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  • 1.
    Ammert, Niklas
    et al.
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Löfstrom, Jan
    History and Social Studies Education, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Sharp, Heather
    School of Education, University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Bridging historical consciousness and moral consciousness: promises and Challenges2017In: Historical Encounters: A journal of historical consciousness, historical cultures and history education, E-ISSN 2203-7543, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue is the result of the workshop, Towards an integrated theory ofhistorical and moral consciousness, supported by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond (The SwedishFoundation for Humanities and Social Sciences) and Suomen kasvatuksen ja koulutuksen historianseura (The Finnish Society for the History of Education) and held at the University of Helsinki, in2015. History teaching and social studies education are increasingly expected to develop, amongother things, students’ historical consciousness. This goal is highly relevant for students’ ability todeal constructively with controversial issues of history which is an important civic competence inthe situation where in many societies’ political arguments concerning, for example, citizenshiprights, ethnic and cultural diversity, and democracy are only too often fuelled by simplistic narrativesof historical change and continuity. However, there is a blank spot in the existing research onhistorical consciousness in that intersections between historical and moral consciousness remainvery much unexplored. This special issue seeks to identify promising theoretical and conceptualpoints of convergence for future interdisciplinary studies of historical and moral consciousness.Contributors are from the fields of history, educational research, social psychology, and philosophy.

  • 2.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Att vilja andra väl är inte alltid smärtfritt: Att motverka kränkningar och diskriminering i förskola och skola2012Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Between curriculum complexity and stereotypes: Exploring stereotypes of teachers and education in media as a question of structural violence2015In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 399-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper highlights four tendencies in the media reporting of teachers and education: (a) recurring patterns of defining education in crisis, (b) mantling responsibility as exterior spokespersons for education and teachers, (c) excluding teachers’ and educational researchers’ knowledge and experiences in the media and (d) simplifying the notion of a good and bad teacher through stereotypes and dualistic frameworks that overlook task and relational complexity. In this paper, I explore how the simplifications of teachers and education that are often presented in the media can be interpreted as structural violence. In the light of these tendencies, research on structural violence helps to remind us that: (a) teachers are unwillingly forced into a paradoxical (in)visibility, (b) they are squeezed in-between two pressuring external demands, namely the complexities in their professional assignment that are politically steered and stereotypes of the good and bad teacher produced by, in this case, the media, (c) they risk wasting time and energy on addressing prejudices that have nothing to do with the specific work they are expected to do and (d) the logic of binary stereotypes is a power issue that brands teachers into a position of permanent failure.

  • 4.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Between curriculum complexity and stereotypes: Exploring stereotypes of teachers and education in media as a question of structural violence2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper highlights four tendencies in the media reporting of teachers and education: a) recurring patterns of defining education in crisis, b) mantling responsibility as exterior spokespersons for education and teachers, c) excluding teachers’ and educational researchers’ knowledge and experiences in the media, and d) simplifying the notion of a good and bad teacher through stereotypes and dualistic frameworks that overlook task- and relational complexity. In this paper I explore how the simplifications of teachers and education that are often presented in the media can be interpreted as structural violence. In the light of these tendencies, research on structural violence helps to remind us that: a) teachers are unwillingly forced into a paradoxical (in)visibility, b) they are squeezed in-between two pressuring external demands, namely the complexities in their professional assignment that are politically steered and stereotypes of the good and bad teacher produced by, in this case, the media, c)  they risk wasting time and energy on addressing prejudices that have nothing to do with the specific work they are expected to do, and d) the logic of binary stereotypes is a power issue that brands teachers into a position of permanent failure.

  • 5.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Demokrati handlar väl om majoriteten - eller?2014In: Inkludering: möjligheter och utmaningar / [ed] Margareta Sandström, Jonas Stier och Lena Nilsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 55-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Demokratidilemman i läraruppdraget: att arbeta för lika villkor2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Läraruppdraget idag är komplext. Lärare förväntas jonglera såväl kunskapsförmedling som frågor kring socialisation och likabehandling. För att hantera detta komplexa arbete behöver läraren kunna förstå och värdera sina val i relation till olika syften. I boken berörs bland annat följande frågor: - Vilka dilemman brottas lärare med i sitt arbete med likabehandling? - Hur kan dessa dilemman förstås med utgångspunkt i forskning om våld? - Med avseende på våldets komplexitet – vilka handlingsstrategier finns att tillgå? Boken riktar sig främst till blivande och yrkesverksamma lärare. Den ger en repertoar av användbara begrepp och presenterar olika perspektiv som kan vara till stöd i det praktiska arbetet i skolan.

  • 7.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Embodied dimensions of racism – as a means of understanding racism in teacher education2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Ethics of dissensus: Oneapproach to handle plurality in education2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of current tendencies where the fear of foreigners is increasing in seemingly stably democratic societies and educational debates tend to emphasize large scale investigations to solve various educational issues the relationship between plurality and ethics becomes important to revive. The purpose of this contribution is to theoretically explore and empirically exemplify how an ethic that take into consideration research about oppression (social) and an awareness about peoples intrical differrence (individual) might contribute to education. Through the concept of ethics of dissensus she brings a fresh dimension into the discussion about ethics in education by providing an understanding that strives not to overlook the complicated presence of difference between the past-present-future, between two subjects and between the inner and the outer life.  Accordingly, Ziarek’s reasoning suggests the need to leave the simplified playing field of ’either-or’ and engage in the communicative negotiation that constitutes the fragile middle-ground between two extreme poles in history education.  

  • 9.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Historical and moral consciousness in the light of Ewa Ziarek’s ethics of disensus: one approach to handle plurality in education2017In: Historical Encounters: A journal of historical consciousness, historical cultures and history education, E-ISSN 2203-7543, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 36-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of current tendencies where the fear of foreigners is increasing in seemingly stably democratic societies. This paper aims to revive the presence of the body as a central condition and experience for human interaction. The body as an inevitable source for conscious/unconscious responses to others helps to understand how various forms of violence such as xenophobia and hate crimes come into expression. The purpose of this contribution is to theoretically explore and empirically exemplify the relationship between historical consciousness and moral consciousness as an educational concern by turning to the writings of Ewa Ziarek and her notion of ethics of dissensus. Through the concept of ethics of dissensus she brings a fresh dimension into the discussion of how the relationship between historical and moral consciousness can be understood. She does this by providing concepts and understandings of how (history) education can be approached without overlooking the complicated presence of difference between the past-presentfuture, between two subjects and between the inner and the outer life. Accordingly, Ziarek’s reasoning suggests the need to leave the simplified playing field of ’either-or’ and engage in the communicative negotiation that constitutes the fragile middle-ground between two extreme poles in history education.

  • 10.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    O Conceito de pluralidade no currículo nacional sueco: Estudando a imortancia de livros didacticos teóricos de formaciao de professores para interpretar e contestar as diferentes facetas de violencia no trabalho diaros de professores [The Notion of Plurality within the Swedish National Core Curriculum: Studying the importance of theoretical text-books at Teacher Educations to interpret and contest the various faces of violence in teachers’ everyday work]2014In: Revista Científica e-curriculum, ISSN ISSN 1809-3876, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1634-1668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One aspect within the National core curriculum at Teacher Educations in Sweden is the foundation of democracy that sets the frames for organizations and human conditions. Within this core curriculum plurality is indirectly given a central role and in relation to this the importance to contest various forms of violence such as discrimination and other forms of violation. Drawing on ambitions to contest violence in education the paper challenges ideas that teacher students only need to rely on evidence-based theoretical methods in their future profession. This is accomplished by analyzing and comparing theories of plurality as described in three text-books used in courses at one Teacher Education in Sweden. The textbooks express three different theoretical discourses of approaching social challenges regarding violence, plurality in education, and teacher expectations. Hence, since violence is played out in a variety of ways the logic of evidence based research is insufficient as comes to handle plurality

  • 11.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Time matters!: Ethical conceptualizations of time in relation to violence within education2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on discrepancies between people expressed in for example interviews with young people the aim of this article is to address the linear image of time as a foundation to combat various forms of violence. Drawing on Iris Marion Young, the desire to contest violence cannot be distinguished from people’s everyday (moral) responses to others, since it is in these conscious or/and unconscious responses that stereotypes of others tend to linger on and form unjust patterns in society. The progressive conception of moral, which influences Western educational thinking, is based on a belief that the subject can become better-and-better in promoting other’s well-being through knowledge and training. Emanuel Lévinas lapse of time and Julia Kristeva’s time/memory paradox enables  an understanding and alertness to the making of the present where the gap between people and the interventions of bodily reactions that transform the subject in time, through her or his ways of being with others.

  • 12.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Två förhållningssätt till teorier i relation till lärares demokratiska uppdrag att motverka våld2015In: Kontroversiella frågor: Om kunskap och politik i samhällsundervisningen / [ed] Ljunggren, Carsten, Unemar, Ingrid & Englund, Tomas, Lund: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2015, 1, p. 115-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Understanding the declining health of teacher educators through the grid of Dewey’s ‘educational environment': Reviving an old concept to grapple with current phenomenon at teacher education institutions 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    «Who» Is Teacher Education?: Approaching the Negative Stereotypes of Teacher Education2016In: Curriculum: Decanonizing the field / [ed] João M. Paraskeva & Shirley R. Steinberg, Peter Lang , 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Why not simply use the best theory?: A critical discourse analysis of the notion of plurality in three texts used at a teacher education institution in Sweden2014In: Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, ISSN 1478-8047, E-ISSN 2047-1734, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 156-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on ambitions to contest violence in education the paper challenges ideas that teacher students only need to rely on evidence-based theory in their future profession. This is accomplished by analyzing and comparing theories of plurality as described in three text-books used in courses at one Teacher Education in Sweden. The textbooks express three different theoretical discourses of approaching social challenges regarding violence, plurality in education, and teacher expectations. Hence, since violence is played out in a variety of ways the logic of evidence based research is insufficient as comes to handle plurality.

  • 16.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Biffi, Elisabetta
    University of Milano-Bicocca Department of Human Sciences for Education Milano.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Montà, Chiara Carla
    Università degli Studi Milano Bicocca Scienze Umane per la Formazione Riccardo Massa Roasio.
    Children’s right not to be subjected to violence – a comparative discourse analysis of educational policy between Sweden and Italy2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to protect children from violence is clearly formulated in the Children’s Right Convention (CRV). For example, the right of children to be protected from:” /…/all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child is clearly stated in Article 19 of the CRC, which was ratified by Sweden in 1989 (United Nations, 1989). The right of children not to be subjected to various forms of violence is also emphasized in other international treaties signed and/or ratified by the Swedish state (the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010, the Treaty of Lisbon). In order to assure this right, the Swedish legal framework (Prop., 2009/10:232) stipulates that the subjection of children to violence should be avoided at all cost. Italy assures the right of a childhood free from violence thanks to its legal framework as well. Italy’s legal framework is made up of the international documents previously cited, the CRC (ratified in 1991 with the LEGGE 27 maggio 1991, n. 176. Italy’s legal framework is also made up of national laws, in particular by the founding one: the Constitution. Art. 3. This article is used as a base for the creation of national policy to prevent the subjection of children to violence.

    In this study, the word violence is used in a broad sense to cover the numerous situations in which people are at risk of being physically and psychologically damaged (Hamby and Grych, 2013), such as in cases of discrimination, bullying, violation, or harassment (cf. Greeff and Grobler, 2008; Parkes, 2007). The ambition to oppose and counteract violence through juridification in schools has increased in Sweden through the introduction of the Discrimination Act (SFS, 2008:567) and the paragraph regarding the treatment of others in the Education Act (SFS, 2010:800, paragraph 6). For what concerns the treatment of others and discrimination, Italy refers to the National Plan for educating to the respect of others (Rispetta le differenze. Piano nazionale per l’educazione al rispetto). This plan aims at promoting the values stated in the 3rd article of the Constitution by educating and training students, teachers and families.

    There are several studies conducted in Italy and Sweden about how this particular right is approached in policy (Francia and Edling, 2016, Edling and Francia, 2017, Biffi, 2017). Although, children’s right not to be subjected to violence is given attention in many countries today it is still a question of negotiation as concerns how these rights are materialized in each country’s educational policy as well as why they are described as important to consider. Whereas Sweden is described as a highly secular (previously protestant) and individualistic country, Italy is pictured as a non-secular, catholic country premiering the collective (see Meyer, 2014; Integrationsverket, 2005).  

    Against this background, it becomes of interest to compare how two different countries like Sweden and Italy approach children’s right not to be subjected to various forms of violence by analysing educational policy that presents motifs and directives for teachers in different stages. In Italy, the plan for the 2016-2019 teacher training in chapter 4.6 (Piano per la formazione dei docenti 2016-2019) declares that teachers have to be trained in order to teach them how to promote respect for others in their classrooms in order to prevent violence.

    Method

    The following questions are asked: 1. How do the different policy documents in Sweden and Italy describe and explain teachers’ responsibilities to oppose violence in school? 2. Are there any similarities and/or differences between the countries as regards the question above? If so what kind of similarities and/or differences? To conduct a comparative study, both linkages and differences need to be taken into account. Linkages are created by posing similar questions to the material analysed and differences imply awareness that all comparisons always contain cultural and contextual differences and contestations that need to be addressed (e.g. No´voa & Yariv-Mashal, 2003). As regards linkages, Kazamias (2001) points to the need to use theoretical concepts as lenses to make more 200 coherent comparisons (p. 446) – in this case theoretical understandings of violence. This paper is based on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of educational policy highlighting teachers’ responsibilities to promote children’s right not to be subjected to violence. Based on Fairclough (1992, 2000, 2001), we argue that CDA facilitates an understanding of the dialectical relation between discourse and social practice. Following Fairclough (2000), the interpretation of the data encompasses three dimensions: (a) text analysis (description), (b) processing analysis (interpretation), and (c) social analysis (explanation). In our study, these dimensions correspond to our research questions.

    Expected outcomes

    The study aims to distinguish how teachers’ responsibilities to oppose violence towards children is expressed and motivated by the various policy documents. The comparison makes it possible to discuss plausible similarities and differences between the countries as well as discuss cultural and political explanations for the findings that can help combat child violence. 

    References

    Biffi, Elisabetta. (2017). Protecting minors against violence: from strategy to practice. Education Sciences & Society. 1, 47-64. Fairclough, Norman. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman. London: Longman. Fairclough, Norman. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press. Francia, Guadalupe, & Edling, Silvia. (2016). Children's rights and violence: A case analysis at a Swedish boarding school. Childhood, in process. Greeff, P., & Grobler, A. (2008). Bullying during the intermediate school phase. Childhood 15(1), 127-144. Hamby, Sherry , & Grych, John (2013). The Web of Violence Exploring Connections Among Different Forms of Interpersonal Violence and Abuse. New York, London: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg. Kazamias, Andreas M. . (2001). ‘Re-inventing the Historical in Comparative Education: Reflection on a Protean Episteme by a Contemporary Player’. Comparative Education, 37(4), 439-450. LEGGE 27 maggio 1991, n. 176 Ratifica ed esecuzione della convenzione sui diritti del fanciullo, fatta a New York il 20 novembre 1989. (GU n.135 del 11-6-1991 - Suppl. Ordinario n. 35-), The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; The European Convention of Human Rights; The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010, and the Treaty of Lisbon. Linee Guida Nazionali -art. 1 comma 16 L. 107/2015- Educare al rispetto: per la parità tra i sessi, la prevenzione della violenza di genere e di tutte le forme di discriminazione Linee di orientamento per la prevenzione e il contrasto del cyberbullismo nelle scuole -art. 4 L. 71/2017- Meyer, Erin. (2014). The cultrure map. Breaking Through the Invisible Boundaries of Global Business. NY: PublicAffairs US. Nóvoa, Antonio , & Yariv-Mashal, Tali (2003). Comparative Research in Education: A Mode of Governance or a Historical Journey? Comparative Education, 39(4), 423-438. Parkes, Jenny. (2007). The multiple meanings of violence. Children's talk about life in a South African neighbourhood. Childhood 14(4), 401-414. Prop. (2009/10:232). Strategi för att stärka barnets rättigheter i Sverige. Stockholm. SFS. (2008:567). Diskrimineringslag. SFS. (2010:800). Skollag.

  • 17.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Department of Education, Uppsala University.
    How are EU-policies regarding social inclusion of Roma populations adapted in national governments?: Comparing Spanish and Swedish policies for Roma education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Methodological and Ethical Implications in Studying the Child's Perspective2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet.
    Newly arrived pupils and violence: a CDA analysis of political advices regarding strategies and responsibilities for various actors in Swedish education2017In: Education Sciences and Society, ISSN 2038-9442, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 137-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Convention of the right of the Child (CRC) it is stated that all children should be protected from all kinds of violence. However war, social conflicts and climatic catastrophes have placed immigrant children at risk to object for violence. The purpose of this paper is to study how Sweden politically advice actors within the educational field to approach newly arrived pupils in education by placing it in relation to research about violence. What is particularly payed attention to in the policy document is need to oppose the following risks: b)being in risk of exclusion, c) facing perceptions of assimilation, and f) a lack of clear responsibilities amongst the actors assisting the immigrant children. A fuzziness of responsibilities is at time created with concepts such as “the school should”.

    Education for the Other is the most dominant strategy emphasizing that the newly arrived child’s needs in education should be recognized as well as the importance to distribute what is lacking to promote the pupil’s development. The advices do not say anything about the content of knowledge required amongst various actors in order to do analysis of processes.

  • 20.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Private or public good?: Exploring violent acts at a boarding school in Sweden from a children’s right perspective2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Division of Education, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Publicor private governance of School violence: A leadership perspective2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question/objective

    Starting from a social justice perspective within the field of leadership (Shields 2007, 2010) this paper aims to contribute in understanding various conceptions of leadership in relation to violent cases at a Swedish boarding school.  More specifically the paper asks the following question: How do leaders in various positions describe their responsibilities as leaders in relation to violent cases that took place at a Swedish boarding school?

    Methodological framework:

    The paper is based on a Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (CDA) (1992, 2000, 2001) of different educational and media documents concerning cases of violence at a boarding Swedish schools. This analysis involves following three dimensions: (a) text analysis (description), (b) processing anal- sis (interpretation), and (c) social analysis (explanation). In our study, these dimensions correspond to our research questions.

    The expected conclusions/results

    This study shows that school violence is perceived both as a public or a private matter. When school violence is conceived as a private matter, the leaders point out the necessity of protecting and honoring the privacy of the school. In these cases pupils’ education is considered as a private good and therefore the competency to deal with violent acts is considered as a “family” outside the governance of the public
Based on the libertarian conception of childhood. On the contrary when the school violence is described as a public matter, the leaders claims for government intervention to protect the rights of children as stipulated in Swedish national steering documents and in national and international legislation on children’s rights.

    This result of the study indicates that systemic violence at the boarding school in question can be interpreted as a part of a socialization culture of privileged classes aiming to educate leaders that can maintain and reproduce power positions and privileges in the Swedish society. Four different discourses of child violence emerged in the analysis, namely: (1) violence is created because some few people break the rule, (2) the victims of violence don’t behave properly, (3) boy scams happen but are harmless, and (4) because quarrels are part of family (the private) life. The study provides with examples of a hidden curriculum that endorses leadership models that are not compatible with the development of democracy and diversity in the Swedish society. Taken account that a considerable percentage of boarding school students will have power positions in different areas of the Swedish society in the future, it is important to reflect on the possibilities for democratic, and hence non-violent, socialization the models of leadership presented in this study promote. 

  • 22.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roma in Europe: Policies and Roma Voices : Exploring and Comparing the Voices of Roma People Expressed on Three Roma Advocacy Webpages2015In: Educational Internationalisation: Academic Voices and Public Policy / [ed] Olson, Jennifer R., Biseth, Heidi and Ruiz, Guillermo, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2015, p. 149-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Luzón, Antonio
    University of Granada.
    Parker-Jenkins, Marie
    University of Limmerick.
    ¿Existe una política educativa de apoyo a los derechos de los menores refugiados? Reflexiones desde Suecia, República de Irlanda y España2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies. Uppsala Univ, Dept Educ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Doing good?: Interpreting teachers’ given and felt responsibilities for pupils’ well-being in an age of measurement2013In: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 419-432Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to theoretically discuss a specific aspect of teachers’ responsibilities: their responsibility for pupils’ or children’s well-being. We ask two interrelated questions: firstly, how might (Swedish) teachers’ sense of responsibilities for their pupils’ well-being be understood in relation to ethical theory? Secondly, what does this insight bring to the discussion of teachers’ professional responsibility within the global discourse of educational policy that increasingly stresses accountability and efficiency in an ‘age of measurement?’ Education can be described as an intervention in a pupil’s life, motivated by the idea that it will somehow improve it. When one implements this intervention, from a legal/political perspective, it boils down to a series of responsibilities assigned to teachers, as expressed in current policy documents. However, an exploration of empirical examples in a Swedish context of teachers’ sense of responsibility for their pupils’ or children’s well-being, expressed in everyday situations, indicates that the matter is complex. In order to find tools with which to better understand such expressions, we turn to the field of ethics. A thorough inquiry into the various reasoning regarding responsibility reveals that responsibility as socially defined and given is not sufficient to capture the intimacy and relational uncertainties of the teachers’ stories, which is why we turn to the writings of Lévinas and his ethics of responsibility. His ethical language helps to capture relational processes that cannot be predefined and that are based on an infinite sense of responsibility for the other person. We continue by discussing and problematising the increasing demands for measurability and accountability in the field of teachers’ professionalism. Here, we illuminate risks involved with the movement towards the fixed and calculable, since it overlooks the intricate ways in which teachers’ given and felt responsibilities are woven together.

  • 25.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Evidence is not enough for developing democratic values: on the role of theory in teacher education2014In: Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, ISSN 1478-8047, E-ISSN 2047-1734, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 148-155Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Moral education and the desire to counteract violence: A theoretical discussion about moral reasoning and teacher professionality2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss how teacher professionality can be understood in relation to ethics of alterity and ethics of dissensus, which both, in different ways, express a desire to oppose various forms of violence in society. Drawing on pragmatism, post-structuralism, and psychoanalysis we argue that there is a dialectical relationship between ethics and morality, conscious and unconscious deeds, between theory and practice, and between justice and moral (ethical issues). Also, we stress that the quality of a phenomenon is dependent on a specific purpose which we here formulate as follows: how can teacher professionality, as it isused in order to counteract violence, be grasped in relation to moral theory? Hence, we use the notion of uniqueness, power-relations, and importance to take into account people’s feelings when we discuss teacher professionality and the desire to counteract violence. This standpoint informs our mode of presentation, weaving together empirical examples from student and teacher perspectives with theoretical discussions.

  • 27.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Promoting social justice in Swedish Teacher Education2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Promoting Social Justice in Swedish Teacher Education2015In: International Teacher Education: Promising Pedagogies (Part B) / [ed] Lily Orland-Barak, Cheryl J. Craig, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 305-328Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the issue of social justice in teacher education (TE) is addressed from a Swedish perspective. The chapter begins by briefly describing the Swedish educational context in schools and TE, with a specific emphasis on the task of educators and teacher educators to promote social justice and as a consequence to this counteract various forms of social violence: such as violation, including bullying, harassment and discrimination. The second section introduces evidence on fruitful strategies for counteracting social violence in school, based on a national research study that takes into account international research. Following this, we exemplify how these findings are interlaced the pedagogies of TE in Sweden. The chapter ends with thoughts on such pedagogies in an international context, and a brief conclusion.

  • 29.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sensing as an ethical dimension of teacher professionality2016In: Journal of Moral Education, ISSN 0305-7240, E-ISSN 1465-3877, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 46-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the ethics of alterity and the ethics of dissensus, this study addresses how teacher professionality can be understood in relation to the notion of sensing. Both these ethics indicate a desire to oppose various forms of violence in society. The author challenges the assumption that all that is needed to oppose violence is the moulding of a proper moral character. According to Lévinas’ and Ziarek’s writings on sensing the Other, education alone will not overcome power dynamics and the unconscious distancing between people. Instead, these aspects need to be continuously addressed by teachers. Rather than trying to find the best ethical theory, we contend that theories cannot replace the critical judgement of teachers, which necessarily presumes a more widened view and more thoughtful choices in their ever-changing practices.

  • 30.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies. Uppsala Universitet.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Student teachers need more than evidence: Arguments for the place of theory in the Teacher Education curriculum2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Teacher Professionality and Sensing: Engaging in Dialogue About Professionality and Ethics Without a Foundation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Var går gränsen för lärares ansvar?2012In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Hjälmeskog, Karin
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Grappling with gender: Studying gender as educational content in teacher education2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education has been given the role to contribute to the aspiration of a socially just society, which includes countering various forms of oppression in society. Teachers are thus given the responsibility for preparing their students not only to be aware of oppressive structures and practices, such as those related to gender oppression, but also to actively counteract them. How does teacher education prepare teachers for this task? In a planned research project, we aim to inquire into teacher education practices directed towards promoting gender equality, from a curriculum perspective. As teacher educators, we share the experience with many others that introducing gender related content is far from easy, and may raise resistance from several students. Our purpose is to increase our knowledge about what actually happens when teachers and students process this content together, when teachers plan and implement education and when students encounter and process it? It is also to open up a new way of inquiring into meaning making in relation to educational content, a way that takes into account the strong emotions that are not something to be done away with through increased knowledge (cf Britzman, 1998). Our theoretical lense draws from Kristeva’s work. Inspired by psychoanalysis, the creation of identity is in Kristeva’s (2000) way of reasoning an inner process that cannot be separated from the social, but where the meaning of the social stems from a person’s way of imagining it. The way a person imagines the world influences her actions and a shift in imagination involves a shift of ‘identity’ constantly evaporating a stable identity via the inside’s encounter with the outside – united through language. She introduces the expression subject-in-process (Kristeva, 2002) which places the attention upon the cumbersum process for an individual to become conscious of her images in relation to others in order to confront them, and if needed change them. In her way of reasoning images do not only operate on a conscious level – during our process of creating meaning unflattering images of oneself as acting subjects or images generally difficult to bear become supressed to the unconscious. This creates a false image of a stabile and “good” identity which renders it difficult to change our own world view and ways of acting even though we hurt other people. The subject-in-process as an unavoidable coalition and intermingle with the social (culture) is for Kristeva the main site for change and strife for opposing social violence. In a pilot study consisting of interviews with one student and one teacher educator, the teacher educator found that for some students, a change of perspective is achieved through distancing oneself from ones experiences, using theoretical concepts. For others it is only achieved through moving from ones concrete experiences towards theory. The teacher educator is aware of that he cannot separate his physical being from the content he deals with, being a male heterosexual. However, several times he has feared that his teaching and the discussions in class, aimed at challenging dichotomies, may have ended up resulting in the opposite.

  • 34.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Jenkins-Parker, Marie
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Education of the Other: education policies targeted to Muslim refugees children in UK and Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Student teachers’ task perceptions of democracy in their future profession – a critical discourse analysis of students’ course texts2018In: Australian Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 1835-517X, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 82-97, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The education system is still important for establishing and maintaining democracy in society. In relation to this, it is reasonable to suggest that teachers’ different interpretations of their mission to teach for democracy will influence their teaching practices. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on student teachers’ task perceptions as a dimension of their professional role to teach for democracy in school. An analysis of Swedish student teachers’ course texts written as an assignment during a course focusing on democracy is conducted using critical discourse analysis as an analytical tool. The task perceptions are described according to two main discourses: as narrow and broad approaches to teaching for democracy. These two approaches are further analyzed in terms of two corresponding strategies for teacher professionalism: outside-in professionalism and inside-out professionalism. The result partly confirms earlier studies of student teachers, where narrow approaches to democracy have been found to be most common.

  • 36.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    Democracy and emancipation in teacher education: A summative content analysis of teacher educators' democratic assignment expressed in policies for Teacher Education in Sweden and Ireland between 2000-20102018In: Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, ISSN 1478-8047, E-ISSN 2047-1734, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 20-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How questions concerning democracy and emancipation thread through teacher education is currently under theorized and there is a paucity of cross-national studies examining the problem. In this study, we draw from a number of theoretical frameworks for their discursive positioning of democracy and emancipation in teacher education and what we are calling teacher educators’ democratic assignment. The framework allowed us to identify key words which we then used for a limited content analysis of policy documents in two European countries, Sweden and the Republic of Ireland, in two separate timelines 2000/2002 and 2010/2012. Our findings indicate that despite significant cultural and contextual differences between the two education systems, key words linked to democracy and emancipation have significantly decreased in policy documentation in both countries in this timeline. This prompts our hypothesis that a paradigm shift has occurred in the discursive positioning of teacher educators’ democratic assignment. The findings suggest the need for a deeper discourse analysis of the four documents as the next phase in the research design. The findings while tentative have implications, well beyond two nation states, for contemporary issues in teacher education and society that require collective consciousness and action.

  • 37.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    Det är lärares och lärarutbildares fel!: Faran med att gömma komplexitet under en slöja av fördomar2014In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 19, no 2-3, p. 229-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    Exploring the notion of critical thinking in relation to teacher educator’s professional judgment within Teacher Education in Sweden and the Republic of Ireland2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    (Re)positioning the Democratic (Ethical) Identity of the Teacher Educator within Global Policy Discourses of Compliance2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher Education (TE) in Sweden and the Republic of Ireland, as well as many other countries, has come, to be closely regulated by the state. In this study we conducted a comparative critical discourse analysis of four policy documents, two documents in each country. We tested our hypothesis that the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator has been diminished in recent policy documents. Our critical discourse analysis to date has confirmed the accuracy of this hypothesis and indicated that the paradigm shift in this regard has been rapid and substantive. The findings have implications for the democratic (ethical) dimension of teacher education generally and for education’s role as a social and political shaper of contemporary democratic society.

  • 40.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    Teachers’ Democratic Assignment: a critical discourse analysis of teacher education policies in Ireland and Sweden2018In: Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, ISSN 0159-6306, E-ISSN 1469-3739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The needs of a globalized economy are rapidly changing what is legitimated as school knowledge and values in Europe and calling up a new understanding of teachers’ role in stimulating democratic spaces, which we have termed teachers’ democratic assignment. In this study we examined changing notions of teachers’ democratic assignment using a Critical Discourse Analysis grounded in the methodology of Fairclough (1995, 2004, 2013) and philosophical worldviews of education and democracy (Dewey 1959/1916; Edling, 2012, 2015; Englund, 2016). We tested our hypothesis that teachers’ democratic assignment has changed in rapid and unprecedented ways using a critical analysis of four public policy documents in teacher education in Ireland and Sweden. Our findings, albeit limited to only two policy documents in each country, reported a substantive and converging paradigm shift from a predominantly progressive (reconstructivist) discourse in the early years of this century to a more essentialist (perennialist) discourse in recent times. The findings will have interest for a wider audience and have implications for society and teacher education as a social responsibility for democracy and emancipation in turbulent times.

  • 41.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    The changing democratic (ethical) dimension in Teacher Educator’s professional identity?: A comparative critical discourse analysis of policy documents regarding teacher educator’s democratic (ethical) identity in the Republic of Ireland and Sweden2014In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we report on findings from a larger critical discourse analysis of official policy documents, in relation to the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator in the Republic of Ireland and Sweden. The study framed with critical theory positions teacher education within competing discourses of education. The research methodology examines the hypothesis that in the last decade there has been a paradigm shift in the way policy documents regard the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator (teacher).  In an earlier study we completed a historical contextual overview and a preliminary comparative word count of four policy documents, two documents from each country, at the start of this century and more recently. The study reported in this paper consists of a comparative initial textual analysis  in relation to the same four policy documents. Findings indicate a substantive paradigm shift in both countries from a predominantly progressive (pragmatic) discourse in the early years of this century to a more essentialist (technocratic) discourse  in  recent times. The study raises concerns not only about the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator but also about the contemporary role for  education  as a social and political shaper of values (democratic) and emancipation.

  • 42.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmies, Geraldine
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Approaching Teacher Educators' Democratic Professionalism2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sharp, Heather
    Newcastle University, Australia.
    Ammert, Niklas
    Linnéuniversitet.
    Löfström, Jan
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Exploring moral responsibility(ies) within argumentations for the use of historical consciousnes2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    A Child Perspective in the Study of Bullying in Swedish Boarding Elite’s Schools2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a research study of bullying in Swedish private Boarding schools with focus on a child perspective. It analyses even the Education of the Swedish Power Elites starting point from Bourdieu s’ sociological research and from the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    This study is based on the analysis of cases of bullying in three private boarding schools in Sweden during 2011-2012. This contribution analyses in which way the child perspective is presented in description of bullying and practices against bullying produced by different actors

    Method

    This contribution is based on analysis of texts produced by Swedish Education authorities, Polices authorities, Boarding schools staff, parents, pupils and media.

    Expected Outcomes

    This contribution shows how bullying practices in Swedish boarding elite’s schools are legitimized in terms on traditions and socialization patters for leadership in the Swedish Society. It argues on policies and practices against bullying that pay attention to a child perspective. Even though this analysis focuses on the Swedish experience, it can lead to a better understanding of the need to pay attention on a child perspective in the analysis on policies and practices against bullying in other European educational contexts.

  • 45.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Can school leaders make a difference in the protection of children’s rights against violence? : A Critical Discourse Analysis of Different leadership strategies at boarding school in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Children's rights and violence: A case analysis at a Swedish boarding school2017In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 51-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the article highlights various conceptions of violence at a Swedish boarding school and is based on a critical discourse analysis of different educational and media documents. The investigation indicates that ambitions to protect children from violence need to overcome the dichotomy of private and public in order to protect children affected by violence in the borderland between the private and public spheres.

  • 47.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    When The Convention of The Rights of the Child is Not Enough: Civil Disobedience from a Research Perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weaker juridical nature of the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) in relation of national laws is often an obstacle when it comes to implement the articles in European national contexts. For instance, Sweden has a national legal structure that gives priority to Swedish acts in favour of international conventions. Only National acts and ordinances as well as certain EU acts are binding sources of law. Therefore, except for certain EU acts, national acts always prevails before international jurisdiction, such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child (Schiratzki 2013).

    In addition, CRC stipulates several rights that are difficult to interpret on a national level (Schiratzki 2013). Several of the CRS rights, such as education, care and health, belong to the so-called second-generation human rights that require active action by the state to ensure their existence in practice.

    Unlike first-generation rights (also called freedoms or civic and political rights) that aimed to protect individuals from state interference, second-generation human rights (social, economic and cultural rights) are heavily dependent on the state's allocation of public resources. Consequently, there are often less strict implantations of second-generation rights in national contexts (Willems & Vernimmen 2017).

    Furthermore, previous research (Ahrnér 2006) shows that the CRC contains formulations that are ambiguous, diffuse and have different meanings in different contexts. Experience from Norway also (Schiratzki 2013) shows that incorporation of the CRC s in a national Act is not enough to defend childrens’ rights at national contexts. What is more, there is no international court that can punish a state that does not respect the convention. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Child Rights Committee), located in Geneva, has the task of overseeing that States members implementation of CRC. However, the only possible sanctions that this UN committee can implement against a state that does not respect CRC are criticisms and pressures.(The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden 2015). 

    The weaker juridical nature of the CRC makes it interesting to investigate the existence of other strategies to guarantee Children’s rights within various national contexts that are not taken into consideration by national Acts. One of this strategy is civil disobedience.

    According to Brownlee (Fall 2017) “… on the most widely accepted account of civil disobedience, famously defended by John Rawls (1971), civil disobedience is a public, non-violent and conscientious breach of law undertaken with the aim of bringing about a change in laws or government policies. On this account, people who engage in civil disobedience are willing to accept the legal consequences of their actions, as this shows their fidelity to the rule of law. Civil disobedience, given its place at the boundary of fidelity to law, is said to fall between legal protest, on the one hand, and conscientious refusal, revolutionary action, militant protest and organised forcible resistance, on the other hand.” (Brownlee, Fall 2017)

    Starting from this most widely accepted account of civil disobedience (see Brownlee, Fall 2017) this contribution aims to introduce and discuss a research review about international research on civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee Childrens’ rights in education in national contexts. 

    Method

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals found in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus, Legal Classic Library, Lexpress databases is used as methodology. The concepts “civil disobedience”, “children’s rights”, “Convention of the Rights of the Child” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles in English, Swedish, Spanish, French and Hungarian published during the period 2010-2017 are selected. Starting from Hanna Arendts (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility as theoretical stating point this research review focuses on the following research questions: • How is civil disobedience conceptualized in the selected articles? • Which theoretical starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • In which extension is citizens’ individual responsability discussed in the analysis of civil obedience and children’s rights in education in the selected research articles? • Which research methodological starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • Which ethical aspects are necesary to pay attention in the study of civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee childrens’ rights in education according to the selected articles? • What does international resesarch show about the reasons to use civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education? • What does international research show about the impacts of civil disobendice on the implementation of children’s rights in education at national levels? This contribution will particularly pay attention in analysis of the research strategies used in the selected articles in order to deal with ethical aspects in the study on civil disobedience and children’s rights in education. Hanna Arendt (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility is used as theoretical starting point to understand the reasons and the impacts of civil disobedience as a strategy to guarantee children’s right to education. 

    Expected Outcomes

    Focusing on Hanna Arendt’s (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility, this research review contributes with new insights on the reasons and the impacts of Civil obedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education. It contributes even to develop new knowledge about theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects in the field of children’ rights with focus on civil disobedience as strategy to implement CRC.

    References

    Ahrnér, E. (2006) Barns inflytande i förskolan – Problem eller möjlighet för de vuxna? En studie av ett utvecklingsarbete och dess betydelse för att förändra pedagogers förhållningssätt till barns initiativ. Licentiatavhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen. Örebro universitet 3. Orebro 2006.

    Arendt, H. (1973). The origins of totalitarianism. (New ed. with added prefaces). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

    Arendt, H. (2006). Eichmann in Jerusalem: a report on the banality of evil. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

    Brownlee, K. (Fall 2017), "Civil Disobedience", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

    Schiratzki, J. (2013) Välfärdsrätt i Sverige Juridisk Tidskrift, Vol. 2012/13, nr 4, 796-805 s.

    The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden (2015). Barnkonsekvensanalyser - Uppnå kvalitet i beslut som rör barn och unga. Hämtad från https://www.barnombudsmannen.se/barnombudsmannen/publikationer/genomfora-barnkonventionen/barnkonsekvensanalyser-uppna-kvalitet-i-beslut-som-ror-barn-och-unga/ [2017-11-21]

    Willems, K. & Vernimmen, J. (2017 ) The fundamental human rights to education for refugees: some legal remarks. European Educational Research Journal. ISSN 14-74-9041

  • 48.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sund, Louise
    Mälardalen University.
    What does research tell us on the interrelation between justice, sustainability and teacher education?2018In: / [ed] Nordic Centre of Excellence ”Justice through Education in the Nordic Countries” (NCoE JustEd), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justice issues are highly crucial and should be taken into consideration in order to stimulate social sustainable development in society (McKenzie, 2004; Ketschau 2015). At the same time previous research indicates that institutions of teacher education are an important arena for preparing future educators to create deep understanding and help address justice issues in social sustainable development within every day practice and on structural levels (McDonald, 2005; Apple, 2011; Kaur, 2012).

    In order, to develop new knowledge about the interrelation between justice, sustainable development and teacher education this contribution introduces a research overview about how justice issues are understood in peer review articles on social sustainability in teacher education.

    Frasers’ three-dimensional conception of justice based on the interrelation between the redistribution economic resources, the recognition of cultural differences and the political representation of different groups in society (1995; 1997; 2000; 2010) is used as theoretical starting point for the study.

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus databases is used as methodology. The concepts “sustainability”, “sustainable development”, “justice” and “teacher education” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles published in English, Swedish, Spanish or French during the period 2015-2017 are selected. Based on Fraser’s three justice dimensions, the reading of the data focuses on:

    • How justice issues are conceptualized in the selected articles?

    • Which research methodologies are used to study justice the selected articles?

    Focusing on Frazer’s’ theory of justice, the research review introduced in this paper contributes to develop new theoretical starting points for the study of sustainable development in teacher education. The findings contribute to new insights in how the relationship between following fields of research can be grasped: Sustainable development (SD); Education in Sustainable Education (ESD), Research on Justice in Education and Research on Teacher Education

    References

    Apple, W.M. (2011) Global Crises, Social Justice, and Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education62(2) 222–234.

    Fraser, N. (1995) From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a 'Post Socialist' Age New Left review 1(212):68-93 · July 1995

    Fraser, N. (1997). Justice interruptus: critical reflections on the "postsocialist" condition. London: Routledge.

    Fraser, N. (2000). Rethinking Recognition. New Left review 3 May-June 2000-2 p. 107-120

    Fraser, N. (2010). Scales of Justice, edited by Nancy Fraser, Columbia University: Press.

    Kaur, B. (2012) Equity and social justice in teaching and teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education 28 (2012) 485e492

    Ketschau, J. (2015). Social Justice as a Link between Sustainability and Educational Sciences. Sustainability 2015, 7, 15754 -15771.

    McDonald, M. (2005). The integration of Social Justice in Teacher Education. Dimensions of Prospective teacher’s opportunities to learn. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 56, No. 5, November /December 2005 418-435

    McKenzie, S. (2004). Social sustainability: towards some definitions. Hawke Research Institute Working Paper Series N°27. South Australia: University of South Australia.

  • 49.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Parker-Jenkins, Marie
    University of Limmerick, Limmerick, Republic of Ireland.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Developing education policy to support the rights of refugee Children to Education: Reflections from Sweden and the Republic of Ireland2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on research designed to provide an understanding of the Convention of the Right of the Child and policy strategies targeted to assist newly arrived refugee children in Ireland and Sweden.  The study analyses the responses of these two  European welfare states and the use of political strategies to support new refugee children’s right to education at a time of increased social, ethnic and religious conflict in the world. .

    We utilise ‘Social Representations Theory’ as a useful theoretical starting point for understanding education policy processes targeting specific groups and communities. In line with Moscovici (2001), Chaib & Orfali (Eds.) (2000), Jodelet (2011, 2015), we argue that the analysis of social representations gives relevant knowledge about how groups and individuals construct, communicate and share different versions of the world. Social representations are values, norms and knowledge systems that enable individuals to orientate themselves in their social world (Moscovici, 1984, 2000, 2001). These rep­resentation systems function as common explanations of the real world constructed and shared by members of a social group and are communicated through words, media images, objects and behaviours. Social representations are socially shared practical knowledge that aims to inform  social behaviours and communications and help individuals everyday transactions in a complex social world (Jodelet, 1989, 2011;2015) and deal with contradictions in relation to policies targeted for vulnerable groups (Gilly 1989).

    Method

    Methodologically, key political documents regarding current national strategies implemented by Irish and Swedish national authorities were analysed. The documents were analysed by posing the following questions: • Which social representations of refugee children are present in the education policies/ suggested in these texts? • Which strategies to guaranteed refugee children’s ‘right to education’ are related to social representations? • What do the responses of Sweden and Ireland tell us about regarding the relationship between social representations and strategies? Further, in relation to these questions, the reading of the texts focused on a number of aspects, such as: Descriptions of newly arrived refugee children in the political texts; arguments to legitimise the introduction of strategies. The extent of education policy on education for refugee children is included in these arguments; the emphasis on ‘children’s rights’ and the underpinning of human rights law in the form of the European Convention on Human Rights to which both countries are a party; references to leading research on Children’s rights and on Newly arrived refugee children in these descriptions and arguments for strategies. The analysed documents are the following: • The European Convention on Human Rights, • The Convention of the Right of the Child • The European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights, • The European Social Charter and UN Human Rights Treaties • The Irish constitution (Ireland) • The Aliens Act 1935& The Aliens Order 1946 (Ireland) • The amended regulations implementing the EU Rights of Residence Directives (Ireland) • The Immigration Act 1999 (Ireland) • National Budget for Ireland and Sweden 2014-2016 • National School Acts and school regulation documents for Ireland and Sweden • Swedish School Inspectore report 2014:03 Education for newly arrived refugee pupils Quality Evaluation [Skolinspektionens rapport 2014:03 Utbildningen för nyanlända elever, Kvalitetsgranskning](Sweden) • The Swedish National Agency for Education documents target to newly arrived refugees pupils (Sweden)

    Expected Outcomes

    This on-going research study demonstrates how social representations of child refugees can be used by political actors in leading education policy processes as an interpretation system to manage immediate political needs and to reconcile with European treaty obligations. Finally, the paper shows how education research focused on Children Rights can be used in the development of leading education policies targeted to assist vulnerable groups in Europe at a time of significant of global conflicts.

    References

    Capps R., Newland K., Fratzke S., Groves S., Fix M., McHugh M., and Auclair G. (2015) The Integration Outcomes of U.S. Refugees: Successes and Challenges. . Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/integration-outcomes-us-refugees-successes-and-challenges. Chaib, M. & Orfali, B. (2000) (Eds). Social Representations and Communicative Processes. Jönköping:Jönköping University Press. Gilly, M. (1989). Les représentations sociales dans le champ éducatif. In D. Jodelet (ed). Les représentations sociales.(363-386). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Jodelet, D. (1989) Représentations sociales: un domaine en expansion. In D. Jodelet, D. (ed). Les représentations sociales.(31-60). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Jodelet, D. (2011) Aportes del enfoque de las representaciones sociales al campo de la educación [Contributions from the Social Representations Approach to the Field of Education] Espacios en Blanco - Serie indagaciones - Nº 21 - Junio 2011 (133-154)http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/eb/v21n1/v21n1a06.pdf Jodelet, D, (2015) Représentations sociales et mondes de vie. Textes édités par Nikos Kalampalikis. Collection Psycologie du Social. Paris, Éditions des Archives Contemporaines. Kumin J. (2015) Kumin J. (2015) Welcoming Engagement: How Private Sponsorship Can Strengthen Refugee Resettlement in the European Union. Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/welcoming-engagement-how-private-sponsorship-can-strengthen-refugee-resettlement-european McHugh M. and Sugarman J. (2015) Transatlantic Symposium Report: Improving Instruction for Immigrant and Refugee Students in Secondary Schools Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/transatlantic-symposium-report-improving-instruction-immigrant-and-refugee-students Moscovici, S. (1984). Social representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Moscovici, S. (2000). Social representations. Explorations in Social Psychology. Oxford: Black¬well. Moscovici, S. (2001). Why a Theory of Social Representations. In K. Deaux & G.Philogène (eds.). Representations of the Social. 8-35. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Papademetriou D.G. (2015) Beyond Asylum: Rethinking Protection Policies to Meet Sharply Escalating Needs (Transatlantic Council Statement) Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/beyond-asylum-rethinking-protection-policies-meet-sharply-escalating-needs-transatlantic

  • 50.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Edling, Silvia
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Do I make your life better?: Exploring implications for the scope of teacher responsibility2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of education can broadly be understood as an intervention into the lives of the students for the sake of their well-being, and for the continuation of society. Teachers are given a responsibility for educating the young, a responsibility being expressed in various policy documents on different levels. However, as these documents are in constant need of interpretation, and sometimes are vague and even contradict each other, teachers are left to interpret what their responsibility entails in everyday situations.

     

    The empirical material consists of teacher interviews. These accounts of teachers’ felt responsibility for promoting their students’ well-being, are compared to teacher responsibility as expressed in contemporary research on social and moral responsibility within education. A central approach in this paper is the assumption that the ways people speak about their experiences, has the potential for widening the understanding of teachers’ work in relation to value issues.

     

    The results answers questions about the possibilities for understanding the notion of teacher responsibility without overlooking the dynamics expressed in teachers’ descriptions of responsibility in everyday work situations.

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