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  • 1.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nyberg, Fred J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Growth hormone improves spatial memory and reverses certain anabolic androgenic steroid-induced effects in intact rats2013In: Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0022-0795, E-ISSN 1479-6805, Vol. 216, no 1, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth hormone (GH) has previously been shown to promote cognitive functions in GH deficient rodents. In this study we report effects of GH on learning and memory in intact rats pretreated with the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone. Male Wistar rats received nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) or peanut oil every third day for three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0 IU/kg) or saline for ten consecutive days. During the GH/saline treatment spatial learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Also, plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) were assessed and the gene expression of the GH receptor, Igf1, and Igf2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex was analyzed. The results demonstrated a significant positive effect of GH on memory functions and increased gene expression of Igf1 in the hippocampus was found in the animals treated with GH. In addition, GH was demonstrated to increase the body weight gain and was able to attenuate the reduced body weight seen in nandrolone treated animals. In general, the rats treated with nandrolone alone did not exhibit any pronounced alteration in memory compared to controls in the MWM, and in many cases GH did not induce any alteration. Regarding target zone crossings, considered to be associated to spatial memory, the difference between GH and steroid treated animals was significant and administration of GH improved this parameter in the latter group. In conclusion, GH improves spatial memory in intact rats and can reverse certain effects induced by AAS.

  • 2.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University and Department of Sports and Medicine, University of Dalarna, Sweden .
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Acoustical conditions in the classroom: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios2014In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Speech intelligibility and recall of first and second language words heard at different signal-to-noise ratios2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and English were assessed in two signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions (+3 and +12 dB), with and without half of the heard words being repeated back orally directly after presentation [shadowing, speech intelligibility (SI)]. A total of 24 word lists with 12 words each were presented in English and in Swedish to Swedish speaking college students. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity (operation span, OSPAN) were taken. A basic hypothesis was that the recall of the words would be impaired when the encoding of the words required more processing resources, thereby depleting working memory resources. This would be the case when the SNR was low or when the language was English. A low SNR was also expected to impair SI, but we wanted to compare the sizes of the SNR-effects on SI and recall. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further add to the negative effects of SNR and language on both SI and recall. The results indicated that SNR had strong effects on both SI and recall, but also that the effect size was larger for recall than for SI. Language had a main effect on recall, but not on SI. The shadowing procedure had different effects on recall of the early and late parts of the word lists. Working memory capacity was unimportant for the effect on SI and recall. Thus, recall appear to be a more sensitive indicator than SI for the acoustics of learning, which has implications for building codes and recommendations concerning classrooms and other workplaces, where both hearing and learning is important.

  • 4.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Keus, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Acoustical conditions in the classroom II: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios2013In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life, 2013, p. 5091-5098Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment will be reported which assessed speech intelligibility and free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and with/without the spoken words being repeated back orally directly after presentation (shadowing). All participants encountered all experimental conditions. Twelve wordlists with 12 words each were generated in English as well as in Swedish. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. Blocks of counter balanced presentation orders, S/N-ratios and shadowing/no shadowing were generated. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were taken. The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the S/N-ratio was low, there was no shadowing and when the language was English. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further enhance these effects. While writing this abstract data collection is still in progress but results will be presented at the conference.

  • 5.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Recall of spoken word lists in English and native Swedish presented at different signal-to-noise ratios and different reverberation times: A comparison between children aged 10-11 years and college students2014In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments will be presented which assessed free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR: +3 and +12 dB), and different reverberation times (RT: 0.3 and 1.2 s). All participants encountered these eight experimental conditions (Language*SNR*RT). The first experiment was run with college student (N=48), who were run individually. In the second experiment children in grade 4 (10-11 years, N=72) took part and they were run as a group in their regular classrooms.

    Twelve wordlists in English and twelve wordlists in Swedish were generated. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages. The number of words in each list was 12 for the college group and 8 for children in Grade 4. The 2 x 12 wordlists were presented in counter balanced presentation orders in three blocks (Blocks). To compare primacy and recency effects the word lists were divided into three parts (p3rd). After each wordlist the participants typed in or wrote down the words they could recall.

    The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the SNR was low and the RT was long, and that SNR and RT would interact with each other, with Language and with Study (Grade4/College). The analyses suggest that for both groups there were expected effects of language and of SNR, but the effect of RT was smaller and only showed up in interactions.

  • 6.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios and different reverberation times: Children aged 10-11 years and college students2014In: 28th International Congress of Applied Psychology (ICAP 2014), Paris, France, 8-13 July, 2014: Abstracts, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments will be presented which assessed free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (SN) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and different reverberation time (RT, .3 and 1.2 sec). All participants encountered all eight experimental conditions (Language*SN*RT). The first experiment was run with college student (N=48) and they were run individually. In the second experiment children in grade 4 (10-11 years, N=72) took part and they were run in the regular classrooms.

    Twelve wordlists in Swedish and twelve wordlists in English generated. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. The number of words in each list was 12 for the college group and 8 for grade four. The 2 x 12 wordlists were presented in counter balanced presentation orders in three blocks. Within each block order of S/N and RT was also counterbalanced. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were also taken.

    The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the SN-ratio was low and the RT was long, and that SN and RT would interact with each other, with Language and with Age-group.

    To compare primacy and recency effects the word lists were divided into three parts (p3rd). After each wordlist the participants typed in or wrote down the words they could recall.

    The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the SNR was low and the RT was long, and that SNR and RT would interact with each other, with Language and with Study (Grade4/College). The analyses suggest that for both groups there were expected effects of language and of SNR, but the effect of RT was smaller and only showed up in interactions.

  • 7.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Threadgold, Emma
    City University London, UK.
    Campbell, Tom A.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Failing to get the gist of what’s being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a “gap” between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a “critical” lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  • 8.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Jones, Dylan
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain.
    Auditory distraction compromises random generation: Falling back into old habits?2013In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Habituation to distraction from deviant sound: does predictability matter?2015In: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    How memory of the past, a predictable present and expectations of the future underpin adaptation to the sound environment2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By using auditory distraction as a tool, the main focus of the present thesis is to investigate the role of memory systems in human adaptation processes towards changes in the built environment. Report I and Report II focus on the question of whether memory for regularities in the auditory environment is used to form predictions and expectations of future sound events, and if violations of these expectations capture attention. Collectively the results indicate that once a stable neural model of the sound environment is created, violations of the formed expectations can capture attention. Furthermore, the magnitude of attentional capture is a function of the pitch difference between the expected tone and the presented tone.

    The second part of the thesis is concerned with, (a) the nature (i.e. the specificity) of the neural model formed in an auditory environment and, (b) whether complex cognition in terms of working memory capacity modulates habituation rate. The results in Report III show that the disruptive effect of the deviation effect diminishes with the number of exposures over time, and also as a function of working memory capacity. The aim of Report IV was to investigate the nature (and specificity) of the neural model formed in an auditory environment. If the neural model is fashioned around a specific stimulus then an observable increase of response latency should occur in conjunction with the deviant change. The results in Experiment 1 in Report IV, however, show that the habituation rate remained the same throughout the experiment. To further test the specificity of the neural model the modalityof the deviant event was switched (from auditory to visual and vice versa) in Experiment 3 in Report IV. The collective findings indicate that the formed neural model may be of a more general nature than previously suggested. The aim of Experiment 2 in Report IV was to investigate what properties of the sound environment underpin habituation rate, more specifically if predictability of a deviant trial facilitates the habituation process. The finding that the habituation rate was similar whether there was a fixed temporal interval between the deviant trials or a random interval suggests that the amount of occurrences (i.e. number of deviant trials) determines habituation rate, not the predictability of a deviant trial.

  • 11.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Marsh, John
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Expectations Modulate the Magnitude of Attentional Capture by Auditory Events2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 11, p. e48569-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines the magnitude of attentional capture by deviant sound events? We combined the cross-modal oddball distraction paradigm with sequence learning to address this question. Participants responded to visual targets, each preceded by tones that formed a repetitive cross-trial standard sequence. In Experiment 1, with the standard tone sequence …-660-440-660-880-… Hz, either the 440 Hz or the 880 Hz standard was occasionally replaced by one of two deviant tones (220 Hz and 1100 Hz), that either differed slightly (by 220 Hz) or markedly (by 660 Hz) from the replaced standard. In Experiment 2, with the standard tone sequence …-220-660-440-660-880-660-1100-… Hz, the 440 Hz and the 880 Hz standard was occasionally replaced by either a 220 Hz or a 1100 Hz pattern deviant. In both experiments, a high-pitch deviant was more captivating when it replaced a low-pitch standard, and a low-pitch deviant was more captivating when it replaced a high-pitch standard. These results indicate that the magnitude of attentional capture by deviant sound events depends on the discrepancy between the deviant event and the expected event, not on perceived local change.

  • 12.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    What we expect is not always what we get: Evidence for both the direction-of-change and the specific-stimulus hypotheses of auditory attentional capture2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, p. e111997-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants were requested to respond to a sequence of visual targets while listening to a well-known lullaby. One of the notes in the lullaby was occasionally exchanged with a pattern deviant. Experiment 1 found that deviants capture attention as a function of the pitch difference between the deviant and the replaced/expected tone. However, when the pitch difference between the expected tone and the deviant tone is held constant, a violation to the direction-of-pitch change across tones can also capture attention (Experiment 2). Moreover, in more complex auditory environments, wherein it is difficult to build a coherent neural model of the sound environment from which expectations are formed, deviations can capture attention but it appears to matter less whether this is a violation from a specific stimulus or a violation of the current direction-of-change (Experiment 3). The results support the expectation violation account of auditory distraction and suggest that there are at least two different expectations that can be violated: One appears to be bound to a specific stimulus and the other would seem to be bound to a more global cross-stimulus rule such as the direction-of-change based on a sequence of preceding sound events. Factors like base-rate probability of tones within the sound environment might become the driving mechanism of attentional capture - rather than violated expectations - in complex sound environments.

  • 13.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Habituation Rate is Not Facilitated by Predictability: Evidence From a Cross-Modal Oddball Task2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habituation of the orienting response elicited by novel events is a crucial mechanism underpinning selective attention. The purpose of the current study was to investigate if the habituation rate is increased given that the deviating events occur in a predictable pattern. A cross-modal oddball task in which the participants categorized visual targets across 6 blocks of trials was used. Each visual target was preceded by a sound. In most trials, the sound was a standard sound, on rare trials, however, the visual target was preceded by a deviant sound. In on condition, the deviants were presented every 10th trial, and in another condition, the deviants occurred in a pseudo randomized order. Habituation was observed in both conditions, but there was no difference regarding habituation rate. The results indicate that habituation rate does not depend on the temporal regularity of the surprising events, which could be used to facilitate their prediction.

  • 14.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Using Sequential Structures of Sound to Elucidate the Basis of Distraction by Auditory Novelty.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cross-modal oddball paradigm is typically used to study why infrequently presented sound prolongs reaction time to visual targets (the novelty effect). In the experiment reported here, we used this paradigm with a twist whereby each target was preceded by one of three standard sounds (A, B or C) which formed a repetitive sequential sequence across trials (i.e., A-B-C-B-AB-C-B- etc.). The standard sound sequence was occasionally interrupted during the experimental session (e.g., A-B-CA-B-C-B- etc.) to test whether this interruption produced a novelty effect. Interruptions did capture attention and more so when the replaced sound differed substantially—in Hertz—from the replacing sound. Standard sound can cause a novelty effect, not only infrequently presented sound, as long as they violate what we have learned about (and therefore expect of) the sound environment.

  • 15.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Marsh, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Attentional Capture by Auditory Events: The role of Expectations2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining a modified version of the cross-modal oddball paradigm (Nöstl, Marsh, & Sörqvist, 2012) with sequence learning the current study examines how expectation processes contribute to distraction by auditory events. The visual targets in the oddball task were preceded by tones that formed a repetitive cross-trial standard sequence. In Experiment 1, the standard sequence …-660-440-660-880-… Hz was used. Occasionally, either the 440 Hz or the 880 Hz standard was replaced by one of two novel tones (220 Hz and 1100 Hz), that either differed slightly (220 Hz) or markedly (660 Hz) from the replaced standard. In Experiment 2, with a more complex standard tone sequence …-220-660-440-660-880-660-1100-… Hz, the 440 Hz and the 880 Hz standard was occasionally replaced by either the 220 Hz or the 1100 Hz standard. Both experiments demonstrate that a large difference (i.e. 660 Hz) between the expected and replacing tone is more captivating than a small difference (i.e. 220 Hz). Collectively the results imply that the magnitude of attentional capture elicited by novel sound events depends on the discrepancy between the novel event and the expected event rather than on the amount of local perceptual change.

  • 16.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Wallinder, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Seager, Paul
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Marsh, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire.
    The green halo: Mechanisms and limits of the eco-label effect2015In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 43, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers believe that “eco-labeled” products taste better, which, at least in part, may be an effect of the label. The purpose of the current series of experiments was to examine some mechanisms and limits of this eco-label effect. In Experiment 1, an eco-label effect of similar magnitude was found for taste ratings of both conventional and organic bananas. Experiment 2 showed eco-label effects for a wider range of judgmental dimensions (i.e., health, calories, vitamins/minerals, mental performance, and willingness to pay) and the effect was about the same in magnitude for judgments of grapes and raisins. Experiment 3, with water as the tasted product, found no eco-label effect on judgments of taste, calories and vitamins/minerals, but an effect on willingness to pay, judgments of health benefits and judgments of mental performance benefits. Experiments 2 and 3 also included questionnaires on social desirability traits, schizotypal traits and pro-environmental consumer traits. The last was the strongest predictor of the eco-label effect amongst the three. In all, the eco-label effect is a robust phenomenon, but depends on interactions between product type and judgmental dimension. Implications for several accounts of the effect are discussed.

  • 17.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hedblom, Daniel
    The University of Chicago.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Who needs cream and sugar when there is eco-labeling?: Taste and willingness to pay for 'eco-friendly' coffee2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12, p. e80719-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. Linköping University.
    Marsh, John
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    High working memory capacity does not always attenuate distraction: Bayesian evidence in support of the null hypothesis2013In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 897-904Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) predict individual differences in basically all tasks that demand some form of cognitive labor, especially if the persons conducting the task are exposed to distraction. As such, tasks that measure WMC are very useful tools in individual-differences research. However, the predictive power of those tasks, combined with conventional statistical tools that cannot support the null hypothesis, also makes it difficult to study the limits of that power. In this article, we review studies that have failed to find a relationship between WMC and effects of auditory distraction on visual-verbal cognitive performance, and use meta-analytic Bayesian statistics to test the null hypothesis. The results favor the assumption that individual differences in WMC are, in fact, not (always) related to the magnitude of distraction. Implications for the nature of WMC are discussed.

  • 19.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Disruption of writing processes by the semanticity of background speech2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 97-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have noted that writing processes are impaired by task-irrelevant background sound. However, what makes sound distracting to writing processes has remained unaddressed. The experiment reported here investigated whether the semanticity of irrelevant speech contributes to disruption of writing processes beyond the acoustic properties of the sound. The participants wrote stories against a background of normal speech, spectrally-rotated speech (i.e., a meaningless sound with marked acoustic resemblance to speech) or silence. Normal speech impaired quantitative (e.g., number of characters produced) and qualitative/semantic (e.g., uncorrected typing errors, proposition generation) aspects of the written material, in comparison with the other two sound conditions, and it increased the duration of pauses between words. No difference was found between the silent and the rotated-speech condition. These results suggest that writing is susceptible to disruption from the semanticity of speech but not especially susceptible to disruption from the acoustic properties of speech.

  • 20.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Working memory capacity modulates habituation rate: Evidence from a cross-modal auditory distraction paradigm2012In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 245-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habituation of the orienting response is a pivotal part of selective attention, and previous research has related working memory capacity (WMC) to attention control. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in WMC contribute to habituation rate. The participants categorized visual targets across six blocks of trials. Each target was preceded either by a standard sound or, on rare trials, by a deviant. The magnitude of the deviation effect (i.e., prolonged response time when the deviant was presented) was relatively large in the beginning but attenuated toward the end. There was no relationship between WMC and the deviation effect at the beginning, but there was at the end, and greater WMC was associated with greater habituation. These results indicate that high memory ability increases habituation rate, and they support theories proposing a role for cognitive control in habituation and in some forms of auditory distraction.

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