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  • 1.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Predictors of Well-being at work2016Ingår i: Scientific Programme: Wellbeing at Work 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity. Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. About 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. In order to achieve a sustainable working life it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.ObjectivesThe present study is a part of a larger study (the GodA –study; a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) and aims to investigate how work environment factors, work ability, work motivation, work and life balance predict well-being at work.

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study in Sweden with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. A baseline questionnaire was sent out 2013 and the results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their results. In spring 2015 a follow up survey has been administered. Data have been analysed with univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

    Results

    A baseline multivariate linear regression model, which included background factors, perceived psychosocial work climate and work environmental factors (motivation, leadership, employee responsibilities, efficacy, work ability and management committed to employee health) and work life balance, showed that psychosocial work climate (B= .48, 95% CI=.27 – .69) leadership, (B= .27, 95% CI=.05– .49), work ability (B= -.12, 95% CI= .03 – .21), motivation (B= -33, 95% CI= .14 – .51) and work life balance (B= -.34, 95% CI=-.57– -.12), were signifi-cantly associated with well-being at work and explained 40% of the variance (Adjusted R2=.40, p<.001).

    Conclusions

    Results showed that not only work environment factors are important predictors. To maintain a healthy work place a promotion of balance between work and private life is needed.

  • 2.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Predictors of well-being at work2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The concept of healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity. Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. About 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. In order to achieve a sustainable working life it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    The present study is a part of a larger study (the GodA –study; a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) and aims to investigate how work environment factors, work ability, work motivation, work and life balance predict well-being at work.

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study in Sweden with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. A baseline questionnaire was sent out 2013 and the results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their results. In spring 2015 a follow up survey has been administered. Data from the baseline measurements have been analysed with univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

    Results

    A baseline multivariate linear regression model, which included background factors, perceived psychosocial work climate and work environmental factors (motivation, leadership, employee responsibilities, efficacy, work ability and management committed to employee health) and work life balance, showed that psychosocial work climate (B= .48, 95% CI=.27 – .69) leadership, (B= .27, 95% CI=.05– .49), work ability  (B= -.12, 95% CI= .03 – .21), motivation (B= -33, 95% CI= .14 – .51) and work life balance (B= -.34, 95% CI=-.57– -.12), were significantly associated with well-being at work and explained 40% of the variance  (Adjusted R2=.40, p<.001). Results from the two-year follow up will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusions

    Results showed that not only work environment factors are important predictors. To maintain ahealthy work place apromotion ofbalancebetween workand private life is needed.

  • 3.
    Ericsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University and Hospital, Sweden .
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oudin, Anna
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University and Hospital, Sweden .
    Wahlström, Jens
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University and Hospital, Sweden .
    Reliability testing of two ergonomic risk assessment tools2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Quick Exposure Check (QEC¹) and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA²) are two ergonomic risk assessment tools that have been designed to be useful for ergonomists assessing musculoskeletal risk factors in upper extremities at workplaces.

    AIM

    The aim was to describe the variation between and within ergonomists assessments using QEC and RULA, and to compare the two tools regarding within-observer agreement.

    SUBJECTS & METHODS

    Twenty ergonomists observed five different work tasks twice with three weeks in between, watching video clips. They made ergonomic risk assessments using both QEC and RULA.

    The observed work tasks were: Window replacement, nailing a wooden pallet, toilet cleaning, instrumentation in an operating theatre, and sorting post.

    For the statistical analyses, percent agreement and kappa value was used.

    RESULTS

    There was a variation in assessments between the ergonomists in all positions and movements both when using QEC and RULA, except from assessing armposition when observing window replacement using QEC, where all ergonomists assessed the same position (figure 1).

    The ergonomists had higher percent agreement between observation one and two using QEC compared with RULA (table 1).

    CONCLUSION

    There was a variation when assessing positions and movements in different worktasks both between ergonomists and within the same ergonomist using both QEC and RULA. However the agreement between two observations within observers was higher for QEC.

  • 4.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council .
    Eliasson, Kristina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Nyman, Teresia
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge .
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Balliu, Natalja
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Inter-ergonomist Reliability in Rating Risk Level - without any Specific Method - in Ten Video Recorded Work Tasks2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Introduction

    Recently, 30 observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures at work were evaluated through a literature review (Takala et al., 2010). It was found that several methods are insufficiently tested in terms of validity and reliability. In only in a few cases have estimates of the components of the methods been validated against technical measurements. Also comparisons between methods' resulting risk levels are rare. Swedish Work Environment Authority has recently increased the demands on ergonomic risk assessments. These assessments are usually made by ergonomists in occupational health services (OHS).

    This study is included in a larger on-going project, with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures of repetitive work in respect of validity, reliability and usability, as well as provide information on which of the methods are best suited for practitioners in risk assessment of repetitive work. The methods' resulting risk levels are compared not only to each other, but also to ergonomists’ “own” risk estimates (i.e., done without any specific method). The specific aim of this sub-study was to investigate the inter-observer reliability of ergonomists’ own risk estimates.

    2.  Methods

    Nine OHS-ergonomists, all with more than 5 years of experience of general ergonomic risk assessments, made risk assessments of 10 different video-recorded (2-6 minutes) work-tasks (supermarket work, meat cutting and packing, engine assembly, cleaning, post sorting and hairdressing). Video sequences of two or three camera angles were synchronized and showed together. For each work-task, the ergonomists were given data of the work task length (see Table 1), pause- and rests schedules, weights of handled goods, physical factors, and the employees own ratings of discomfort, work demands and own control.

    The ergonomist could pause the playback as needed, the maximum allocated time per work-task assessment was 20 minutes. The risk of musculoskeletal disorders and need for improvements was rated into green (no risk), yellow (investigate further), and red (immediate risk) categories. Ratings were done for 8 specific body regions: neck, lower back, right and left shoulders, -arms/elbows, and -wrists/hands), and for one over-all risk level.

    The agreement of the ratings (in percent), and Light’s multi-observer kappa (i.e. Cohen’s pairwise kappa averaged over all pairs; Light, 1971; Cohen, 1960) were calculated per body region and for the over-all risk assessment.

    3.  Results

    For the 720 (9 ergonomists, 8 body regions, 10 work tasks) risk assessments of the separate body regions, 37% were green, 44% yellow and 19% red. For over-all risk assessments (Table 1), 14% were green, 50% yellow and 36% red.

    Table 1. Work tasks, hours per work task per work day, and the ergonomists ratings of over risk            

    As seen in Table 1, the consistency between the observers differed markedly.  For three of the work tasks all three categories were represented, only in one task all ergonomists rated the over-all risk equally. The average agreement of the ratings were 48% regarding the body regions, and 57% regarding the over-all risk assessments, Light’s kappa was 0.18 and 0.30, respectively.

    4.  Discussion

    The results showed fair inter-observer reliability according to Altman’s table for interpretation of kappa (kappa between 0.21 and 0.40; Altman, 1991). These kappa values will, in the major project, be compared to those of six systematic observation methods.

    5.  References

    Altman DG (1991) Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman and Hall.

    Cohen J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1960;20(1):37–46.

    Light RJ. Measures of response agreement for qualitative data: Some generalizations and alternatives. Psychological Bulletin. 1971;76(5):365–377.

    Takala EP et al. 2010. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work. Scand J Work E

  • 5.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rhén, Ida-Märta
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Balliu, Natalya
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Nyman, Teresia
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reliability in twelve ergonomists’ three-category risk ratings in ten video recorded work tasks.2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Work Environment Authority has recently increased the demands on ergonomic risk assessments. These assessments are usually made by ergonomists in occupational health services (OHS). Although they are many observational methods that may be used (Takala, Pehkonen et al. 2010), the ergonomists often do risk assessment by sole observation, based on his/her own knowledge and experience, without the use of any specific method.

    This study is included in a larger on-going OBS project, with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures of repetitive work in respect of validity, reliability and usability, as well as provide information on which of the methods are best suited for practitioners in risk assessment of repetitive work. The methods' resulting risk levels will be compared not only to each other, but also to the ergonomists’ “own” assessments (without any specific method) of the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders.

    The specific aim of this sub-study was to investigate the inter-observer reliability of ergonomists’ own risk assessments without any specific method

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Managerial masculinity : an issue for wellbeing at work.: Reflections on the borderline between middle level management and fathering, using life-history method.2016Ingår i: Scientific Programme: Wellbeing at Work 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    In this paper we reflect on potential linkages within and between masculinity, management and wellbeing. The aim is to reveal the tensions in which technocratic managerial masculinity faces difficulties when combined with fathering and its consequences for wellbeing, both on individual- and family level.

    Methods

    Audio-recorded life-history interviews were conducted with employees, at three companies in Sweden during spring 2014. One of them was with a former manager, also a father, which is the subject of this paper. The tran-scribed interview formed the basis of an individual case study that was interpretive analyzed using a gender theoretic approach.

    Results

    Managerial masculinity is revealed as obstacles such as hegemonic expectations of not being good enough which is emerging in contradictive situations between hospital visits and office deadlines. To cope with hege-monic masculinity displaced in a contradictive cornerstone the embodiment of thoughts, ideas and experien-ces became transformed into a wish to quit the leadership assignment, a process in which support from colle-agues, relatives and friends were recognized as important. The decision to quit was immediately followed by a relief, but over time became mixed-up with sorrowful feelings of lack. Looking back at the event makes a shift in value-system prominent: The informant’s self-understanding has been transformed from prioritizing level of sa-lary and the value of money to instead emphasize broader values in life expressed in terms of family wellbeing.

    Conclusion

    Through the tensions that emerge from ‘changing faces of masculinity’ the capacity to navigate life is reshaped. As long as hegemonic masculinity is taken for granted it is difficult to challenge and question it. But when ideas, experiences and feelings are transformed from a personal- to a cultural level they become possible to share with others: a process of exchange through which alternative ways of doing are crystallized. Personal experi-ences are thus transformed into collective possessions and given new meanings. We interpret the exchange of thoughts and ideas as expression of supportive interaction, shown to prompt new kinds of enactment in personal lives – thus a potential for wellbeing at work

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rethinking potential connection between gender, work- and family life and how to link the emerging reasoning to well-being2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How women and men negotiate roles and relationships is crucial for having the potential to combine paid work with other parts of their life. How women and men actually do this can be understood as constrained by what women and men are expected to do. Earlier research on organizational working patterns has revealed links between such constraints and gender relations (Acker, 1990). ”Processes of transformation” (Gustafsson, 2007) is a theoretical concept that will be used here in this paper to explore a potential connection between working life and family life, as varying and gendered. How these two spheres of life are situationally connected will have implications for well-being. It is this theoretical reasoning that will be illustrated in this paper, how it works in practice, through the use of empirical examples from an ongoing larger study on work and health.

    In mainstream literature, the term “work–life balance” is frequently used, often in very simplified ways, concealing underlying dynamism and complexity. “Women” as a group and “men” as a group are often seen as fixed, unproblematic gender categories, classifying bodies and therewith define gender. It is therefore not surprising that gender categoricalism can become the basis in occupational health. If categorical thinking on gender is parked on the top of biological difference, gender relations and “roles” correspond with natural differences and thus serve to mask how underlying gender relations, contradictive and ambivalent, produce and reproduce men’s privileged position simultaneously with women’s subordination (Connell, 1987). Using categorical thinking on gender risk to become contradictive, since expected change in health promotion programs at work may fail.

    To understand how a balance can be struck between work and family-life obligations, contradictions and ambivalences need to be made visible and gender variations as well as nuances have to be sought for. We herewith call for a re-thinking of how the connection between gender, work, family and well-being can be seen and practiced through occupational health policy. An analytical tool able to facilitate this re-thinking in occupational health practices will be suggested in this paper. We are convinced that it is this kind of concepts that are needed right now in order to mobilize an acceleration of ongoing gender transformation that would contribute to improve health and well-being, both in work and family spheres of life.

    This paper is part of a comprehensive intervention study on occupational health and well-being among blue- and white-collar workers, both women and men, in three companies in Sweden. In the baseline questionnaire, the employees mentioned that work–life balance is most significant for them as they strive to achieve well-being and health. This is the motivation for a study whose overall purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of potential linkages between gender, work and family, and well-being. The aim of this paper is threefold. First, it focuses on how employed women and men “do gender” when combining earning and caring activities and looks at the contributions or limitations or both. Second, it considers how the gender regime can be seen as providing a context for various gender-related limitations and opportunities, and differences and similarities between the employed women and men in three companies in Sweden. Third, it illuminates an alternative approach for combining gender, work, family and well-being.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Anderzen, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Using gender as analytical tool in an analysis of a manager's health: Reflection on life-history method2016Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, nr Suppl. 1, s. S64-S64, artikel-id O197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It is a lack of research on the meanings of genderdynamism in relation to manager’s health in Sweden.The purpose of this paper was therefore to reflect on whether gender form, -content and/or, -arena, either contribute to reproduce or transform surrounding condition on the job and in the family and also its consequences for health, both on individual and family level.

    Methods: A semi-structured life-history interview was conducted with aformer manager on the basis of gender theory and written verbatim into a transcript. A life-history case was elaborated using gender as an analytical tool. By sorting and comparing already gendered life events, both on the job and in the family, the main findings evolved.

    Results: Paradoxically a turning point in Jan’s life became prominent with a personal crisis, and this was explained by how several minor shifts of genderedform,-content and -arena co-occurred.This resulted in that a gender neutral form of agency appeared possible to try out in practice. When this was done the conditions on the job and in the family were shaped in accordance with what is meant with good lives for all.

    Conclusion: In most gender research the force of gender is limited due to its cross-sectional focus through time. But with the life-history research gender relations become prominent in its multiplicity, illuminating minor shifts of ongoing processes of transformation, understood as patterns of agency.

  • 9.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosoltechnology, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Validity of a computer-based risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2019Ingår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, s. 180-187Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To describe the development of a computer-based risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, and assess its face validity, content validity, and internal consistency.

    Methods

    The risk assessment method contained a questionnaire for the worker, an evaluation form for the evaluator, a section of follow-up questions based on the worker's responses, and a section for recommended changes, including an overall risk assessment with respect to daylight, lighting, illuminance, glare, flicker, work space, work object and work postures, respectively. Forty-eight trained evaluators used the method to perform 224 workplace evaluations. Content validity of the method was assessed by the completeness and distribution of responses, and internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's rank correlation between items and indices, and exploratory factor analysis.

    Results

    The proportion of missing values in items was generally low (questionnaire: 0–2.3%; evaluation form: 1.4–4.1%). In the questionnaire, items about double vision, migraine and corrective lenses had limited information content. Cronbach's alpha and item-index correlations for the indices frequency of eyestrain, intensity of eyestrain, visual symptoms, lighting conditions, frequency of musculoskeletal discomfort and intensity of musculoskeletal discomfort were satisfactory. Based on the factor analysis, suggestions for improving some of the indices were made.

    Conclusion

    Our findings suggest that this computer-based method is a valid instrument for assessing risks in the visual work environment. By incorporating subjective ratings by the worker as well as objective measurements of the work environment, it provides a good basis for recommendations with respect to daylight, lighting, work surfaces/material, and work object.

    Relevance to industry

    Visual environment factors, such as glare, can cause eyestrain, headache and musculoskeletal discomfort. This method satisfies the need of a valid tool for determining risks associated with the visual work environment. It contains both worker's ratings and objective measurements, and is designed to be used in different types of work.

  • 10.
    Hemphäla, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A method for assessing risks in visual ergonomics2015Ingår i: Creating Sustainable Work-environments: Proceedings of NES2015, NEHF , 2015, s. B1-1-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    A method for risk assessment in the field of visual ergonomics is under development. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. Although the relation between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in the neck and shoulders (trapezius); associations between visually demanding work, eye problems, headaches and/or muscle problems have also been found (Aarås et al., 2001; IESNA, 2011; Zetterlund et al., 2009; Zetterberg et al., 2013; Toomingas et al., 2013; Richter et al., 2011; Richter et al., 2015). Problems due to insufficient visual ergonomics not only exist in computer intensive work, but in other professions as well, such as surgeons and postal workers (Hemphälä et al., 2011; Hemphälä et al.,2012).

    The aim of this project is to develop a practical, easy-to-use, and time efficient risk assessment method for visual ergonomics. With this method, risk factors in the visual environment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers.

    Methods

    A first version of the risk assessment method has already been developed. In the spring of 2015, 27 ergonomists were taught visual ergonomics and introduced to the method. After the course, each ergonomist used the method to assess 8-10 workplaces, providing data and practical experiences from approximately 250 risk assessments. These data will be used to further develop and improve the method. During the fall of 2015 and spring of 2016, two other groups, each consisting of 30 ergonomists, will be trained in using the revised version of the risk assessment method in approximately 10 workplaces each. Data from these assessments will be used to test the validity and reliability of the method.

    Results

    The first version of the risk assessment method for visual ergonomics will be presented at NES 2015 together with the results from the approximately 250 risk assessments made by the first group of ergonomists. So far, the factors included in the method are objective measurements of illuminance, luminance contrast, illuminance uniformity values, size of work object, visual angle; expert assessment of the risk for glare; and subjective ratings of visual ability, eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. Some tendencies have been found of correlations between an objectively-rated high risk for glare and eyestrain/headache, as well as between a high contrast glare/luminance ratio and eyestrain.

    Conclusion

    Several factors in the visual environment contribute to wellbeing and the level of performance. In this risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, ergonomists have been trained to evaluate, for example, the risk for glare, as one of the major risks. The risk assessment method presented will be discussed in relation to its usefulness in the prevention of discomfort and work-related disorders at workplaces.

  • 11.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2016Ingår i: NES2016 - ERGONOMICS IN THEORY AND PRACTICE - Proceedings of 48th Annual Conference of Nordic Ergonomics and Human Factors Society / [ed] Susanna Järvelin-Pasanen, Kuopio: School of Medicine , Faculty of Health Sciences : University of Eastern Finland , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The visual environment can affect our wellbeing in many ways. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort that in turn could lead to sick leave. Non-visual effects, such as flicker from luminaires can cause eyestrain or headache/migraine. Glare from luminaires or windows within the visual field can cause disability glare or discomfort glare. Glare while performing computer tasks causes visual fatigue and leads to strabismus measured with fixation disparity (harder for the eyes to focus). Strabismus leads to eyestrain, and eyestrain can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort.Although the relation between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in the neck and shoulders (muscle trapezius); associations between visually demanding work, eye problems, headaches and/or muscle problems have also been found.The aim of this project is to develop a practical, easy-to-use, and time efficient risk assessment method for visual ergonomics. With this method, risk factors in the visualenvironment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers.The developed visual ergonomics risk analysis method has been used at several work places by ergonomists that have been educated in visual ergonomics. The results from the subjective part of the method show that many individuals report eyestrain and headache. This can be caused by many different factors such as wrong power in lenses, glare, flickering lights etc. Therefore it is essential that if you have a visually demanding work (such as computer work) you have to do eye examinations every other year to make sure that your vision is at its best. But the lighting situation at workplaces is also a key factor to consider in a good visual environment, to increase the level of performance. To increase wellbeing at work and reduce sick leave the visual environment needs to be good, with sufficient illuminance, a good luminance ratio, no glare from luminaires or windows,no flicker, and a good visibility of the work task. Education in risk analysis of the visual environment is essential for many different occupations such as lighting designers, ergonomists, working life inspectors, optometrists, to ensure a better understanding of the impact on wellbeing that the visual environment have.The researchers behind this study will have a finished visual ergonomics risk analysis method by the year of 2017.

  • 12.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odenrick, Per
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A method for risk assessment within Visual Ergonomics2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association: Reaching Out / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard and Dave Moore, 2015, s. nr 1203-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased work load and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort, since “the eye leads the body” (Anshel, 2005). It has been shown that visually demanding work, such as computer work, is associated with eye discomfort, headaches and muscle pains in mainly the neck and shoulders (Rosenfield, 2011).

    Although the relation between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in neck and shoulders (trapezius), and an association between visually demanding work, eye problems, headache and/or muscle problems have been found (Aarås et al., 2001; IESNA, 2011, Richter et al., 2008; Zetterberg et al., 2013). Problems due to insufficient visual ergonomics not only exist in computer intensive jobs, but in other professions as well. For example, surgeons and other surgical personnel that report eyestrain also report twice as much musculoskeletal discomfort from the upper part of the body (Hemphälä et al., 2011). In an intervention study among postmen, both eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased after a visual ergonomic intervention. The intervention included providing customized eyeglasses and optimal lighting conditions (Hemphälä et al., 2012). Apart from health and well-being being affected by a poor visual ergonomic work environment, quality and productivity may also be reduced (Eklund, 2009).

    The aim of this paper is to present the first version of a practical, easy-to-use, and time-efficient risk assessment method for visual ergonomics. The development of the method including the evaluation will also be described. With such a method, risk factors within the visual environment can hopefully be detected, and interventions implemented in order to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers.

    Methods

    A first version of the method has been developed, mainly based on existing checklists and instruments (Colon et al. 1999; Børsting et al., 2008, Knave et al., 1985, Sheedy and Shaw-McMinn, 2002; Wilson & Corlett, 2005). During spring 2015, 30 ergonomists will be updated about visual ergonomics and introduced to the risk assessment method. Each ergonomist will thereafter use the method in 10 workplaces, yielding data and practical experiences from 300 risk assessments. These data will then be used to test the validity and reliability of the method, and if necessary to further develop it.

    Results

    The first version of the risk assessment method for Visual Ergonomics will be presented at IEA 2015, together with results from the approximately 300 risk assessments made by the ergonomists. So far, the factors included in the method are objective measurements such as illuminance, luminance contrast, uniformity values, expert assessment of the risk for glare, and subjective ratings of the visual ability, eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort.

    Discussion

    The presented method will be compared to other similar methods. The used method for development will be discussed in relation to validity and reliability. Finally the presented risk assessment method will be discussed in relation to usefulness in prevention of discomfort and work related disorders at work places.

  • 13.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lindberg, per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm.
    A method for assessing risks within visual ergonomics2014Ingår i: 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organisational Design and Management & 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference: Track: F - Tools & methods, Session: F1 - Risk management, Santa Monica, CA, USA: The IEA PRESS , 2014, s. 111-112Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Introduction

    Insufficient visual ability can lead to strained work load for employees and can contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort, “the eye leads the body” (Anshel, 2005). An optimal visual environment provides physical conditions for work in the best possible way. Visually demanding work, such as computer work, is associated with eye discomfort, headaches and muscle pains in mainly the neck and shoulders (Rosenfield, 2011). For computer workers in North America studies show that 75-90 % of the workers reported subjective symptoms from the eyes (Anshel, 2005). The causality between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, but studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in neck and shoulders (trapezius), and a link between visually demanding work, eye problems, headache and/or muscle problems have been found (Aarås et al., 2001; Richter et al., 2008; Zetterlund et al., 2009; Zetterberg et al., 2013). A study of call-center workers in Sweden showed that 21% of workers have both eyes and neck problems (Wiholm et al., 2007). Ergonomic problems also exist for professions where computer work is not dominant. Surgeons and other surgical personnel, with subjective eye discomfort, reported twice the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders when compared with staff without eye symptoms (Hemphälä et al., 2011). In an intervention study among postmen the eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased after visual ergonomic interventions including customized eyeglasses and optimal lighting conditions (Hemphälä et al., 2012). Apart from health and well-being being affected by a poor visual ergonomic work environment, the quality and productivity are also involved (Eklund, 2009).

    Lighting is an important factor; both the lighting quantity (strength) and quality (e.g. light distribution, direction, glare and contrast). Too low illumination makes it difficult to see clearly and may thus lower performance, high illuminance can cause glare and lead to increased eye fatigue and decreased productivity (IESNA, 2011).

    2.  Methods

    There are several factors to consider when developing a method for visual ergonomics risk assessment of subjective symptoms and discomfort of the eyes (Colon et al. 1999; Børsting et al., 2008, Knave et al., 1985). There are also checklists used in eye exams or medical appointments (Sheedy and Shaw-McMinn, 2002; Wilson & Corlett, 2005). These will be used as basis in the presents the project intended to develop a risk assessment instrument for visual ergonomics.

    3.  Results

    A preliminary version of a risk analysis method for Visual Ergonomics has been developed and will be presented, with a focus on discussing with the audience which factors should primarily be included. The factors included so far in the method are the objective measurements such as illuminance, luminance contrast, uniformity values, expert assessment of the risk for glare; indirect measurements such as subjective ratings of the visual ability, eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. The goal is to develop a practical time efficient method that is easy to use. With such a tool, actions needed to reduce the visual load among the workers, the companies and the society’s negative consequences induced by work-related eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort can hopefully be identified.

  • 14.
    Hämphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomi och aerosolteknologi, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    A risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, VERAM2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A valid, reliable, practical and easy-to-use risk assessment method for visual ergonomics named VERAM (Visual Ergonomics Risk Analysis Method) has been developed. With this method, risk factors in the visual environment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers can be evaluated.

    The visual environment can affect our wellbeing in many ways. Glare from luminaires or windows within the visual field can cause disability glare or discomfort glare. Glare while performing computer tasks causes visual fatigue and leads to strabismus measured with fixation disparity (harder for the eyes to focus). Strabismus leads to eyestrain, and eyestrain can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort.  Non-visual effects, such as flicker from luminaires can cause eyestrain or headache/migraine. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort that in turn could lead to sick leave. As human beings, we need daylight to get a normal circadian rhythm. The visual environment needs to be designed to allow daylight entering, but have a possibility to prevent disturbing daylight.

    No method for evaluating the visual environment together with the individual’s subjective strain has previously existed. Personnel from occupational health departments (75 individuals) have used the developed visual ergonomics risk analysis method at several work places. Before using the method they were given a course in visual ergonomics and taught how to use the method.

    VERAM consists of two main parts. The first part is a subjective questionnaire with questions regarding the individual’s problem such as eyestrain and headache, but also their rating of the visual environment.

    The second objective part is performed by the assessors and consists of:

    • measuring the illuminance and luminance
    • rating of the visual environment and different risks (risk for glare, flicker, work task, daylight, work posture etc.)
    • Feedback from the subjective part, the light measurements and the ratings
    • Recommendations

    To increase wellbeing at work and reduce sick leave, the visual environment needs to be good. This includes sufficient illuminance, a good luminance ratio, no glare from luminaires or windows, no flicker, and a good visibility of the work task. Education in risk analysis of the visual environment is essential for many different occupations such as lighting designers, ergonomists, working life inspectors, optometrists, to ensure a better understanding of the impact on wellbeing that the visual environment have. The main purposes of this study is to develop a visual environment risk analysis method and to increase the awareness and knowledge visual ergonomics.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Bo
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordquist, Tobias
    Uppsala University Hospital, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Leijon, Ola
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Work and health among native and foreign-born residents in Sweden 1990-2008: a register-based study on hospitalization for common potentially work-related disorders, disability pension and mortality2012Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 845-854Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are many immigrants in the Swedish workforce, but knowledge of their general and work-related health is limited. The aim of this register-based study was to explore whether documented migrant residents in Sweden have a different health status regarding receipt of a disability pension, mortality and hospitalization for lung, heart, psychiatric, and musculoskeletal disorders compared with the native population, and if there were variations in relation to sex, geographical origin, position on the labor market, and time since first immigration.

    Methods: This study included migrants to Sweden since 1960 who were 28-47 years old in 1990, and included 243 860 individuals. The comparison group comprised a random sample of 859 653 native Swedes. These cohorts were followed from 1991 to 2008 in national registers. The immigrants were divided into four groups based on geographic origin. Hazard ratios for men and women from different geographic origins and with different employment status were analyzed separately for the six outcomes, with adjustment for age, education level, and income. The influence of length of residence in Sweden was analyzed separately.

    Results: Nordic immigrants had increased risks for all investigated outcomes while most other groups had equal or lower risks for those outcomes than the Swedes. The lowest HRs were found in the EU 15+ group (from western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand). All groups, except Nordic immigrants, had lower risk of mortality, but all had higher risk of disability pension receipt compared with native Swedes. Unemployed non-Nordic men displayed equal or lower HRs for most outcomes, except disability pension receipt, compared with unemployed Swedish men. A longer time since first immigration improved the health status of men, while women showed opposite results.

    Conclusions: Employment status and length of residence are important factors for health. The contradictory results of low mortality and high disability pension risks need more attention. There is great potential to increase the knowledge in this field in Sweden, because of the high quality registers.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Bo
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordquist, Tobias
    Uppsala University Hospital, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Leijon, Ola
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Work and health among native and foreign-born residents in Sweden 1990-2008: a register-based study on hospitalization due to common potentially work-related disorders, disability pension and mortality2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Employees' and managers' perception of a healthy workplace - interviews from three medium-sized companies2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent review by van der Noordt et al. (2014), aimed at systematically summarize the literature on the health effects of employment, strong evidence was found for a protective effect of employment as such on depression and general mental health. Another review by Lindberg & Vingård (2012), aimed at systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy working environments, defined as working environments that not just have a lack of detrimental factors at work but also yield a positive return in the form of rich job content, job satisfaction, social participation and personal development (Swedish Work Environment Authority 2010). The authors found 23 studies that either investigated employee´s views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. The most pronounced factors, considered as important for a healthy workplace were: collaboration/teamwork; growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leadership; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work (Lindberg and Vingård 2012).

    The knowledge in the field is still rather vague concerning what creates, promotes and sustains health and wellbeing at work among managers and employees and what factors might be the most important. In order to take action we need to further explore and understand these underlying factors, the “healthy work factors”. The aim of this study was therefore to explore how a sample of Swedish blue- and white collar workers describe healthy factors at work as well as understand the concept of wellbeing at work.

  • 18.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    God arbetsmiljö och välbefinnande på arbetet – en intervjustudie på tre medelstora företag2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    God arbetsmiljö och välbefinnande på arbetet: en intervjustudie på tre medelstora företag2013Ingår i: Arbetslivets föränderlighet: Individ-, organisations- och metodperspektiv / [ed] Sverke, Magnus, Stockholms universitets förlag, 2013, s. 17-17Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Under de senaste decennierna har ett promotivt perspektiv vidgat arbetsmiljödiskursen i Sverige och internationellt. Främjande faktorer antas kunna bidra till såväl individers prestation, hälsa och välbefinnande, som till företags konkurrenskraft och lönsamhet. Den här studien har för avsikt att ur ett arbetstagarperspektiv stärka kunskapen om hälsofrämjande faktorer i arbetslivet.

     

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur en grupp svenska arbetstagare tolkar och beskriver begreppet god arbetsmiljö, vad de anser ger välbefinnande på arbetet samt hur de upplever sin egen arbetsmiljö.

     

    Metod

    På tre medelstora energiföretag genomfördes fokusgrupper med medarbetarna och individuella intervjuer med chefer. Därutöver fick deltagarna svara på en kort enkät rörande demografiska data. Rekrytering till fokusgrupperna gjordes i samarbete med cheferna för de avdelningar forskarna utsett genom strategiskt urval.  Cheferna ombads att rekrytera sex fokusgruppsdeltagare med, så långt det var möjligt, olika arbetsfunktion, kön, ålder, anställningslängd och etniskt ursprung. Tre huvudteman diskuterades vid intervjuerna: 1. Vad är en god arbetsmiljö? 2. Vad ger välbefinnande på arbetet? och 3. Upplevelser av den egna arbetsmiljön. Individual- och fokusgruppsintervjuerna utfördes av försteförfattaren, vid fokusgrupperna assisterad av andreförfattaren med uppgift att ta anteckningar och ställa kompletterande frågor.

     

    Resultat

    Efter 11 fokusgrupper med 3-6 medarbetare per grupp och 10 individualintervjuer med chefer ansågs datamättnad uppnådd. Demografiska data visade att deltagarna (n=62) till 84 % bestod av män, att 58 % fanns i åldersspannet 31-49 år och att 42 % hade en anställningstid av 11 år eller mer. Vid intervjuerna beskrevs visserligen fysiska faktorer (t.ex. lokaler och utrustning) som en fundamental grund i arbetsmiljön, men att psykosociala faktorer (t.ex. kamratskap och arbetsglädje) och organisatoriska faktorer (t.ex. kommunikation, delaktighet och ledarskap) var av större vikt för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö och välbefinnande på arbetet. Ett gott kamratskap var den faktor som, i de flesta fokusgrupper, spontant nämndes först som beskrivning av en god arbetsmiljö. Den egna arbetsmiljön upplevdes generellt som god, dock med en varierande grad av förbättringsbehov.

     

    Slutsatser

    En god arbetsmiljö antas inneha en stor potential för både individer och företag. Den här studien indikerar att psykosociala och organisatoriska faktorer är av stor vikt för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö. Resultatet kan fungera vägledande i företags strävan mot en hälsofrämjande arbetsplats samt i framtida arbetsmiljöforskning.

  • 20.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Utvärdering av Ergonomi på rätt sätt - såhär gör du2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Berntson, Erik
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wellbeing at work and the development of a questionnaire2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Improved employee wellbeing has been suggested to contribute to individual motivation and health, as well as to corporate competitiveness (Grawitch et al, 2006). However, in order to reach these potential benefits, we need to better understand the underlying factors that create wellbeing at work and healthy work environments.

    Aim. The aim of the study is to explore how a sample of Swedish blue- and white collar workers interprets the concepts of healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing, as a basis for the development of a questionnaire. In addition, a second aim is to investigate the psychometric properties of the subsequent questionnaire.

    Method. Interviews focusing on healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing were undertaken with managers and employees (n=62) at three medium-sized companies. All interviews were verbatim transcribed and analyzed in order to identify factors reported as important for healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing. The interview findings, together with factors identified in a systematic review about indicators of healthy work environments (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012) were used to develop items for a questionnaire aimed at measuring underlying factors for workplace wellbeing. The questionnaire, including newly constructed “workplace wellbeing items” as well as well-established questions for employee health, working conditions, and organizational factors was distributed to all employees at the three companies, where 74 % (n=303) responded. A retest survey was distributed to a subsample of the participants. 86 % (n=107) responded. 

    Preliminary results. The interview data suggested a broad spectrum of factors to be significant for establishing healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing. These factors represented six categories: Psychosocial climate; Physical working conditions; Communication; Management; Autonomy & Competence; and Values. The survey data showed that the single most important statement for workplace wellbeing was “that work- and family life can be combined in a good way”. Further psychometric properties, including reliability and factor analysis, are being conducted and will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusion. A healthy work environment is believed to hold great potential for both individuals and companies. With a mixed method approach this study test a set of questions measuring factors for a healthy work environment and wellbeing at work.

     

    References

    Grawitch MJ, Gottschalk M, Munz DC. (2006)The path to a healthy workplace: A critical review linking healthy workplace practices, employee well-being, and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal,58(3):129-47

    Lindberg P & Vingård E. (2012). Indicators of healthy work environments – a systematic review. Work, 41(0), 3032-3038.

  • 22.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nyman, Teresia
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rhén, Ida-Märta
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Ruth
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Balliu, Natalya
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparisons of six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work - results from a consensus assessment2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During last decades several risk assessment methods for physical ergonomics have been developed. In a literature review 30 observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures at work were evaluated (1). It was found that several methods are insufficiently tested in terms of validity and reliability. Comparisons between methods' resulting risk levels are rare. The Swedish Work Environment Authority has recently emphasized the demands on risk assessments of musculoskeletal disorders (2). Practitioners mostly use observational methods to assess biomechanical risks(1). Despite a recent study comparing eight methods evaluating risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders (3), there is a lack of knowledge and guidance on which methods are the most effective and valid.

    This study is part of a larger on-going project, the OBS-project, with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures of repetitive work in respect of validity, reliability and usability. A further purpose is to provide information on which of the methods are best suited for practitioners in risk assessment of repetitive work. The specific aim of this sub-study was to investigate the agreement between six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work by comparing the risk levels as assessed by a group of experts.

  • 23.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Hälsovetenskaper, Medicinska fakulteten Lunds Universitet .
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    Region Västernorrland FoU.
    Risberg, Anitha
    Institutionen för Hälsovetenskap, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    Hann du äta?: En enkät och intervjustudie av arbetsmåltidens förutsättningar och betydelse för hälsa och välbefinnande vid skift- och schemalagt arbete med nattarbete2018Ingår i: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 129-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Ohälsosamma matvanor och stress bidrar till sjukskrivningar och nedsatt arbetsförmåga genom övervikt, hjärtkärlsjukdom, diabetes typ 2 och psykisk ohälsa. Slimmade organisationer och flexibla arbetstider begränsar möjligheten att äta hälsosamt i samband med arbete. Särskilt utsatt är personal med skift- och schemalagt arbete. Att inte kunna på-verka när man äter under arbetspasset kan öka stress och irritation, med risk för sänkt prestations- och koncentrationsförmåga. Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrifter om organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö (AFS 2015:4) syftar till att främja en god arbetsmiljö och förebygga ohälsa på grund av organisatoriska och sociala förhållanden i arbetsmiljön. Det finns ingen lagstiftning angående matrastens längd eller utformningen av matrum. Arbetsgivaren har rätt att byta ut raster mot måltidsuppehåll, det senare innebär måltid om arbetssituationen medger det. Personal med ständig larmberedskap kan arbeta en hel natt utan möjlighet att äta. Detta är tveksamt med hänsyn till hälsa, säkerhet och arbetsförmåga.

    Syfte

    Studiens syfte är 1) att få en bättre förståelse av de faktorer som påverkar möjligheten och formerna för att äta i samband med natt- och skiftarbete och de val anställda gör utifrån de förutsättningar som finns 2) att öka förståelsen av hur arbetsmåltiden påverkas av organisatoriska och psykosociala förhållanden, och måltidens betydelse för återhämtning, välbefinnande och hälsa.

    Frågeställningar

    Hur gestaltas arbetsmåltider för personal med skift- och schemalagt arbete? Vilka strat-egier och handlingsutrymmen har personalen för att planera sina arbetsmåltider? Vi kommer särskilt att uppmärksamma vad personalen äter, under vilka omständigheter de äter samt vilken betydelse måltiden har för välbefinnande och gemenskap.

    Urval och metod

    Enkät riktas till anställda med dag-, skift- och schemalagt arbete inom industri och hemtjänst. Intervjuer genomförs med chefer inom dessa verksamheter.

    Resultat

    Studien startar våren 2018 med inledande intervjuer och test av enkät till målgrupper efter arbetsplatsbesök. Under konferensen kommer vi att kortfattat sammanfatta den forskning som finns inom ramen för våra frågeställningar samt att redovisa resultat från några intervjuer med chefer.

    Genom vårt deltagande vill vi bidra till att sätta arbetsmåltiden på agendan inom arbetsmiljöforskning och diskutera med andra forskare hur de ser på arbetsmåltiden ur ett arbetsmiljöperspektiv.

  • 24.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Arbetsmiljöarbete i omvandling - positivt tillskott eller kejsarens nya kläder?2014Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots mångårigt riskeliminerande arbetsmiljöarbete drabbas 20 % i Sverige årligen av arbetsrelaterade fysiska och/eller psykiska besvär. Många orkar idag inte arbeta fram till pensionsåldern. Den demografiska utvecklingen medför dock att vi kommer att behöva arbeta längre än i dag. Det traditionella arbetsmiljöarbetets risktänkande har lärt oss hur arbetet inte skall vara. Risktänkande är en nödvändig kunskap för att förhindra ohälsa men otillräckligt i ett omstrukturerat arbetsliv där nyckelfaktorerna för framåtskridande är motivation, samarbete och kreativitet. Undvikandet av exponering för negativa förhållanden leder heller inte alltid till en positiv situation då positiva tillstånd ofta är något kvalitativt annorlunda – inte bara det omvända. För att nå ett hälsomässigt hållbart arbetsliv är det troligt att det behövs insatser från flera olika håll och av olika typ. Under särskilt det senaste decenniet, har ett främjande perspektiv utökat arbetsmiljödiskursen. ”Främjande faktorer” i arbetet antas främja både individens fysiska och psykiska hälsa och företagets konkurrenskraft och lönsamhet och därmed ge ”friska” företag/verksamheter. Vilka faktorer som verkar hälsofrämjande, liksom hur en organisation skall arbeta för att främja hälsan hos anställda och samtidigt gynna en affärsmässigt sund verksamhet, är dock ännu i sin linda. Med utgångspunkt från det s.k. GodA-projektet kommer detta att diskuteras.

  • 25.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts2018Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    God arbetsmiljö och friska arbetsplatser2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hälsa och hälsofrämjande i arbetslivet2011Ingår i: Perspektiv på kvinnors hälsa i arbetslivet / [ed] Hélène Sandmark, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, s. 33-63Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    The birth, rise and success (or fall?) of an intervention project: GodA – a project set up to test a model of the prerequisites for a healthy workplace2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of working life and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. Despite rather progressive legislation, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health personnel, still around 20% of the Swedish workforce report to have had work-related disorders other than accidents during the last year (1). Even if this "elimination approach" partly has succeeded it´s obvious that it is insufficient or inadequate for a working life where key issues for progress are motivation, cooperation and creativity (2). In order to achieve a sustainable working life, not the least to coop with issues related to the ageing population in the developed countries, it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    Healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity(3). It is noteworthy that the notion healthy workplace is not a substitute for good work environment it is a consequence. Different models, e.g. the PATH-model by Grawitch et al.(4) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual and organizational improvements can be achieved. Five general categories of healthy workplace practices were identified in the literature: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. Previous research also suggests that the link between these practices and employee and organizational outcomes is contingent on the effectiveness of communication within the organization and the alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context.

    The GodA-project aims at investigating if work place strategies in line with the PATH-model lead to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements.

    The GodA project is a 2 year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers within the energy sector. One of the companies serves as "intervention company", the other two as controls. The project started out with a pre-project, by means of focus groups and individual interviews, in 2012 in order to find out how employees and managers in the three companies describe the concept of a healthy work environment, what they consider to create well-being at work, and how they perceive their own work environment:

    What factors are important for well-being at work? presented by T. Karlsson

    In 2013 a baseline questionnaire where was sent out including items a) based on the results from the pre-study, and b) well-established questions and indices on health and work environment. The results from the survey have been reported back to the companies, which now are processing their results. Research question to be presented and discussed at the symposium:

    Is there a balance between factors of importance for wellbeing at work and the extent to which they are present at the workplace? presented by P. Lindberg.

    Is there a correlation between psychosocial work climate indicators and work-related well-

    The PATH-model emphasizes internal communication as critical in establishing a healthy workplace. As the baseline results show that the communication is not very well developed, this is the primary target for our intervention. We will demonstrate a method for how the survey data are presented back to the intervention company and how they are going to work with the results to improve their work environment, and at the same time enhance communication skills.

    After our presentation we invite the audience to discuss both the GodA-study and more general methodological issues when conducting intervention-studies, e.g:

    - When is a company ready (mature) to take part in research activities?

    - What are the pitfalls in workplace intervention studies?

    - To what degree can the researchers interact at the workplace and still be objective?

    - What is the value of focusing on the items that the employees responded to in the survey?

    References

    1. Swedish Work Environment Authority. Work -related disorders 2010 - Arbetsmiljöstatistisk Rapport 2010:4. Stockholm: Swedish Work Environment Authority. & Statistics Sweden 2010.

    2. Aronsson G, Gustafsson K, Hakanen J. On the development of a positive work-life psychology. In: Christensen M, editor. Validation and test of central concepts in positive work and organizatinal psychology The second report from the Nordic project 'Positive factors at work'. TemaNord 2009:564. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers; 2009. p. 93-4.

    3. Sauter S, Lim S, Murphy L. Organizational health: A new paradigm for occupational stress research at NIOSH. Japanese Journal of Occupational Mental Health. 1996;4:248-54.

    4. Grawitch MJ, Gottschalk M, Munz DC. The path to a healthy workplace: A critical review linking healthy workplace practices, employee well-being, and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal. 2006;58(3):129-47.

  • 29.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet.
    Berntsson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pousette, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet.
    Westlander, Gunnela
    Stockholms universitet.
    Workshop: Interventionsforskning: GodA - God arbetsmiljö och Friska företag2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Section for Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Josephson, Malin
    Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre of Public Health, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vingård, Eva
    Section for Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comparisons between five self-administered instruments predicting sick leaves in a 4-year follow-up2009Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 227-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore and compare the ability of five instruments for self-rating to predict future sick leave rates. METHODS: In three Swedish municipalities 2,252 employees completed a baseline questionnaire and were followed up for 4 years. Five health-oriented instruments for self-rating were used as potential predictors of the two outcome measures no sick leave at all, and one or more spells of long-term sick leave >/=28 days. Positive and negative predictive values as well as Cox proportional hazard ratios (denoted as RRs) adjusted for age and work type were calculated. RESULTS: The instruments showed no statistical difference in predicting future sick leave for either of the sexes. For no sick leave RRs ranged between 1.27 and 1.52 (women), 1.35 and 1.61 (men); for long-term sick leave RRs ranged between 1.78 and 2.39 (women), 2.87 and 5.53 (men). However, the best prediction of long-term sick leave for men, RR 5.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.37-9.08, was significantly higher than the best prediction for women, RR 2.39, 95% CI 1.97-2.90. CONCLUSION: Prediction of long-term sick leave was better than that of no sick leave, and better among men than among women. There was a tendency for somewhat better prediction of future sick leave by multiple-question instruments, but single-question instruments can very well be used in predicting future sick leaves, and crude analyses stratified by sex can be used for screening purposes.

  • 31.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The process of work environmental changes in manufacturing companies2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    For survival reasons, the process of change is ever-present in companies. If well conducted it can create commitment, new knowledge and skills as well as meet workers need for development. To succeed it is crucial to understand how changes come about.

     

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate how changes, especially improvements of work environment issues, within manufacturing companies are initiated, processed and implemented.

     

    Methods

    Twelve managers in charge of work environment issues, representing twelve randomly selected small, medium and large manufacturing companies within the wood-, paper-, metal-, and steel sectors in central Sweden were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed.

     

    Results

     The managers described work environmental changes as a continuous process of development, central for the company’s competitiveness. Economic incentives were the prime driving force for change. The organisational structure was considered as a key factor for initiating and implementing changes, and it was described how hierarchical structures had been transformed into more self-managing structures where the individuals, as well as the group, now had extended responsibilities.

     As internal driving forces for change the managers described how many ideas came from the employees, and that informal communication was a key concept in order to take advantage of the employees’ ideas and creativity. External driving forces were rather customer requirements like quality- and environmental certifications than legislative requirements.

    Common obstacles during the process of change were issues of economy, poor communication, employee resistance and inactive management.  

    The managers regarded the evaluation of implemented changes, in general, as poor and mainly concentrated on obvious economical issues. Reasons for this were time constraints, and that customer matters always were prioritized over internal processes.

     

    Conclusions

    In order for consultants, authorities or researchers to address change and development at companies it is necessary to understand how these organisations perceive, think and act regarding these matters. The present study suggests that possible gateways can be economy, employee health, leadership, employee involvement and participation, and evaluation routines.

  • 32.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Engström, Veronica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Vingård, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors at work promoting mental health and wellbeing - a systematic litterature review2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health (Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014). Mental health, like mental illness, is a vaguely defined concept. Mental health is a non-contextual concept which can be defined as absence of mental illness and with the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being (Keyes, 2005). The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive. It relates to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress (Suomaa Leo, Yrjänheikki Erkki, Savolainen Heikki, & Hannu, 2011). It can also be seen as an important determinant of productivity at the individual, corporate and community levels (Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can serve as resources (buffers) against negative consequences of various risks at work, but they may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace.

    The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy in the western world (not the least in Sweden), call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced?  A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review explicitly concerning positive mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Method

    Two comprehensive literature searches were conducted in nine scientific databases, EBSCO (includes Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PsycINFO och PsycARTICLES), Emerald, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, for relevant articles written in English, German or the Scandinavian languages. The first search, covering 2000-2014, was done for a Swedish government report (Lindberg & Karlsson, 2015). The second search, covering 2014 - June 2016, updated the previous data for the purpose of a scientific publication. Exclusion of articles was made stepwise by title, abstract and full text. The quality of included articles was assessed by acknowledged guidelines (STROBE Statement) and done separately by two researchers. The combined results are being analysed and will be presented in Montreal.

    Search terms were: work OR workplace OR "healthy workplace" OR "healthy work" OR "healthy work* environment" OR "good work* environment" AND "depressive disorder" OR depression OR "behavioral symptoms" OR "anxiety disorders" OR "stress, psychological" OR "common mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "sustainable mental health” OR "mental wellbeing" OR "mental well-being" OR "job wellbeing" OR "job well-being" OR "positive mental health" OR "good mental health" OR "positive mental wellbeing" OR "positive mental well-being" AND prevention OR promotion.

    Results

    According to preliminary analyses 5378 unique publications were found, of these 30 review-, cohort-, cross sectional-, and qualitative studies are included.

    In the included studies 25 individual or categories of related factors promoting positive mental health and wellbeing at work were identified. Below is a list of the twelve most frequently researched factors listed in order of descending frequency.

    • Style of  leadership
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work; Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate
    • Social  support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues, customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

     As seen above the most frequently investigated factor was the impact of leadership on mental health. It was found that “good leadership”, i.e. fair, supportive and empowering, gave positive health changes and increased well-being, that increased quality of a staff-oriented leadership reduced sickness absence in the company and that transformational leadership increased psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction among workers.

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership was the most scrutinized factor. Apart from possibly being a research trend (?), this may be interpreted as an understanding of both its explicit influence on the well-being of the employees, and its implicit influence by having the authority to facilitate communication, empowerment, control, support, respect, work content, feedback, etc.

    Practical implications

    Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, but creating working conditions that promote mental health cannot be put on the individual. It must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context, whereby the leadership seems to be paramount for the promotion of mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 33.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Engström, Veronica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors at work promoting mental health and wellbeing at work – a systematic literature review2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health (Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014). Mental health, like mental illness, is a vaguely defined concept. Mental health is a non-contextual concept, which can be defined as absence of mental illness and with the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being (Keyes, 2005). The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive. It relates to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress (Suomaa, Yrjänheikki, Savolainen, & Jokiluoma, 2011). It can also be seen as an important determinant of productivity at the individual, corporate and community levels (Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can serve as resources (buffers) against negative consequences of various risks at work. They may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace.

    The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy in the western world (not the least in Sweden), call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced?  A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review explicitly concerning mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Method

    Two comprehensive literature searches were conducted in nine scientific databases, EBSCO (includes Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PsycINFO och PsycARTICLES), Emerald, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, for relevant articles written in English, German or the Scandinavian languages. The first search, covering 2000-2014, was done for a Swedish government report. The second search, covering 2014- June 2016, updated the previous data for the purpose of a scientific publication. Exclusion of articles was made stepwise by title, abstract and full text. The quality of included articles was assessed by acknowledged guidelines (STROBE Statement) and done separately by two researchers. The combined results are being analysed and will be presented in Montreal.

    Search terms were: work OR workplace OR "healthy workplace" OR "healthy work" OR "healthy work* environment" OR "good work* environment" AND "depressive disorder" OR depression OR "behavioral symptoms" OR "anxiety disorders" OR "stress, psychological" OR "common mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "sustainable mental health” OR "mental wellbeing" OR "mental well-being" OR "job wellbeing" OR "job well-being" OR "positive mental health" OR "good mental health" OR "positive mental wellbeing" OR "positive mental well-being" AND prevention OR promotion.

    Results

    5378 unique publications were found, of these 30 review-, cohort-, cross sectional-, and qualitative studies are included (preliminary data).

    We found 25 individual or “group of related factors” promoting positive mental health and wellbeing at work. Below is a list of the twelve most frequently investigated factors arranged in order of descending frequency.

    • Style of leadership
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work;      Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate
    • Social support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues,      customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

    As seen above the most frequently investigated factor was the impact of leadership on mental health. It was found that “good leadership”, i.e. fair, supportive and empowering, gave positive health changes and increased well-being, that increased quality of a staff-oriented leadership reduced sickness absence in the company and that transformational leadership increased psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction among workers.

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership was the most investigated factor. Apart from possibly being a research trend, this can be interpreted as an insight into both its explicit influence on the well-being of the employees, and its implicit influence by having the authority to facilitate communication, empowerment, control, support, respect, work content, feedback, etc.

    Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, but creating working conditions that promote mental health cannot be put on the individual. It must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context, whereby the leadership seems to be paramount for the promotion of mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 34.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Can a systematic participative method for procesing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The concept healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity (Sauter, Lim, & Murphy, 1996). The PATH-model (Grawitch, Gottschalk, & Munz, 2006) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved. The model suggests five general categories of healthy workplace practices: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. In order for these workplace practices to have an influence on the employees and the organizational outcomes the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial as is the alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context. Effective organizational communication in this context means that the management communicates what the organization offers the employees in order to enable good performance and wellbeing at work as well as that the employees state their needs in order to do a good job. The ongoing GodA-project (a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) aims at investigating if workplace strategies in line with the PATH-model add to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements. The present study is part of the GodA-project and aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing workplace survey data influences organizational communication skills. 

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. The project started in 2012 with a pre-project by means of focus groups and individual interviews in order to find out how employees and managers in the three companies describe the concept of a healthy work environment and what contributes to their well-being at work. In 2013 a baseline questionnaire was sent out including items, a) based on the combined results of the pre-study and a comprehensive literature review (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012) , and b) well-established questions on health and work environment. The results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their respective results. In spring 2015 another survey wave was administered. Parallel, data concerning the company’s key indicators and internal development have been collected.

     Baseline results in the GodA-study showed that the employees considered communication as a very important factor for their well-being at work. However, they also reported that the internal communication was not at all at desired level. Considering that the PATH-model emphasizes internal communication as critical in establishing a healthy workplace, the intervention was designed to enhance communication skills. The “GodA-method”, to process the survey feedback was developed in collaboration with the “intervention-company”. In short, the baseline results concerning health, and physical- and psychosocial factors at the workplace, as reported by respective working group, are split into nine themes. Each theme is designed small enough to be processed during the groups’ monthly staff meetings. At the meetings the employees discuss today’s theme, first without then together with their supervisor and decide upon one measurable action to be taken to improve their work environment. To begin each discussion without the supervisor was a chosen strategy in order to empower the employees and in an implicit way train communication skills. The intervention has been followed by process evaluation forms for the supervisors as well as group interviews with employees and supervisors, respectively.   

    Results

    Nine working groups, each with 7-13 employees, were studied. The individual groups performed heterogeneous. The degree to which the various groups actively took actions for improvements seemed to be associated with the closest supervisor’s understanding of the importance of respective themes and his/her capability to conduct group discussions.

    Communication was measured by a 5-item index showing the discrepancy between experienced and desirable communication level, where an index score of -0,5 to 0 (no discrepancy) was considered as good and a score below -.5 was considered undesirable. Preliminary results show that in groups (=5) performing 3-5 meetings the communication index in average deteriorated from -0.89 to -1.41, whereas groups (=4) performing 8-9 meetings the index improved or remained at a rather high level, in average from -0.92 to -0.71. Further analyses and results will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusion

    The results give support to the hypothesis that systematic and continuous training focusing on a mutual theme is a feasible method for improving communication skills.

    Practical implications

    Healthy workplaces are not created overnight. The GodA-method for processing employee surveys seems to be a useful way to systematically work with continuous improvements of the workplace. However, training of supervisors for group discussions seems necessary.

  • 35.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Can a systematic participative method for processing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?2016Ingår i: Scientific programme: Book of Abstracts, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The PATH-model (1) frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved, suggesting five healthy workplace practices. In order for these practices to have the desired influence, the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial. The ongoing GodA-project (an acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) is set up to investigate different aspects of the PATH-model. The present sub-study aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing workplace survey data influences organizational communication skills. 

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. In one of the companies the “GodA-method” for processing survey feedbacks was developed and tested. Baseline results concerning workplace factors were split into nine themes, small enough to be processed during respective working groups’ monthly staff meetings. At the meetings the employees discussed today’s theme, first without, then together with their supervisor and decided on one action for improvements. This strategy was chosen in order to empower the employees and implicitly train their communication skills. The intervention was followed by process evaluations.   

    Results

    Nine working groups, each with 7-13 employees, were studied. The degree to which the various groups actively took actions for improvements seemed to be associated with the closest supervisor’s understanding of the importance of respective themes and his/her capability to conduct group discussions.

    Communication was measured by a 5-item index showing the discrepancy between experienced and desirable communication level, where -0,5 – 0 was considered as good. In groups (=5) performing 3-5 meetings the communication index in average deteriorated from -0.89 to -1.41, whereas groups (=4) performing 8-9 meetings the index improved or remained at a rather high level, in average from -0.92 to -0.71.

    Conclusion

    The results give support to the idea that systematic and continuous training focusing on a mutual theme is a feasible method for improving communication skills. Training of supervisors for group discussions seems necessary.

  • 36.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Can a systematic participative method for processing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?: Experiences from the GodA-project for healthy workplaces2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. Despite rather progressive legislation, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health personnel, still 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months (Swedish Work Environment Authority and Statistics Sweden, 2014). Even if the “elimination approach” partly has succeeded in reducing detrimental factors at work, it is obvious that this is insufficient or inadequate for a working life where key issues for progress are motivation, cooperation and creativity (Aronsson, Gustafsson, & Hakanen, 2009). In order to achieve a sustainable working life, not the least to coop with issues related to the ageing population, it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    The concept healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity (Sauter, Lim, & Murphy, 1996). The PATH-model (Grawitch, Gottschalk, & Munz, 2006) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved. The model suggests five general categories of healthy workplace practices: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. In order for these workplace practices to have an influence on the employeesand the organizational outcomes the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial as isthe alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context. Effective organizational communication in this context means that the management communicates what the organisation offers the employees in order to enable good performance and wellbeing at work as wellas that the employeesstate their needs in order to do a good job.The ongoing GodA-project (a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) aims at investigating if workplace strategies in line with the PATH-model (Grawitch et al., 2006) lead to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements. The present study is part of the GodA-project and aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing of workplace survey data influences organizational communications skills.

  • 37.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    GodA-metoden och dess inflytande på kommunikationsförmågan på arbetet2015Ingår i: Book of Abstracts: FALF 2015 : Conference10-12 June 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots en progressiv arbetsmiljölagstiftning, 10 år av arbetsmiljöinspektioner och ansträngningar från tusentals arbetsmiljöaktörer rapportera 24% av den arbetande befolkningen i Sverige att de haft arbetsrelaterade besvär under senaste året. Även om eliminationsstrategin delvis varit framgångrik är den otillräcklig eller inadek-vat i dagens arbetsliv där nyckelfaktorer för framgång är motivation, samarbete och kreativitet. För att nå ett hållbart arbetsliv är det troligt att det behövs strategier och åtgärder från andra och nya utgångspunkter. Begreppet ”frisk arbetsplats” har definierats som en organisation/företag som maximerar integrationen av ar-betstagarnas mål med företagets mål. PATH-modellen visar genom en syntes av forskning från olika discipliner hur en frisk arbetsplats kan uppnås. För att, enligt modellen, nå verksamhetseffekter av olika personalfrämjande åtgärder är det nödvändigt med en väl utvecklad kommunikation mellan anställda och ledning. Det pågående GodA-projektet syftar till att undersöka om arbetsplatstrategier i linje med PATH-modellen le-der till bättre hälsa och välbefinnande bland de anställda så väl som organisatoriska förbättringar. Föreliggande delstudie undersöker i vilken grad den s.k. ”GodA-metoden” för bearbetning av medarbetarundersökningar kan påverka kommunikationsförmågan i företaget.

  • 38.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinanter för psykisk hälsa och välbefinnande på arbetet – en litteraturöversikt.2015Ingår i: Book of Abstracts: FALF 2015 : Conference10-12 June 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har konstaterats att det generellt är fördelaktigt för hälsan att vara i arbete och att det finns stark evidens att arbete, trots sina risker, reducerar risken att drabbas av depression liksom förbättrar generell psykisk hälsa. Psykisk hälsa är ett icke-kontextuellt begrepp vilket kan definieras som ett tillstånd då individen är fri från psykisk ohälsa, utvecklas och mår bra (flourish) med höga nivåer av emotionellt, psykologiskt och socialt välbefinnande. Begreppet välbefinnande i arbetet är allomfattande, det relaterar till den fysiska miljön, arbetsrelaterade risker, organisering av arbete och arbetsuppgifter, relationer med kollegor, personlig hälsa och arbetsförmåga och även familjerelaterade påfrestningar. Det kan dessutom ses som en viktig determinant av produktivitet på individ-, företags- och samhällsnivå.

    “Friskfaktorer” för psykisk hälsa på arbetet är faktorer och omständigheter på arbetet som kan ha en preventiv och främjande effekt på arbetstagarna psykiska hälsa och välbefinnande. Dessa faktorer kan vara inverterade riskfaktorer och fungera som buffrare mot negativa konsekvenser av riskfaktorer. De kan också vara faktorer som av sig själva ger positiva hälsovinster för individ och arbetsplats. En kunskapsöversikt över indikatorer för en god arbetsmiljö har nyligen gjorts, men till vår kännedom saknas en översikt som berör psykisk hälsa på arbetet. Således, var syftet med föreliggande studie att fastställa kunskapsläget vad gäller determinanter för psykisk hälsa och välbefinnande på arbetet.

  • 39.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinants for positive mental health and wellbeing at work – a literature review2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health. Mental health is a non-contextual concept which can be defined as the absence of mental illness, and with the opportunity to develop and flourish. The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive, relating to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress. The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants to be influenced?  Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Methods

    A comprehensive literature search was conducted in nine scientific databases for articles published 2000 and forward. The exclusion by titles were made by one of the researcher, the further selection was made by two researchers independently.

    Results

    Of the 4262 found unique publications 27 were included encompassing 7 reviews,

    12 cohort-, 5 cross-sectional-, and 3 qualitative studies.

    Results

    Of the 4262 found unique publications 27 were included encompassing 7 reviews, 12 cohort-, 5 cross-sectional-, and 3 qualitative studies.The most frequently investigated determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work were, in descending order:

    • Style of leadership: transformative, transactional, positive, employee oriented, ethical, supportive as well as managers own wellbeing
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work; Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate- Social support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues, customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership is the most investigated factor, which can be interpreted as a sign of its influence on the mental health of the employees. Beside the explicit influence of leadership styles on the employees’ mental health, several studies show an implicit influence, e.g. (enabling) support at work, skilled communication, empowerment, control, treated with respect and intellectual stimulation.Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, not least psychosocial conditions. Prevention and establishment of good working conditions cannot be put on the individual; it must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context.

  • 40.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinants for positive mental health and wellbeing at work – a literature review2015Ingår i: The Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association - Melbourne, 9-14 August, 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In general it can be stated that it is beneficial for your health to be employed. There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health(Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014).Mental health, like mental illness, is avaguely defined concept.Mental healthis a non-contextual concept which canbedefined asthe absence ofmental illness, and with the opportunity to developand flourish with high levels ofemotional,psychological and socialwell-being(Keyes, 2005).The concept ofwellbeingat workis inclusive.Itrelates tothe physical environment,work-relatedrisks, organization of work andtasks, relationships with colleagues,personalhealth and work ability and evenfamily-relatedstress(Suomaa, Yrjänheikki, Savolainen, & Jokiluoma, 2011). It canalso be seenas an importantdeterminantofproductivityat the individual, corporate and community levels(Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can be reversed risk factors and serve as a resource (buffer) against negative consequences of various risks at work. They may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace. The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy call for action in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced? A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review concerning mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 41.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Leijon, O.
    Josephson, M.
    Factors at work acting as buffers against neck/shoulder and low back disorders2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the Premus 2010 conference (Seventh International Conference on Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders), Angers, France, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Leijon, O.
    Josephson, M.
    Factors at work acting as buffers against neck/shoulder and low back disorders2009Ingår i: 29th International Congress of Occupational Health (ICOH), 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Indicators of healthy work environments – a systematic review2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The interest in medical science has until now mainly focused on pathogenesis, how and why certain individuals become diseased. Despite legislation in the field of work environment, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health consultants still 21% of the Swedish women and 15% of the Swedish men report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. A different, and additional, way of approaching the problem of work related morbidity is to look at and learn from what constitutes healthy work environments and what might be key indicators of such sustainable work environments.

     

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. Healthy work environments were defined as work environments that on both short and long term do not cause work-related morbidity.

     

    Method

    Eight major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments using different combinations of keywords like healthy, good, work, workplace, work force, worksite, organization, work environment, business, indicator, and predictor. The search was limited to years 1990 – 2011, humans, and the languages English, Danish, German, Norwegian, and Swedish.

     

    Results

    Altogether 19 768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 22 peer-reviewed publications remained. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found, suggesting that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a ‘good place to work’. Such organizations were more likely also to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 21, mostly explorative, studies either investigated employee´s views on what constitute a healthy workplace, or were guidelines for how to create such workplaces. The nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace emerging from these studies were:  collaboration/teamwork; growth and development; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy/empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work. 

     

    Conclusions

    This systematic review demonstrates a lack of consensus about the concept of a healthy work environment/workplace/work organization as well as a shortage of studies concerning healthy work places, especially longitudinal ones. The factors considered important for a healthy workplace needs further investigation in order to draw any confirmative conclusions.

  • 44.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Indicators of healthy work environments - a systematic review2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 3032-3038Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. A number of major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments. Altogether 19,768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 24 peer-reviewed publications remained to be included in this systematic review. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found. That study suggested that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a 'good place to work', as these organizations were more likely to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 23 studies either investigated employee's views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. Summarizing, the nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace that emerged from these studies were, in descending order: collaboration/teamwork: growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work.

  • 45.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Indicators of healthy work environments: a systematic review2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 46.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kunskapsöversikt: den goda arbetsmiljön och dess indikatorer2012Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande kunskapssammanställning försöker mot bakgrund av den traditionellt riskorienterade synen på arbetsmiljö, definiera begreppet god arbetsmiljö, hur det har operationaliserats i den vetenskapliga litteraturen samt vad som kan vara indikatorer på god arbetsmiljö. God arbetsmiljö kan definieras som något mer än en neutral arbetsmiljö, som en arbetsmiljö som har positiva, gynnsamma effekter på individen. Ett liknande begrepp, som dock går något längre, är ”frisk arbetsplats”, definierat som en arbetsplats med en arbetsmiljö som har gynnsamma effekter på både individ och verksamhet. Rapporten argumenterar för att begreppet frisk arbetsplats införs som begrepp i den svenska arbetsmiljödiskursen.

     

    Kunskapsöversiktens systematiska litteraturgenomgång pekar på ett antal faktorer som anses känneteckna god arbetsmiljö. De mest frekvent omnämnda faktorerna är: positiva, tillgängliga och rättvisa ledare; utvecklad kommunikation; samarbete/teamarbete; positivt, socialt klimat; medinflytande/delaktighet; autonomi/empowerment; rolltydlighet med tydliga förväntningar och mål; erkännande; att utvecklas och växa i arbetet; lagom arbetstempo och arbetsbelastning; administrativt och/eller personligt stöd i arbetet; bra fysisk arbetsmiljö samt bra relationer till intressenterna. Någon eller några heltäckande indikatorer för god arbetsmiljö kunde dock inte identifieras.

     

    Rapporten konstaterar att kunskapsläget gällande god arbetsmiljö är ofärdigt men inte ostabilt. De beteendevetenskapliga disciplinerna, i synnerhet positiv psykologi, intar en ledande position vad gäller forskning och utveckling inom området, medan biomekanisk och fysiologisk forskning kring gynnsamma fysiska belastningar i arbetslivet är näst intill obefintlig. Det finns stort behov av fortsatt forskning kring olika aspekter på god arbetsmiljö, i synnerhet utveckling av mätinstrument inklusive indikatorer, testning av mer komplexa modeller för friska arbetsplatser, liksom metoder för implementering. I det praktiska arbetsmiljöarbetet finns dock goda skäl att redan idag, som ett komplement till traditionell riskelimination, ta denna ingång till bättre arbetsmiljö på allvar.

  • 47.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    The good work environment and its indicators.2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite legislation in the field of work environment, both on national and international level, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health consultants still 23% of the women and 17% of the men in Sweden report that they during the past twelve months have had work-related disorders making it difficult to perform their work or carry out everyday housework. Of these, about one-third has been on sick leave because of the disorders. Further, the average retirement age in Sweden was 64 years, instead of 65, in 2009. This has been explained by decreased work ability in particular among blue collar workers. The figures suggest that the endeavours do not reach all the way.  In addition, an increased dependency ratio in Sweden because of demographic changes has raised voices for a higher retirement age. In order to achieve a sustainable working life, it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

     

     

    Instead of the traditional pathogenic focus, a different and additional way of approaching the problem of work related morbidity is to look at and learn from what characterizes organisations with a low rate of long term sick listed. Though a few studies and reports have dealt with this, there has been no systematic approach to summarize present knowledge of what constitutes healthy work environments and what might be key indicators of such work environments. Knowledge of such indicators may serve as tools to operationalize the ambition to achieve safe work places.         

     

    Present review was commissioned by the Swedish Work Environment Authority and attempts to define the concept of a good work environment, how it has been operationalized in the scientific literature, and what can be indicators of a good work environment. A good work environment can be defined as something more than a neutral work environment. It can be defined as a work environment that has positive, beneficial effects on the individual.

     A systematic literature review was undertaken as part of the present survey. The aim was to systematically review the scientific literature on how good or healthy work environment is described and search for indicators of healthy work environments.  Major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched. No comprehensive indicators of a good work environment could be identified. However, the review revealed a number of factors considered to characterize a good work environment. The most frequently mentioned factors were: positive, accessible and fair leader; skilled communication; cooperation/teamwork; positive, social climate; participation/involvement; autonomy/empowerment; role clarity, with clear expectations and goals; recognition; development and growth at work; moderate work pace and workload; administrative and/or personal support at work; good physical work environment; and good relationships with stakeholders.

    A similar concept as good work environment, but more often mentioned in the international literature is "healthy workplace". Healthy workplace is defined as a workplace with a work environment that has beneficial effects on both individuals and businesses. It is noteworthy that the notion healthy workplace is not a substitute for good work environment it is a consequence. Different models, e.g. the PATH-model by Grawitch et al. shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual an organizational improvements can be achieved. The concept healthy workplace, with its dual view, is more pronounced about the causal effect of a god work environment than the pure notion “good work environment”. The concept has newly also been introduced in a couple of official Swedish documents. Because of this the present report advocates that the concept of healthy workplace is introduced as a concept in the Swedish work environment discourse.

    This study notes that the state of knowledge regarding good work environments and healthy workplaces is incomplete, but not unstable. The behavioral sciences, in particular positive psychology, occupy a leading position in research and development of the area, while biomechanical and physiological research concerning beneficial physical loads at work is almost non-existent. There is a great need for continued research on various aspects of a good work environment. It would be beneficial to come to some kind of consensus about the concept of good and healthy work environment/workplace/work organization; to develop assessment instruments, including indicators of good work environments, and methods for implementation; as well as longitudinal testing of more complex models of healthy workplace. However, there are good reasons already today to take this input for a better work environment seriously as a complement, not replacement of traditional risk elimination.

  • 48.
    Lűning-Bergsten, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society.
    Lundberg, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Orthopaedics.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Elfving, Britt
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society .
    Change in kinesiophobia and its relation to activity limitation after multidisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with chronic back pain2012Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 34, nr 10, s. 852-858Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose.

    To explore the change in kinesiophobia in relation to activity limitation after a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme in patients with chronic back pain.

    Method.

    A prospective cohort study was made including 265 patients. Data were collected at baseline, after rehabilitation, and at 6-months follow-up. Outcome measures were the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) and the Disability Rating Index (DRI). The smallest detectable change (SDC) in TSK was set to 8 scores. Relationships between kinesiophobia and activity limitation/physical ability were explored with regard to subgroups with high, medium and low baseline TSK scores, and for those patients who did or did not reach the SDC in TSK.

    Results.

    Improvements in TSK showed high effect sizes in the groups with high and medium baseline TSK scores. Improvements in DRI showed medium effect sizes in all three TSK subgroups. One third of the patients reached the SDC in TSK, and this group also improved significantly more in DRI. The correlation between change in TSK and change in DRI was low. Half of the patients with high TSK score at baseline remained having high DRI at follow-up.

    Conclusions.

    Improvement in physical ability was not related to the initial degree of kinesiophobia but to the smallest detectable change in TSK. To prevent patients with high kinesiophobia from preserving high activity limitations it might be useful to include targeted treatment of kinesiophobia.

  • 49.
    Lűning-Bergsten, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society.
    Lundberg, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Orthopaedics.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Elfving, Britt
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society .
    Kinesiophobia and its relation to activity limitation after multidisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with chronic back pain.2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 50. Morrison, Janet
    et al.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    When no one has time: measuring the impact of computerization on health care workers2008Ingår i: AAOHN journal, ISSN 0891-0162, Vol. 56, nr 9, s. 373-378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological change is a constant in today's workplace, especially the modern health care workplace. The introduction of electronic health records changes workloads, job demands, interactions with other health care professionals, and work roles-all elements that have previously been noted to increase work stress and impact health. Despite the significant changes that accompany computerization, it is seldom studied as a source of stress. Also, the health effects of computerization within health care have not been extensively studied. This article summarizes the potential environmental impact of computerization on workers, with special reference to health care workers, and suggests ways occupational health nurses can monitor the health consequences of new technology and intervene in case of adverse health impact. In many health care organizations, high work pressure and staff shortages make it impractical, and perhaps impossible, to use standard in-depth research methods to investigate this issue. Therefore, several less obtrusive methods that can be triangulated are suggested as an alternative.

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