agricoltura, Ambiente, Alimenti, Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Hrelia, Patrizia
    Dipartimento di Farmacia e Biotecnologie, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Maffei, Francesca
    Dipartimento di Scienze per la Qualità della Vita, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Campus Rimini, Rimini, Italy.
    Durán-Patrón, Rosa
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Universitario Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Isotopic Labeling Studies Reveal the Patulin Detoxification Pathway by the Biocontrol Yeast Rhodotorula kratochvilovae LS112018In: Journal of Natural Products, ISSN 0163-3864, E-ISSN 1520-6025, Vol. 81, no 12, p. 2692-2699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patulin (1) is a mycotoxin contaminant in fruit and vegetable products worldwide. Biocontrol agents, such as the yeast Rhodotorula kratochvilovae strain LS11, can reduce patulin (1) contamination in food. R. kratochvilovae LS11 converts patulin (1) into desoxypatulinic acid (DPA) (5), which is less cytotoxic than the mycotoxin (1) to in vitro human lymphocytes. In the present study, we report our investigations into the pathway of degradation of patulin (1) to DPA (5) by R. kratochvilovae. Isotopic labeling experiments revealed that 5 derives from patulin (1) through the hydrolysis of the γ-lactone ring and subsequent enzymatic modifications. The ability of patulin (1) and DPA (5) to cause genetic damage was also investigated by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay on in vitro human lymphocytes. Patulin (1) was demonstrated to cause much higher chromosomal damage than DPA (5).

  • 17.
    Puglisi, Ivana
    et al.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    De Patrizio, Alessandro
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Jung, Thomas
    Phytophthora Research Center Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic; Phytophthora Research and Consultancy, Nußdorf, Germany .
    Evoli, Maria
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Pane, Antonella
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Van Hoa, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Van Tri, Mai
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Wright, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Ramstedt, Mauritz
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish Agricultural University (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Christer
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Faedda, Roberto
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Cacciola, Santa Olga
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0172085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  • 18. Rönnander, Jonas
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Joel
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra Ann Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol by a novel strain of Cystobasidium laryngis isolated from decaying wood2018In: AMB Express, ISSN 2191-0855, E-ISSN 2191-0855, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanillin is an aromatic aldehyde found as a component of lignocellulosic material, and in the cured pods of orchidaceae plants. Like other phenolic substances, vanillin has antimicrobial activity and can be extracted from lignin either by a thermo-chemical process or through microbial degradation. Vanillin, can serve as a model monomer in biodegradation studies of lignin. In the present study, a yeast isolated from decaying wood on the Faroe Islands, was identified as Cystobasidium laryngis strain FMYD002, based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. It demonstrated the ability to convert vanillin to vanillyl alcohol, as detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole-time-of-flight. Structural analysis of vanillyl alcohol was carried out by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and further verified by synthesis. The reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi. However, to our knowledge, this biotransformation has not yet been reported for basidiomycetous yeast species, nor for any representative of the subphylum Pucciniomycotina. The biotransformation capability of the present strain might prove useful in the industrial utilisation of lignocellulosic residues.

  • 19.
    Schmitt, A.
    et al.
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Koch, E.
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Stephan, D.
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Kromphardt, C.
    JKI, Inst Strategies & Technol Assessment Plant Protec, Kleinmachnow, Germany .
    Jahn, M.
    JKI, Inst Strategies & Technol Assessment Plant Protec, Kleinmachnow, Germany .
    Krauthausen, H. -J
    DLR Rheinpfalz, Agr Serv Ctr, Neustadt, Germany .
    Forsberg, G.
    Seedgard AB, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Werner, S.
    Hild Samen GmbH, Marbach, Germany .
    Amein, T.
    Dept Mol & Cellular Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Dept Plant & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden, and Univ Molise, Dipartimento Sci Anim Vegetali & Ambiente, Campobasso, Italy.
    Tinivella, F.
    Univ Turin, Ctr Competence Innovat Agroenvironm Sector AGROIN, Grugliasco, Italy .
    van der Wolf, J.
    Plant Res Int, Wageningen, Netherlands .
    Groot, S. P. C.
    Plant Res Int, Wageningen, Netherlands .
    Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Phoma valerianellae on lamb’s lettuce seeds2009In: Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, ISSN 1861-3829, Vol. 116, no 5, p. 200-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to identify seed treatment methods for eradicating Phoma valerianellae from lamb’s lettuce seeds in organic vegetable production. Using seeds naturally infested with the pathogen, the effect of three physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and different agents of natural origin (micro-organisms, plant derived products, resistance inducers) was tested on moist filter paper, in seed trays under controlled conditions and in the field. in an initial screening, none of the tested putative resistance inducers prevented infection by P. valerianellae, while two out of seven formulated micro-organism preparations and six out of 16 experimental microbial strains were effective. When selected agents and the three physical seed treatment methods were compared in blotter and seed tray tests, the physical methods were generally the most effective treatments, while the micro-organism treatments were clearly less efficacious. However, in field experiments with the same seed lots and the same treatments, a statistically significant increase in plant stand was not obtained with any of the treatments. Combinations of the three physical treatment methods with selected non-chemical agents did not perform better than the physical treatments alone. The most effective alternative seed treatments identified in the present study, aerated steam, hot water, electron treatment and thyme oil (0.1%), can be recommended for eradication of P. valerianellae from lamb’s lettuce seeds in organic farming. Because their efficacy was generally as high as that of the chemical fungicide Aatiram (active ingredient thiram), they are also potentially suited for use in conventional vegetable production.

  • 20.
    Tinivella, Federico
    et al.
    Univ Torino, Ctr Competence Innovat, Grugliasco, Italy .
    Hirata, Lucia M.
    Univ Torino, Ctr Competence Innovat, Grugliasco, Italy .
    Celan, Mikael A.
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Cellular & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Cellular & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden, and Univ Molise, Dipartimento Sci Anim Vegetali & Ambiente, Campobasso, Italy .
    Amein, Tahsein
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Cellular & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schmitt, Annegret
    Julius Kuhn Inst, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Koch, Eckhard
    Julius Kuhn Inst, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Wolf, Jan M. van der
    Plant Res Int, Wageningen, Netherlands .
    Groot, Steven P. C.
    Plant Res Int, Wageningen, Netherlands .
    Stephan, Dietrich
    Julius Kuhn Inst, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Garibaldi, Angelo
    Univ Torino, Ctr Competence Innovat, Grugliasco, Italy .
    Gullino, Maria Lodovica
    Univ Torino, Ctr Competence Innovat, Grugliasco, Italy .
    Control of seed-borne pathogens on legumes by microbial and other alternative seed treatments2009In: European journal of plant pathology, ISSN 0929-1873, E-ISSN 1573-8469, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 139-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse trials were carried out in order to test the efficacy of different seed treatments as alternatives to chemicals against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum cause of anthracnose on bean and Ascochyta spp. cause of Ascochyta blights on pea, respectively. Resistance inducers, commercially formulated microorganisms, non-formulated selected strains of different microorganisms (fungi, bacteria and yeasts) and plant extracts were applied as dry or liquid seed treatments on naturally infested seeds. Seedling emergence and disease incidence and/or severity were recorded. Almost all seed treatments turned out to be ineffective in controlling the Ascochyta infections, which is in line with the literature stating that these pathogens are difficult to control. The only alternative treatments that gave some control of Ascochyta spp. were thyme oil and a strain of Clonostachys rosea. The resistance inducers tested successfully controlled infections of bean by C. lindemuthianum. Among the formulated microorganisms, Bacillus subtilis-based formulations provided the best protection from anthracnose. Some strains of Pseudomonas putida, a disease-suppressive, saprophytic strain of Fusarium oxysporum and the mustard powder-based product Tillecur also proved to be effective against bean anthracnose. However, among the resistance inducers as well as among the other groups, certain agents caused a significant reduction of plant emergence. Different alternative seed treatments can therefore be used for the control of C. lindemuthianum on bean, while on pea only thyme oil and a strain of Clonostachys rosea showed some effectiveness against Ascochyta spp.

  • 21.
    Van Tri, Mai
    et al.
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Van Hoa, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Minh Chau, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Pane, Antonella
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Faedda, Roberto
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    De Patrizio, Alessandro
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Department of Agraria, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Località Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Olsson, Christer H. B.
    Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Ramstedt, Mauritz
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cacciola, Santa Olga
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Decline of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) incited by Phytophthora palmivora in Vietnam2015In: Phytopathologia Mediterranea, ISSN ISSN 0031-9465, EISSN 1593-2095, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 275-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new disease of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) was observed in the south- eastern region of South Vietnam. Symptoms included root rot, cankers and gummosis of trunks, chlorosis, wilt, blight of leaves, defoliation, fruit brown rot, and tree death. The disease was found in 10% of surveyed farms with an incidence varying from 2% to nearly 60% of the trees. A Phytophthora species, identified as P. palmivora (Butler) Butler, using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA as a barcode gene and morphological and cultural features, was consistently isolated from symptomatic roots, fruits, trunk cankers and leaves. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled using pathogenicity tests on seedlings, leaves and detached fruits of jackfruit. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. palmivora on jackfruit in Vietnam.

  • 22.
    Vinnere, O
    et al.
    SLU, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet .
    Fatehi, J
    SLU, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet .
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    SLU, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet .
    Gerhardson, B
    SLU, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet .
    The causal agent of anthracnose of Rhododendron in Sweden and Latvia2002In: Mycological Research, ISSN 0953-7562, E-ISSN 1469-8102, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 60-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthracnose caused by Collectortrichum is a severe foliar disease in rhododendron plantations in Sweden and Latvia. Isolates of this pathogen were collected and characterised based on morphological and molecular criteria, Out of 37 isolates examined, two with falcate spores were identified as C. dematittin. The remainder of the isolates had straight cylindrical conidia, which were too variable to be reliably assigned to C. glocosporioides (syn. C.azaleae) the reported causal agent of anthracnose of Rhododendron spp. These isolates were compared with the reference strains of C. gloeosporioides, with holo- and paratypes and with reference isolates of C. acutatum. The light and scanning electron microscopy examinations revealed that conidial shape was not a reliable criterion for separation of these two taxa and for the identification of our isolates. The two internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene were PCR amplified and sequenced from all the rhododendron isolates and the reference strains, including the holo-and paratype materials. In addition, a segment of mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA) and a fragment of a p-tubulin gene from several representatives of isolates of rhododendron as well as the reference strains were amplified and sequenced. The sizes of the amplified fragments among the isolates studied were heterogeneous only for mtSSU rDNA, which allowed separation of C. acutatum from C. glocosporioides. Parsimony analysis of the individual and combined nucleotide sequence data sets were concordant and indicated that all isolates originating from rhododendrons belonged to C. acutatum. The grouping of the isolates was further supported by bootstrap analysis. Thus, C. acutatum was identified as the causal agent of anthracnose of Rhododendron in Sweden and Latvia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. acutatum and C. dematium on Rhododendron. This study is also the first to determine the genetic status of the holotype of C. acutatum and also one of the paratypes on the basis of ITS sequences in comparison with world-wide living isolates of this taxon.

  • 23.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Patulin in food2015In: Current Opinion in Food Science, ISSN 2214-7993, E-ISSN 2214-8000, Vol. 5, p. 105-109Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patulin is produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. It is a mycotoxin that primarily contaminates pome fruit products, but is being reported from other fruit and foods, for example shellfish and cheese. New findings reveal that patulin binds to the bases of DNA, in addition to its well-established ability to conjugate sulfhydryl groups. Novel cellular targets are also being uncovered. In the EU, patulin levels in apple products are now mostly below specified limits. Biocontrol agents either prevent infection by mycotoxigenic fungi or lower patulin levels. More knowledge about critical control points, the role of patulin in plant disease, and the environmental cues that stimulate patulin production will enable the tailoring of effective, future control measures.

  • 24.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Cornell University.
    The genetics of antibiotic production and the role of antibiotics in biological control of Erwinia amylovora by Erwinia herbicola1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Erwinia herbicola is an epiphyte of apple and pear with potential as a biocontrol agent of Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight. This research aimed to assess the relative role of antibiotics produced by E. herbicola, Eh318 as a mechanistic basis for biocontrol. A genomic library of Eh318 DNA was constructed in Escherichia coli and two distinct cosmids, pCPP702 and pCPP704, were identified that conferred upon E. coli the ability to produce two antibiotics inhibitory to E. amylovora. The antibiotics were distinct based on their spectra of activity, differential susceptibility to the presence of histidine and arginine and antibiotic production by marker-exchange mutants of Eh318. Transposon mutagenesis and subcloning were used to delineate the Eh318 DNA that enabled E. coli to produce the two antibiotics. The smallest clone that conferred antibacterial activity was pCPP717. Its antibiotic was named pantocin A. The Eh318 insert DNA of pCPP717 revealed three predicted genes, paaA, paaB and paaC, in a 2.7 kb region. The predicted paaA gene product is similar in sequence to a group of biosynthetic enzymes that possess a dinucleotide binding motif. PaaC was judged to encode a membrane protein. The second antibiotic was named pantocin B. Its synthesis is conferred on E. coli by DNA harbored in clone pCPP719. Between 19 kb and 20 kb of Eh318 DNA is needed for the production of pantocin B. Direct Tn5- and marker-exchange mutants of Eh318, deficient in pantocin A and/or pantocin B, were created. The mutant strains were tested for biocontrol ability in immature pear fruit in the laboratory and in apple blossoms in a controlled environment chamber. Results from both assays revealed that the marker-exchange mutant deficient in both antibiotics (Eh440) protected against fire blight less well than Eh318. The single marker-exchange mutants, Eh421 (deficient in pantocin A) and Eh439 (deficient in pantocin B), were not significantly impaired in biocontrol ability, whereas three directly induced Tn5-mutants, Eh454, Eh464 and Eh468, were less effective than Eh318. Thus, pantocins contribute to but are not solely responsible for the biological control of fire blight by E. herbicola Eh318.

  • 25.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    et al.
    Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy, and University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Azarang, M.
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Falk, A.B.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Barley lesion mimics, supersusceptible or highly resistant to leaf rust and net blotch2013In: Plant Pathology, ISSN 0032-0862, E-ISSN 1365-3059, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 982-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lesion mimic mutants of plants have the feature of spontaneously displaying necrotic spots or bands on their leaves. Lesion mimics have often displayed enhanced resistance to biotrophic pathogens whilst showing increased susceptibility to necrotrophs. This paper identifies three novel, non-allelic mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare), which spontaneously form necrotic leaf lesions: Necrotic leaf spot 9.3091 (nec9.3091), Mottled leaf 8.1661 (mtt8.1661) and Mottled leaf 9.2721 (mtt9.2721). The Necrotic leaf spot 8.3550 mutant (nec8.3550), formerly known as bst1, was included in the study because it is a lesion mimic mutant belonging to the same original pool. The reactions of the mutants to the biotroph Puccinia hordei and the necrotroph Pyrenophora teres f. sp. teres were investigated. Mutants nec8.3550 and mtt8.1661 were more resistant than the parental Bowman near-isogenic line with the Rph3.c gene (Bowman Rph3.c, NGB 22452) to leaf rust, caused by P. hordei. Mutants nec8.3550, mtt8.1661 and mtt9.2721 were more susceptible than Bowman Rph3.c to net blotch, caused by P. teres f. sp. teres. Autofluorescence was detected in leaf tissues of all mutants. Based on the high expression of the PR1 and Hv-HIR genes, combined with the low susceptibility to P. hordei, nec8.3550 appears to have entered a state of systemic acquired resistance, which is quite distinct from the resistance expressed in mtt8.1661. The latter mutant has low or no expression of PR1 and Hv-HIR genes, yet it is highly resistant to rust. It is also extremely susceptible to net blotch. These mutants can serve as genetic sources of novel disease resistance for barley improvement. © 2012 British Society for Plant Pathology.

  • 26.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    et al.
    SLU Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, and Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Beer, S V
    Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Genes for biosynthesis of pantocin A and B by Pantoea agglomerans Eh3182002In: Proceedings of the 9th international workshop on fire blight, 2002, p. 237-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pantoea agglomerans strain Eh318 has been effective in biological control tests against fire blight and it inhibits the growth of Erwinia amylovora on minimal media. A double zone of inhibition on a plate containing a soft-agar overlay seeded with E. amylovora suggests the action of two distinct antibiotics, pantocin A and pantocin B. The structural characterization of pantocin A is underway, whereas that of pantocin B has been determined to be (R)-N-[((S)-2-Amino-propanoylamino)methyl]-2-methanesulfonyl-succinami c acid. Subcloning and transposon mutagenesis data suggested that the genetic region involved in the biosynthesis of pantocin A is 2.7 kb at most, while that of pantocin B is at least 18.5 kb. The open reading frames (ORF) found within the pantocin A biosynthetic region were designated paaA, paaB and paaC There is also a small ORF present upstream of the paaABC operon. The genes of the operon are similar in organization and, in the case of paaA, in DNA sequence to those involved in microcin C7 biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Sequencing of the 18.5 kb biosynthetic region for pantocin B has commenced. Results thus far indicate that the region contains genes with putative amino acid sequence similarity to enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of and resistance to other antibiotics. Marker-exchange mutants of Eh318 deficient in the production of pantocin A (Eh421; PanA-), pantocin B (Eh439; PanB-) or both antibiotics (Eh440; PanAB-) were created. Strain Eh440 (PanAB-) was only marginally less effective than Eh318 in several immature pear fruit tests.

  • 27.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology. Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    de Felice, D.V.
    Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Ianiri, G.
    Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Pinedo-Rivilla, C.
    Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    De Curtis, F.
    Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Castoria, R.
    Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Two rapid assays for screening of patulin biodegradation2014In: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1735-1472, E-ISSN 1735-2630, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1387-1398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mycotoxin patulin is produced by the blue mould pathogen Penicillium expansum in rotting apples during postharvest storage. Patulin is toxic to a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, fungi and bacteria. Wash water from apple packing and processing houses often harbours patulin and fungal spores, which can contaminate the environment. Ubiquitous epiphytic yeasts, such as Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae strain LS11 which is a biocontrol agent of P. expansum in apples, have the capacity to resist the toxicity of patulin and to biodegrade it. Two non-toxic products are formed. One is desoxypatulinic acid. The aim of the work was to develop rapid, high-throughput bioassays for monitoring patulin degradation in multiple samples. Escherichia coli was highly sensitive to patulin, but insensitive to desoxypatulinic acid. This was utilized to develop a detection test for patulin, replacing time-consuming thin layer chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. Two assays for patulin degradation were developed, one in liquid medium and the other in semi-solid medium. Both assays allow the contemporary screening of a large number of samples. The liquid medium assay utilizes 96-well microtiter plates and was optimized for using a minimum of patulin. The semi-solid medium assay has the added advantage of slowing down the biodegradation, which allows the study and isolation of transient degradation products. The two assays are complementary and have several areas of utilization, from screening a bank of microorganisms for biodegradation ability to the study of biodegradation pathways.

  • 28.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Jin, M.
    Rockefeller University NY, USA.
    Clardy, J.
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Beer, S. V.
    Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    The Biosynthetic genes of pantocin A and pantocin B of Pantoea agglomerans Eh3182006In: Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Fire Blight, 2006, p. 313-319Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pantocin A and pantocin B are low-molecular weight, peptide-based antibiotics that are produced in minimal media by the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans, which are inhibitory to the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. Pantocin A and pantocin B are members of a family of antibiotics whose toxicity is inhibited by certain amino acids. They inhibit enzymes in pathways for histidine and arginine biosynthesis, respectively. The biosynthetic gene cluster for pantocin A was sequenced, and it is 2.84 kb in size. It contains a small gene (paaP) that encodes a thirty-amino acid precursor peptide and three genes, paaA, paaB and paaC that encode the enzymes necessary to process the precursor into pantocin A. PaaC is proposed to be responsible for resistance to pantocin A. The determinants for pantocin B biosynthesis are encoded in a cluster of 13 open reading frames (PabA through pabM within a 17.5 kb region. Functions are proposed for the individual gene products, based on DNA sequence homology and on the chemical structure of pantocin B. PabA is similar to multidrug resistance proteins (like YqjV of Bacmus subtilis) and is likely responsible for pantocin B resistance. However, pabB, pabC and pabD may also encode resistance determinants. The products of the pabJKLM operon are believed to be involved in the addition of the methyl sulfonyl moiety of pantocin B. Cryptic transposase genes are found within and outside of the biosynthetic region, and the G+C ratio is lower inside than outside of the cluster. Thus, the pantocin B biosynthetic region may be a genomic island whose DNA originated from other organisms and was generated through two separate transposition events.

  • 29.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Rönnander, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Novel biodegradation of vanillin by a woodinhabiting isolate of Cystobasidium sp.2018In: Book of abstracts: International Specialized Symposium on Yeasts ISSY 34, 2018, p. 114-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cystobasidium species are mostly found in temperate or cold environments. They have been isolated from a wide range of habitats: plants, soils, rocks, aquatic environments and indoor dust. The genus Cystobasidium mainly consists of species of red yeasts in the Rhodotorula minuta clade. These basidiomycetous yeast species are commonly found in temperate to cold regions. In the present study, two strains of Cystobasidium sp. were isolated from decaying wood of housing on the Faroe Islands, where the average yearly temperature ranges from 2°C to 13°C. The sequences of the two strains had two identical gaps within the ITS1ހ5.8SހITS2 region and a second gap within the D1/D2 LSU unit, when aligned to those of C. laryngis CBS 2221, their closest match. The isolates were designated as Cystobasidium sp. Both isolates converted vanillin into vanillyl alcohol in the presence of oxygen. The biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi, but to our knowledge, it has not previously been reported for any basidiomycetous yeast species. Rhodotorula rubra, a distantly related basidiomycetous yeast converts vanillin into vanillic acid. In the present study, the two isolates of Cystobasidium sp. did not produce any trace of vanillic acid, as determined by LC-MS, 1HހNMR and GC. Oxidizing vanillin into vanillic acid should be preferred by the fungi, since it results in more chemical energy, as compared to reducing it to vanillyl alcohol. The fungus may choose this pathway to escape the toxicity of both vanillin and vanillic acid. Vanillin has antimicrobial activity, and vanillic acid is more toxic than vanillyl alcohol. Vanillin is a constituent of the lignin molecule. Cystobasidium species are commonly found in the phyllosphere. Their ability to utilize plant chemicals should render them successful competitors on plants and wood.

  • 30.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    et al.
    Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Zumoff, C H
    Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Schneider, L
    Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Beer, S V
    Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Pantoea agglomerans strain EH318 produces two antibiotics that inhibit Erwinia amylovora in vitro2001In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 284-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pantoea agglomerans (synonym: Erwinia herbicola) strain Eh318 produces through antibiosis a complex zone of inhibited growth in an overlay seeded with Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight, This zone is caused by two antibiotics, named pantocin A and B. Using a genomic library of Eh318, two cosmids, pCPP702 and pCPP704, were identified that conferred on Escherichia coli the ability to inhibit growth of E. amylovora. The two cosmids conferred different antibiotic activities on E. coil DH5 alpha. and had distinct restriction enzyme profiles. A smaller, antibiotic-conferring DNA segment from each cosmid was cloned, Each subclone was characterized and mutagenized with transposons to generate clones that were deficient in conferring pantocin A and B production, respectively. Mutated subclones were introduced into Eh318 to create three antibiotic-detective marker exchange mutants: strain Eh421 (pantocin A deficient); strain Eh439 (pantocin B deficient), and Eh440 (deficient in both pantocins), Cross-hybridization results, restriction maps, and spectrum-of-activity data using the subclones and marker exchange mutants, supported the presence of two distinct antibiotics, pantocin A and pantocin B, whose biosynthetic genes were present in pCPP702 and pCPP704, respectively. The structure of pantocin A is unknown, whereas that of pantocin B has been determined as (R)-N-[((S)-2-amino-propanoylamino)-methyl]-2-methanesulfonyl-succinam ic acid. The two pantocins mainly affect other enteric bacteria, based on limited testing.

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