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  • 1.
    Andersson, Inger
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Case seminars open new doors to understanding – students’ experiences of learning2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    En pilotstudie om nya universitetslärares erfarenheter av kollegial handledning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kollegial handledning är det mest omfattande praktiska momenten i Uppsala universitets högskolepedagogiska grundkurs. En kurs där den bärande idén är att ge kursdeltagarna möjligheter att reflektera över sin praktik som universitetslärare utifrån antagandet att reflektion är en förutsättning för att kunna utvecklas i sin lärarroll. Handledningen har en direkt koppling till kursdeltagarnas egen undervisning med ett strukturerat möte mellan kursdeltagaren (adepten), som i de flesta fall är relativt ny som lärare, och en mer erfaren lärarkollega. Mentorn ger återkoppling före och efter ett undervisningspass som kursdeltagaren har valt ut. Målet är att den kollegiala handledningen ska hjälpa adepten att utveckla en mer reflekterad praktik där erfarenheter belyses ur olika perspektiv och ombildas till kunskap. För närvarande finns det 150 mentorer representerande universitetets samtliga fakulteter och varje år ges cirka 250 handledningstillfällen.

    Under åren 2012-2014 har trettio adepters synpunkter samlats in om hur de upplevt sin mentorshandledning. De har beskrivit vad de tyckte var viktigt att prata om och om samtalen gett nya tankar och dimensioner. Vår analys visar att både frågor om undervisnings VAD; att göra intresseväckande presentationer, aktivering av studenter och att vara seminarieledare, liksom frågor om undervisningens HUR; den nya lärarens känslor som rädsla och tvivel, självkännedom, nya tankar om undervisningen var viktigt för de nya lärarna att ventilera. Fler detaljer och exempel från pilotstudiens analys kommer redovisas och diskuteras under konferensen. Vi efterlyser ett diskussionsutbyte och synpunkter från erfarna kollegor om denna typ av kollegial handledning då vi under 2015 ska genomföra ett större projekt där hela mentorsverksamheten vid Uppsala universitet ska beskrivas, diskuteras och utvecklas.

     Uppsala 19 april 2015 Anna Hofsten

    mentor och forskare vid Uppsala universitet/Institutionen för Folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap/Allmänmedicin och lektor i medicinsk vetenskap vid Högskolan i Gävle

     

  • 3.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för medicinsk vetenskap.
    Is Gender always reported in Blood Pressure Research? (poster)2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science. Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Nursing students’ experiences of Case seminars2013In: Nursing students’ experiences of Case seminars, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creation of new knowledge is mainly accomplished by students themselves. The Case Method uses cases from real life to inspire students to actively seek knowledge, which they discuss in structured seminars in which the teacher plays an active role. The effectiveness of case-based learning in health professional education has recently been positive evaluated in a systematic review. With the aim to understand more about how students learn, focusing on case seminars, we asked nursing students about their learning experiences.

    Sixty nine students, who had been participating in case seminars in cardiology during their second year of a Swedish three-year Bachelor of Science in Nursing programme, gave us their written narratives and data were analysed with the method content analysis.

    The results of the analysis of the students’ learning experiences will be presented in detail and include descriptions of learning through discussions, an interest in other students’ solutions to problems and the importance of confirming one’s own knowledge. Also the structure, involving pre-prepared cases and writing on the white board and supervision in an open atmosphere seem to enable the learning and everyone to participate. A theme of how the Case Method opens doors to deeper understanding was identified as a main thread running through the codes and categories. To support our analyses we presented the results to the students one year later, asking for their views. All students present (62/69) recognized our descriptions of learning in case seminars to a great or very great degree.

    Our conclusion is that the Case Method seems to involve nursing students in a way that deepens their understanding and we believe our findings will be of interest to other teachers. The study’s strengths and weaknesses and the possibilities of case seminars in nursing education are topics I look forward to discuss with my colleges at the Nordic Forum for Nurse Educators 2013.

  • 5.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Seminarier på tavlan2015In: Seminariet i högre utbildning: erfarenheter och reflektioner / [ed] Lotta Jons, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 45-66Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Seminariet i högre utbildning – Seminariet på tavlan2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att träna kritiskt tänkande och öka studenternas egen reflektionsförmåga har vi på sjuksköterskeutbildningen i flera år haft ”Seminarier på tavlan”. Presentation kommer beskriva seminarieformen och diskutera lärandet ur både lärarens- studentens och forskarens perspektiv.

    I den här formen av case-seminarier på tavlan får studenterna först enskilt förbereda sig genom att läsa in kurslitteraturen och sen jämföra och ta ställning till patientfall med lite oklara symtom och olika möjliga behandlingsalternativ. Under seminariet skriver sen läraren upp alla studenternas tolkningar av patientens symtom, olika förslag på utredningar, vård och behandlingar på tavlan och ställer också ibland följdfrågor för att leda diskussionen framåt. Tavlan är strukturerad med kända rubriker, som också är kursens lärandemål, som behålls hela seminariet även om patientfallen byts ut under dagen. Har vi stora studentgrupper kan seminariediskussionen på tavla varvas med smågruppssamtal där alla bättre kan komma till tals. Målet är att studenterna ska uppleva den gemensamma seminariediskussionen på tavlan som möjlig att påverka, oförutsägbar, spännande och lärorik.

    Med olika exempel och bilder från seminarierummet beskrivs även olika utmaningar för läraren. Dessa erfarenheter kommer jag relatera till Kolbs´ teori om lärprocessen, en beskrivning av hur konkret erfarenhet, reflekterande observation, abstrakt generaliserande och aktiv prövning leder till lärande (Kolb 1984). 

    Vår forskning är inriktad på hur studenterna lär vid seminarier. I fyra studier har vi vid olika tillfällen, med olika lärare, olika studentgrupper och i olika delar av utbildningen samlat in berättelser från över två hundra studenter om hur de lär vid seminarier på tavlan. När de beskriver sitt lärande visar vår analys (med kvalitativ latent innehållsanalys) tre teman: att de lär genom att få diskutera tillsammans och få nya perspektiv, genom att vara förberedda och ha en struktur på seminariet och tavlan och av ett positivt inlärningsklimat.

    Det har forskats mycket om olika former av studentaktiva undervisningsformer.  Inom case-seminarier vill jag lyfta fram en systematisk litteratursammanställning (review) i serien Best Medical Education inom vård- och medicin (Thistlethwaite et al. 2012). De har sammanställt och granskat 104 vetenskapliga artiklar om case-seminarier och man refererar bl a till vår forskning som signifikant och av hög kvalité.  I min presentation kommer jag beskriva hur dessa analyser visar att seminarier på tavlan leder till djuplärande för studenterna (Hofsten et al. 2010) men även ta upp svagheter och tillförlitlighet (trustworthiness) i studierna.

    Avslutningsvis vill jag tillsammans med andra deltagare i konferensen diskutera erfarenheter av seminariets möjligheter och begränsningar.

    Hofsten A, Gustafsson C, Häggström E. 2010. Case seminars open doors to deeper understanding – Nursing students’ experiences of learning. Nurse Education Today 30, 533-538.

    Kolb, D.A., 1984. Experiential Learning: Experiences as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 39–60.

    Thistlethwaite J, Davies D, Ekeocha S, Kidd J, Macdougall C, Matthews P, Purkis J, Clay D. 2012. The effectiveness of case-based learning in health professional education. A BEME systematic review: BEME guide No. 23. Medical Teacher 34: e421-e444.   

     

  • 7.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Seminarium på tavlan2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att stimulera studenters förståelse av sjukdomar, deras orsak, diagnos och behandling, undervisas sjuksköterskestudenter ofta i caseseminarier. Det är en mycket uppskattad undervisningsform där inläst litteratur och erfarenheter diskuteras utifrån patientfall. Seminarieformen passar här bra för att ge luft åt studenternas olika uppfattningar. För att den ibland mycket livliga diskussionen ska bli mer strukturerad skriver vi under patientfallsdiskussionen alla olika förslag och kommentarer på tavlan. Studenter har i flera studier beskrivit att caseseminarier hjälper dem att se nya lösningar och samband samtidigt som formen underlättar samtalet och gör alla delaktiga.

    Under denna workshop kommer deltagarna att få diskutera caseseminariets möjligheter och svårigheter ur tre perspektiv, som student, lärare och forskare:

    Ett case om Anders som har högt blodtryck och bröstsmärta kommer att presenteras och deltagarna får prova på en patientfallsdiskussion, precis som studenterna i sjuksköterskeutbildningen. Olika förslag på riskfaktorer, utredningar, vård och behandling skrivs under diskussionens gång upp på tavlan.

    Deltagarna kommer därefter få reflektera över lärandet i ett nytt seminarium på tavlan. Vad befrämjar lärande och vad är hindrande? Vad är speciellt med seminarier på tavlan? Fallgropar? Styrkor?

    Hofsten kommer avslutningsvis presentera en aktuell review av caseseminarier i vårdutbildningar och diskutera egen forskning om studenters lärande.

  • 8.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Studenters erfarenheter av lärande i det goda seminariet i ”omvänd ordning”2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan vår undervisning på forskarförberedande nivå öka studenternas tilltro till att själva söka kunskap, värdera den och dra egna slutsatser? I vården är sjuksköterskans roll fortfarande mycket att invänta läkarens bedömning och följa ordinationer mer än att analysera situationen och ta egna beslut. Men efter en akademisk utbildning på avancerad nivå förväntar sig samhället mer och i distriktssköterskans nya roll som receptförskrivare av läkemedel har ansvaret förändrats. Skulle inte också dessa studenter uppleva det som lärorikt att skriva texter och diskutera i seminarier istället för att alltid först styras av föreläsningar?

    Som läkare och lärare till distriktssköterskor på avancerad nivå kunde jag förändra undervisningen och vända på den traditionella, förväntade ordningen. Studenterna fick nu istället först självständigt sammanställa texter om hur man känner igen och behandlar vanliga hudsjukdomar. Därefter diskuterade vi deras olika texter i ett seminarium, de gjorde förändringar och tillägg i sina sammanställningar för att först avslutningsvis möta en expert på hudsjukdomar. Det vi prövade var en ”omvänd ordning” som mer fokuserar på studentaktivitet, mycket inspirerat av Kolbs tankar om aktiva lärprocesser (Kolb 1984).

    Mitt bidrag till konferensen är att redovisa en empirisk studie där dessa tjugofyra erfarna sjuksköterskor i vidareutbildning hösten 2014 beskriver sittlärande i ”omvänd ordning” i det som vi uppfattar det goda seminariet. En innehållsanalys visar att studenterna lär sig av att

    - leta kunskap och skriva egna sammanfattande texter

    - träna tilltron till egna slutsatser och att argumentera för och emot

    - vara aktiva i diskussionerna vid seminariet där det är tillåtande atmosfär

    - revidera eller komplettera en tidigare uppfattning

    Jag vill också föra en diskussion om hur vi kan ge studenterna större tilltro till egna bedömningar i mötet med experter en undervisning på avancerad nivå som är mer forskarförberedande och lockar nya studentgrupper att söka forskarutbildning.

    Referens: Kolb, D.A., 1984. Experiential learning: experiences as the source of learning anddevelopment. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs.

  • 9.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Studenters erfarenheter av lärande i ”omvänd ordning””2016In: Studenters erfarenheter av lärande i ”omvänd ordning””, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Andersson, Inger
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Case seminars open new doors to understanding: nursing students’ experiences of learning2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Case Method is a teaching method in which cases from real life inspire students to actively seek knowledge that they discuss in seminars. During seminars, different solutions and ideas are written in a structured way on the white board. Hofsten (2010) described how case seminars in cardiology help nursing students share knowledge and identify possible ways of dealing with patients.

    Summary of work

    To deepen the understanding of learning in case seminars, we asked students in a very different educational context, psychiatric care, about their experiences. Written narratives from 44 nursing students were analyzed using a content analysis.

    Summary of results

    The students described the importance of different perspectives and of seeing a context and of learning in a climate that promotes discussions; they felt that the overview on the white board encouraged students to participate. Different categories and the preliminary themes To reflect on thoughts, To give and take, and To see what is said are shown in Figure 1. When we presented these results to the students, most reported recognizing our description of learning situation to a great or very great degree; see Figure 2.

    Conclusions

    The Case Method seems to involve students in a way that deepens their understanding and this effect seems to be independent of subject or teacher

  • 11.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Case seminars open doors to deeper understanding: Nursing students’ experiences of learning2010In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 533-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The Case Method is a teaching method in which cases from real life inspire students to actively seek knowledge that they discuss in structured seminars. Case seminars in health education have been evaluated, compared and discussed, but descriptions that can help us understand how students learn in the seminars have not previously been published. In a Swedish nursing programme, where case seminars have been used for several years, students were asked to write about their experiences of learning in the seminars. The aim of the present study was to describe this learning process from the students' point of view.

    METHOD:

    Written data were analysed using content analysis.

    FINDINGS:

    A theme concerning how the Case Method opens doors to deeper understanding was identified as a thread running through different codes and categories. Students described the importance of new perspectives and their wish to participate in discussions with other students. The students indicated that the structure, which involved pre-prepared cases and writing on the white board, positioned their own knowledge in a wider context and that the learning atmosphere enabled everyone to participate.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The Case Method seems to involve students in a way that deepens their understanding and critical thinking.

  • 12.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för medicinsk vetenskap.
    Helander, Ingrid
    Medicinska biblioteket Uppsala universitet.
    Is Gender always reported in Blood Pressure Research?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alternating large group seminars using the white board with small group discussions helps students be active and reflective2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Discussion and reflection are important in university education, and in healthcare education patient cases are commonly used for this purpose. Learning in case seminars has recently been the topic of a systematic BEME review, which called for more qualitative research on how students learn and how much structure is required (1).

    Summary of work

    The number of students in healthcare education is increasing, and case seminars can involve as many as twenty students. How can we increase students’ opportunities for reflection? To address this question, we alternated large group with small group (three students) discussion approximately four times during a case. Large group discussion including white board notes was unaltered. To understand more about how students learn, we asked them to describe their learning in these kinds of seminars. Written data were collected in September 2013 from 68/80 students in a Swedish nursing program with case seminars. The narratives were analyzed using latent qualitative content analysis (2).

    Summary of results

    Three themes describing how students learn were identified in the analysis: Being active, Being part of a discussion and Seeing new problems and solutions. The analysis with examples of quotations will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusions

    In the small group, students were able to test ideas and build self-confidence, allowing them to act as problem-solvers in the large group discussion. Alternating large group seminars using the white board with small group discussions helps students be active and reflective and allows larger numbers of students per seminar.

  • 14.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Case seminars open doors to deeper understanding: Nursing students’ experiences of learning2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Creation of new knowledge is mainly accomplished by students themselves, and the main task of teachers in higher education is thus to facilitate this learning process (Ramsden 2003). The Case Method is a teaching method in which cases from real life inspire students to actively seek knowledge to be discussed in structured seminars. In the seminars, the problem-solving process is important and the aim of the seminar discussion is to consider different solutions and identify possible ways of dealing with the situation. Case seminars in health education have been evaluated and discussed, but descriptions that can help us understand how students learn in the seminars have not previously been published. In a Swedish nursing programme, where case seminars have been used in teaching cardiovascular diseases for several years, students were asked to describe how the case seminars had helped them in their learning and what had been troublesome with the seminars, and 69/72 did. The aim of the present study was to describe this learning process from the students’ point of view.

    Methods: Written data were analyzed using content analysis, a process of organizing and integrating qualitative information into themes, categories and codes. All quotations were read and commented on by the three authors, but the analysis was made by two of the authors in collaboration.

    Results: A theme concerning how the Case Method opens doors to deeper understanding was identified as a thread running through different codes and categories. Students described the importance of new perspectives and their wish to participate in discussions with other students. The structure, which involved pre-prepared cases and writing on the white board, positioned the students’ own knowledge in a wider context and the learning atmosphere seemed to enable everyone to participate in the discussions (Hofsten et al 2009).

    Discussion: The interest in reflective discussions, other students’ points of view and solutions to the cases indicate a deep approach to learning (Ramsden 2003). Two years later the findings were presented to the students who participated in the study. All students agreed much or very much to the analysis presented.

    Conclusion: The Case Method seems to involve students in a way that deepens their understanding and critical thinking.

  • 15.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Case seminars open doors to deeper understanding: Nursing students’ experiences of learning2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Creation of new knowledge is mainly accomplished by students themselves, and the main task of teachers in higher education is thus to facilitate this learning process. The Case Method is a teaching method in which cases from real life inspire students to actively seek knowledge that they discuss in structured seminars. Case seminars in health education have been evaluated, compared and discussed, but descriptions that can help us understand how students learn in the seminars have not previously been published. In a Swedish nursing programme, where case seminars have been used in teaching cardiovascular diseases for several years, students were asked to freely write down answers to three open questions concerning how the case seminars had helped them in their learning,what had been troublesome with the seminars, and whether they had any other comments on the seminars. The aim of the present study was to describe this learning process from the students’ point of view.

    Methods

    Written data were analyzed using content analysis, which is a process of organizing and integrating qualitative information into themes, categories and codes.

    Findings

    A theme concerning how the Case Method opens doors to deeper understanding was identified as a thread running through different codes and categories. Students described the importance of new perspectives and their wish to participate in discussions with other students. The structure, which involved pre-prepared cases and writing on the white board, seemed to position the students’ own knowledge in a wider context.This interest in reflective discussions andother students’ different opinions indicate a deep approach to learning. To see if the findings reflected the participants ́ voice, the analysis with quotations, codes, categories and a theme was presented two years later to 62/69 students participating in the study. In a questionnaire after the presentation all agreed much or very much with the findings presented. To conclude the Case Method seems to involve students in a way that deepens their understanding and critical thinking.

  • 16.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Case-seminarier – ett sätt att med patientfall engagera studenter till djupinlärning2010In: FOU-dagen: aktuell forskning och utveckling för alla intresserade i landstinget / [ed] Centrum för forskning och utveckling / Uppsala universitet, Landstinget Gävleborg, 2010, p. 23-23Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Caseseminarier öppnar dörrar till djupare förståelse2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ny kunskap skapas av studenten själv och lärarens uppgift i högskolan är därför huvudsakligen att underlätta denna lärprocess. I sjuksköterskeutbildningen i Gävle har vi i mer än tio år arbetat med studentaktiva undervisningsformer och under de senaste fem åren bedrivit forskning om studenters lärande. Av dessa olika forskningsprojekt väljer jag att här presentera och diskutera två projekt om studenters lärande vid caseseminarier. Casemetoden utvecklades ursprungligen för jurist- och ekonomistudenter och använder äkta fall som ska inspirerar studenter att aktivt söka kunskap (1,2,3). I vårdundervisning utgår vi från patientfall där sjukdomar och olika lösningar på problem diskuteras i strukturerade lärarledda seminarier (3,4). Casemetoden har på olika sätt utvärderats och diskuteras men beskrivande studier av hur studenter lär vid caseseminarier har tidigare saknats varför våra studier tillför ny kunskap som också publicerats (5).

    Casemetoden i undervisning av sjuksköterskor

    För att öka förståelsen för hur studenter lär bad vi alla andraårsstudenter i en kurs om hjärtsjukdomar berätta om sitt lärande i caseseminarier. Syftet med studien var att belysa lärandet från studenternas perspektiv. 69 studenter från sjuksköterskeprogrammet deltog och deras skrivna berättelser analyserades med hjälp av en innehållsanalys (6). Studenterna beskrev på olika sätt kreativa seminarier som gav nya perspektiv i diskussionerna tillsammans med andra studenter, men också problem med att göra sig hörda och vikten av bekräftelse. Upplägget, med egna förberedelser av patientfall och hur tavlan användes under seminarierna, gav enligt studenterna ökad förståelse för sambanden mellan sjukdomars symtom, diagnos och vård och den tillåtande atmosfären gav en lust att ställa frågor och diskutera. Intresse för reflektion och nya lösningar var tydligt och ett tema om djupare förståelse kunde ses som en röd tråd i berättelserna (5). Efter avslutad analys valde vi att presenterade resultaten för de deltagande studenterna. Av 62/69 närvarande studenterna ansåg alla att vår analys stämde väl eller mycket väl med deras erfarenheter av lärande i caseseminarier.

    För att undersöka våra resultat oberoende av kurs, studenter och lärare återupprepade vi våra frågeställningar i en ny studie år 2011. Nu i en helt annan context, med sjuksköterskestudenter i psykiatrisk omvårdnad och med två kliniska adjunkter som lärare. I denna lite mindre kurs deltog 34 studenter med berättelser om sitt lärande. Analysen gav åtta kategorier samlade i tre teman Att reflektera tankar, Att ge och ta och Att se vad som sägs. Även dessa resultat presenterades för               

    Vår slutsats är att Casemetoden öppnar dörrar till djupare förståelse oberoende av lärare och kurs i sjuksköterskeprogrammet. Slutligen, vilka styrkor och svagheter har de här studierna och är resultaten något ni känner igen från er egen undervisning med studentaktiva undervisningsformer?

    1. Barnes, L.B., Christensen, C.R., Hansen, A.J., 1994. Teaching and the Case Method. Harvard Business School Press. Boston, Massachusetts.
    2. Erskine J.A., Leenders M.R., Mauffette-Leenders L.A., 2003. Teaching with Cases. IveyPublishing, Richard Ivey School of Business, The University of Western Ontario, London,Ontario, Canada.
    3. Nordquist J., Sundberg K., Johansson L., 2011. Case – verktyg för professionslärande. Liber AB, Stockholm.
    4. Stjernquist M., Crang-Svalenius E., 2007. Problem based learning and the case method - medical students change preferences during clerkship. Medical Teacher 29, 814-820.
    5. Hofsten A., Gustafsson C, Häggström E., 2010. Case seminars open doors to deeper understanding - Nursing students’ experiences of learning. Nurse Educ Today 30, 533–538.
    6. Graneheim, U.H., Lundman B., 2004. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research:concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today 24,105-112.

     

  • 18.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Education in reverse: student activity first, lecture last2016In: Education in reverse: student activity first, lecture last, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3 key points

    • In this way of flipped classroom students valued first seeking the knowledge before the expert came to present and discuss the subject.

    • Our analysis revealed that students learn when they overcome difficulties, when they seek facts themselves and discuss in seminars and when their own knowledge is challenged.

    • In planning their courses, teachers must give students opportunities to be active learners instead of passive listeners and knowledge consumers.

    When students come to university for advanced studies, there must be challenges. The academic environment should provide opportunities for students to develop important metacompetencies such as problem-solving abilities for tackling unfamiliar problems, training in oral and written communication, and self-regulated planning of their work and studies (Lizzio 2002). The question is if we, the teachers who plan the courses, use the short time allotted to teaching and learning in the best way possible?

    To become a specialized primary care nurse in Sweden, students have one year of primary care (with a Master´s paper) and two months of specialized pharmacology. One aim of the pharmacology course is for students to learn about nursing care for patients with common skin diseases, examine them and prescribe simple medications. For years, the traditional teaching approach in this course has been to invite a medical doctor to give a lecture and then to have seminar discussions and an exam. Inspired by the pedagogical discussion of “flipped classroom” (Gerstein 2011) we asked ourselves whether it would be more instructive for students to begin by searching for relevant information on skin disorders instead of by being passive listeners during a lecture?

    Aim/focus of the innovation

    To give students the opportunity to be more active in their own learning, we reversed the traditional order of learning methods.

    Implementation of the innovation                                                                                               

    The students first had to find information on how to examine skin disorders and nursing care for patients with common skin diseases, and then write a text that would be discussed in a seminar prior to meeting the lecturer. In this new arrangement, we hoped students would become more active, practice evaluating knowledge and prepare themselves before the lecture.

    Methods used to assess the innovation

    To understand more about how students learn in this reversed teaching order, we asked all students in the course to voluntarily write a paper about their learning experiences. All 23 students decided to participate in the study. Their mean age was 38 years and mean time working as a nurse, prior to the Master’s Programme in Primary Care, 7 years. In 2015, two researchers jointly conducted a content analysis of all written data, using Graneheim and Lundman’s (2004) approach.

    Key findings

    Our analysis revealed four categories concerning how students experienced learning in this reversed order. They described they learn when they seek facts themselves, when they overcome difficulties, when their own knowledge is challenged and when they are able to prepare and think before they meet an expert. The analysis and our findings will be presented in detail, including codes and quotations, at the conference. We will also offer a theoretical discussion of Kolb´s Learning Circle, applying the concepts Concrete Experience, Active Experimentation, Reflective Observation and Abstract Conceptualization to our findings (Kolb 1984).

    References

    Gerstein, J. (2011). The Flipped Classroom Model: A Full Picture. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com/2016/01/21/the-flipped-classroom-model-a-full-picture.

    Graneheim, U.H. & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, vol. 24, 105-112.

    Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: experiences as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs

    Lizzio, A., Wilson, K. & Simons, R. (2002). University students’ perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes: implications for theory and practice. Studies in Higher Education, vol. 27, no. 1, 27-52.

  • 19.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Reversed order: student activity first and lecture last2015In: AMEE 2015 Abstract Book, Glasgow, 2015, p. 42-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    Background When students return to university for continued education, there must be challenges. When becoming a specialized primary care nurse in Sweden, students learn to examine common skin diseases and prescribe pharmaceuticals to treat them. The traditional teaching approach is to first have a medical doctor give one or two lectures and to perhaps, later, have discussions in small groups before an exam.

    Summary of work To give students the opportunity to be more active, we reversed the above order of learning methods. The students first had to find facts about skin diseases themselves and write a text to be discussed in a seminar. In this new arrangement, the students had to seek knowledge themselves before meeting the expert in a lecture.

    Summary of results All 23 students in the course were asked to voluntarily write about their learning experience in the above reversed order. Their mean age was 38 years and mean time working as a nurse was 7 years. A content analysis was conducted by two researchers. Findings showed that students learn when they: seek knowledge themselves and write it down, practice trusting in their own conclusions and arguing for and against various claims, and are prepared with knowledge of their own when they meet the expert.

    Conclusions Students value seeking knowledge on their own, writing it down and discussing among themselves before meeting the expert.

    Take-home message Students learn better when they are active. Experiment with letting students engage in their own activity and learning before the experts come to tell their versions of truth.

     

     

  • 20.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Institutionen för Hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Schnaas, Ulrike
    Universitetspedagogik, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Kollegial handledning – nya universitetslärare möter mer erfarna kollegor i samtal om undervisning2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    I den högskolepedagogiska grundkursen vid Uppsala universitet ingår s.k. mentorshandledning, som bygger på idén om reflekterande handledning (Handal & Lauvås 1999; Handal & Lauvås, 2015, Lindenmo, 2014). Nya universitetslärare får stöd och utmaningar av en erfaren kollega kring ett fritt valt undervisningsmoment med återkoppling före undervisningspasset, auskultation och återkoppling efteråt. Grundtanken är att samtalen ska föras utifrån den nya lärarens behov och mentorn är fri att använda sin erfarenhet, kollegiala förmåga och känslighet. Alla mentorer har gått en mentorsutbildning och ingår i ett nätverk med regelbundna träffar och fortbildningsmöjligheter.

    År 2015 startade ett pedagogiskt forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt för att öka vår förståelse av vad mentorshandledning betyder för både de nya lärarna och mentorerna.

    Syfte

    Att beskriva nya universitetslärares och mentorers upplevelser av och uppfattningar om mentorshandledning och vidareutveckla olika former av kollegial handledning.

    Frågeställningar

    • Vad uppfattar mentorer respektive adepter som viktiga inslag i mentorsmötet?
    • Vad är utmaningar och drivkrafter för mentorsengagemang?
    • Vad är de mest angelägna frågorna för adepterna att ta upp?

    Metod

    Under hösten 2015 skickades en kvalitativt inriktad enkät till mentorer och nya lärare som haft mentorshandledning under året. Enkäten hade en svarsfrekvens på 92/169 för de nya lärarna och 60/130 för mentorerna. För att fördjupa bilden genomfördes sedan fokusgruppsintervjuer med sammanlagt 16 mentorer med olika kön, ålder, erfarenhet och fakultetstillhörighet. Enkäterna och intervjuerna har tolkats med kvalitativ innehållsanalys (Granheim & Lundman 2004; Cousin, 2008). I design och analys har vi bidragit med våra olika perspektiv som pedagogisk utvecklare och universitetslektor/mentor.

    Resultat

    Mentorshandledningen är mycket uppskattad av de nya lärarna och fokuserar till skillnad från en bedömning av undervisningsskickligheten på bekräftelse, stöd och inspiration. Handledningssamtalen ger de nya lärarna en möjlighet att diskutera angelägna frågor rörande hela undervisningsprocessen med förankring i den egna ämneskontexten utifrån ett konkret undervisningsmoment. Enkätsvaren visar att samtalen förutom nya tankar för den egna undervisningen och konkreta tips även ger en ökad trygghet som lärare, en bekräftelse att det aktuella upplägget fungerar och en uppmuntran att pröva nya saker. Mentorerna å sin sida betonar att handledning inte bara är ett tillfälle att stödja nya lärare som ger stor arbetsglädje, utan även en möjlighet till egen kontinuerlig självreflektion och till att aktivt ta del i universitetets pedagogiska utvecklingsarbete. Många lyfter att uppdraget innebär ett välkommet avbrott i den akademiska vardagen och bland det roligaste de gör.

    Slutsatser och diskussion

    Den kollegiala handledningen är ett stöd åt nya lärare i akademin som kan ventilera sina frågor och farhågor med en mer erfaren kollega. De är därmed en form av praktik som enligt Riis bör förstärkas i högskolepedagogisk utveckling. (Riis, 2016) Ett för oss förvånande och intressant resultat är hur mentorshandledningen på ett mångfacetterat sätt bidrar till mentorernas egen utveckling. I motsats till mer tidsbegränsade insatser som pedagogiska kurser innebär mentorsuppdraget en kontinuerlig pedagogisk reflektion, där mentorn inte bara ger stöd, utan också själv får ompröva och sätta ord på pedagogiska resonemang. Handledningen ger en möjlighet att ta del av helt olika undervisningskulturer och skapar ett levande pedagogiskt samtal över hela universitetet.

     

    Referenser

    Cousin, Glynis (2008). Researching learning in higher education - an introduction to contemporary. David Fulton Publishers Ltd

    Graneheim, U.H., Lundman, B. (2004) Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today 24, 105-112.

    Handal, G. (1999) Consultation using critical friends. New directions for teaching and learning, Vol. 1999, issue 79, 59-70.

    Lauvås, Per & Handal, Gunnar (2015). Handledning och praktisk yrkesteori. 3., uppdaterade uppl. Lund: Studentlitteratur, s. 231-257.

    Lindenmo, B. (2014) Att besöka varandras undervisning – om auskultationer som utvecklingsmöjlighet I högskolan. Centrum för undervisning och lärande. Linköpings universitet.

    Riis, U. På vilken vetenskaplig grund och utifrån vilken beprövad erfarenhet? Utvecklingsbehov inom högskolepedagogiken. Högre utbildning, 6(1), 91-92.

  • 21.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Schnaas, Ulrike
    Uppsala universitet.
    Reinholdsson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    "Mentored teaching" as a practice of care in educational development2016In: "Mentored teaching" as a practice of care in educational development, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer development has been recognized as a key for the professional enhancement of university teachers. At Uppsala University, Sweden, mentored teaching offers a structure for peer reflection and collegial support. During the "Academic Teacher Training Course", every participant reflects on a specific teaching activity together with an experienced university teacher.

    Currently, a research project is addressing what mentored teaching means to course participants / mentees as well as to mentors. Our findings – based on detailed questionnaires with 60 mentors and 92 mentees as well as focus interviews – clearly show that mentored teaching can be linked to an ethos of care in two senses.

    On the one hand, the mentors provide a supportive space for the mentees that - unlike assessment – focuses on confirmation, encouragement and inspiration being particularly important for new academics. On the other hand, the network for mentors as well as the mentoring itself provides a similar space for the mentors. Being a mentor offers not only an opportunity to contribute to the mentees learning, but also a possibility for continuous self-reflection and self-development. Specific training and networking activities organized by the Unit of Academic Teaching and Learning contribute to a shared mentoring ethos of care for each other as colleagues. Aligned to that, becoming a member of the mentors´ network is based on strong commitment for teaching and education rather than on academic merits. In conclusion, this non-competitive community maintains an ethos of care and collegiality across the university that is beneficial for both mentees and mentors.

  • 22.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för medicinsk vetenskap.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Nurses’ opinions about a web-based distance course in a  specialist education programme for the care of older people: a questionnaire study2009In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate students’ opinions about a web-based distance learning course that was part of a specialist education programme.

    Design.  Survey.

    Method. The study was a descriptive survey with both qualitative and quantitative questions.

    Results. The students found the web-based course very useful for their theoretical and professional development. New perspectives on ageing, increased knowledge about analysing and describing theories as well as practising interviews and qualitative analysis as methods were appreciated by the students.

    Conclusions. One way for RNs in Sweden to get a university specialist education in the care of older people is to have a distance web-based course, as it allows flexibility and improves the students’ theoretical and professional knowledge and communication skills.

    Relevance for clinical practice. Managers working in care for older people settings and educators will be interested in this study’s finding that distance learning is a useful strategy for providing education for RNs who work with older people.

  • 23.
    Nyström, Anita
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Pålsson, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Bachelor nursing students' experiences of being video-recorded during examination in a simulated emergency care situation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Nyström, Anita
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Pålsson, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet.
    Nursing students' experiences of being video-recorded during examination in a fictive emergency care situation2014In: International Journal of Nursing Practice, ISSN 1322-7114, E-ISSN 1440-172X, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 540-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Promoting bachelor nursing students’ learning in simulated care can be achieved through dynamic scenario-based training sessions that are documented using simple video equipment. One valuable aspect of this kind of training is the subsequent reflective dialogue that takes place between the teacher and the students during the examination.

    Aim: The aim of the present paper is to describe bachelor nursing students’ experiences of being video-recorded during an examination with a simulated patient in emergency care.

    Method: The study was descriptive in design and used a qualitative approach with written answers to open-ended questions; 44 bachelor nursing students participated.

    Results: A latent content analysis resulted in three themes: (1) Visualization may cause nervousness at first, (2) Visualization promotes dialogue and acknowledgement, and (3) Visualization promotes increased self-knowledge and professional growth.

    Conclusion: The conclusion is that video-recording is a good way for bachelor nursing students to develop skills in emergency care situations and to understand their own actions; it may also help them increase their self-knowledge.  

  • 25.
    Nyström, Anita
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Pålsson, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Nursing students' experiences of being video-recorded during examination in a fictive emergency care situation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Promoting bachelor nursing students’ learning in fictive care can be achieved through dynamic

    scenario-based training sessions that are documented using simple video equipment. One

    valuable aspect of this kind of training is the subsequent reflective dialogue that takes place

    between the teacher and the students.

    The aim of the present paper is to describe bachelor nursing students’ experiences of being videorecorded

    during an examination with a fictive patient in emergency care.

    The study was descriptive in design and used a qualitative approach with written answers to

    open-ended questions; 44 bachelor nursing students participated.

    A latent content analysis resulted in three themes: (1)

    Visualization may cause nervousness at

    first,

    (2) Visualization promotes dialogue and acknowledgement, and (3) Visualization promotes

    increased self-knowledge and professional growth.

    The conclusion is that video-recording is a good way for bachelor nursing students to develop

    skills in emergency care situations and to understand their own actions; it may also help them

    increase their self-knowledge

  • 26.
    Nyström, Anita
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Pålsson, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Undergraduate nursing students experiences of beeing video-recorded during examination in a simulated emergency care situation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 26 of 26
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