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  • 1.
    Florin, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Hedlund, Elisabet
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Åkerblom, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Differentiation And Access to Higher Education2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiation And Access To Higher Education

    Education can be used to create a transition from one status to another, a way to create opportunities for citizens and societies. In this paper our focus is on groups that are created for one reason or another as a burden. There are people in society who are regarded as an expense and something that must be taken care of. A collection of individuals that despite large individual variations are lumped together under a common concept - the group with intellectual disabilities. This group has traditionally been prevented from attend to higher education for many reasons. The most obvious is the notion of an inability to assimilate and utilize higher education although it is generally accepted that there is a large span regarding intellectual capacity in this constructed homogenous group. If we instead choose to view human as beings where intellectuals variations is a rule rather than an exception the obvious question should be: how do we find the fundamental values and sufficient funds to make education a form of transition to best serve all people in a community? Instead the educational systems are created in accordance to current discourses and notions about human beings capacity and abilities that means that the system automatically includes and excludes. The educational system in that sense is a practice, an act in which discursive power is staged (Beronius, M. 1986, Olsson, U. 1997). In Sweden the current educational system does not give pupils diagnosed with intellectual disabilities access to higher education. In a previous paper Florin, K., Hedlund, E. and Akerblom, E. (2014), studied subjects' constructions in a project at the University of Gävle. The project was an experiment in which 14 individuals diagnosed as persons with intellectual disabilities were given the possibility of a three-year education at the University. The project is now depleted and a final report is published. The term “project” itself shows that the education was a test or a trial and not something that initially was assumed to be given in higher education. In this paper our aim is through a discourse analysis study if and how the construction of “the other” legitimize the existent of the project.

    Method

    Methodologically the contribution is based on discourse analysis (Foucault, M. 2003; Foucault, M. 2006). We are interested in how the construction of “the other” legitimizes the existence of the above mentioned project. By using discourse analysis it is possible to visualize the power in words and language and how it is staged in practices (Foucault, M. 1993, 1971). The focus here is not on what the words mean, but what they do (Derrida, J. 1998; Foucault, M. 1993, 1971). Our starting point is that policy bills are an expression and a part of current discourse, that is, manifestations which are made possible in and through discourses, in this case by the construction and the notion of "the other". (Hajer, M.A., 1995; Arts, B. & Van Tatenhove, J., 2005)

    Expected Outcomes

    One expected outcome is that the constructions of the student in the project both legitimize the start and closure of the project. These students are constructed as being beyond what already is portrayed as "the other" e.g. students with dyslexia, cerebral pares, visual impairment, etc. The discourse does not allow the idea that people with intellectual disabilities are a natural part of higher education. Changes in education policy are a dynamic process in a context of interaction between agents and ideas, and in this, a number of problems, solutions and efforts are suggested. A contribution could be to see how different agents create the conditions in the current context that allows or prevents transitions in higher education. Another contribution could be to initiate a discussion about fundamental values and sufficient funds to make education a form of transition to best serve all people in a community.

    References

    Arts, B. & Van Tatenhove, J., (2004) Policy and power: A conceptual framework between the old and the ´new´ policy idioms. Policy Science (2004), 37:339-356. Beronius, M. (1986). Den disciplinära maktens organisering- Om makt och arbetsorganisation. Lund: Arkiv avhandlingsserie 23.  Derrida, J. (1998). Of grammatology. (Corrected ed). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Florin, K., Hedlund, E.& Åkerblom, E. (2014). Life long learning for all. (ed.) İbrahim Yalin. International conference on interdisciplinary research in education: New trends in interdisciplinary education. Milano: Icoine. Foucault, M. (1993, 1971). Diskursens ordning Installationsföreläsning vid College De France Översättning Rosengren, M. Stockholm: Brutus Östlings Förlag Symposium, Originalets titel: L’ordre du discours. Foucault, M. (2003). Regementalitet i Fronesis Lag och ordning 14-15 Göteborg: Tidskrift föreningen Fronesis. Foucault, M. (2006). Biopolitikens födelse i Wennerhag, M & Unsgaard (red.) (2006) Fronesis Liberalism  22-23 Göteborg: Tidsskriftsföreningen Fronesis Hajer, M.A., (1995). The politics of Environmental Ddiscourse: Ecological modernization and a Policy Process. Oxford: Oxford university press. Hälsoinspiratörsprojektet (2014) Utveckling av högskoleutbildning för studenter med utvecklingsstörning 2011-1014. Gävle: Institutet för inkludering och optimalt lärande samt Nationella samverkansgruppen för livslångt lärande och arbete för personer med utvecklingsstörning. Olsson, U. (1997). Folkhälsa som pedagogiskt projekt: bilden av hälsoupplysning i statens offentliga utredningar. Uppsala:Uppsala Studies in Education No 72.

  • 2.
    Florin, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Åkerblom, Erika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Hedlund, Elisabet
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Lifelong learning for all?2014Inngår i: International conference on interdisciplinary research in education: New trends in interdisciplinary education / [ed] İbrahim Yalin, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a story about lifelong learning in a Swedish context. The need for lifelong learning is a recurring issue in the political discussions and media reporting. According to Delors (1996), lifelong learning is a prerequisite for modern society. A common way to discuss lifelong learning is to make a difference between formal, informal and non-formal learning. According to Dunn (2003), non-formal learning is about skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors that people acquire in their daily lives. We on the other hand believe that all kinds of learning always include the above concepts and that the discussion of lifelong learning is about creating certain subject. Our aim is to visualize desirable subjects through discourse analyze (Foucault,1980). The empirical material consists of curricula and syllabi for a project at the University of Gävle in which individuals with intellectual disabilities are offered education at post-secondary level.

  • 3.
    Hedlund, Elisabet
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Att styra i namn av framtid: Subjektskonstruktioner och tekniker för styrning2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the dissertation is to problemize the stories about a gradual change and development of education governance. The study objects are steering, constructions of the subject, and disciplinary techniques. The focus is future as a disciplinary technology. Based on the story of a gradual development and change in educational governance three strands were chosen: the late 1970s, the mid-1990s and the first decade of the 21st century. Teacher education was chosen because it is to be found in all educational system. The empirical material consists of policy bills and text designed to create knowledge about teacher education, and text created in the educational community that focus on education and future.

    The questions asked relate the study to Foucault´s thinking about governmentality, genealogy, and bio-politics. The essence in governmentality, genealogy and bio-politicis is that that knowledge and knowledge production is a productive activity that generate possibilities that allow us to construct ourselves as subjects.

    A general feature in the empirical material is the structure of an overall and collecting concept. The time characteristic become visible through the way that people live, work, and study. The stories create an image of a national and the individual's history, with a present, and a future with possibilities, and restrictions. Those constructions create the contexts that the subject is in and will be a part of. Regardless of story, the question and the task is to organize and provide for the individual as the creator of community, economy, health and future. In the documents it is mainly in the construction of "the other" that the community appears. A hierarchical surveillance was made visible in the tree strands. It can be described as frames in which time is divided into intervals with requirements and objectives possible to examine and document. Confession as a technique for discipline is reused under different names. Confession activities are organized in the pedagogical practices and are referred to as “dialogue pedagogy”, “didactics” and “performance assessment”. Practices were the individual are invited to speak, in a need to speak whit some “other” who “knows” and can act and tutor. The educational practice creates network, actors and audiences who act and communicate with each other simultaneously. The network spreads and demonstrates society's intentions and purposes whit the educational system. The networks and the talk of the future and education create the subjects ways to think and talk about herself and others.

    The educational and scientific discourse is part of a political rationality, where functions and practices create ways to coordinate and neutralize differences even though with different names. It is therefore not possible to say that one form of subject construction have been exchanged in benefit of another, it is rather a movement back and forth. The problem is about efficiency, control and to influence the individual's choice, and coordinate individuals in the creation of opportunities for the individual and the nation.

  • 4.
    Hedlund, Elisabet
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Freedom to execute efficiency2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Åkerblom, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Florin, Katarina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Elisabet
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    The desirable University in a Knowledge Economy society2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The picture of contemporary societies in the political discussions is basically stories about a globalized knowledge-based economy market that nations in one way or another has to relate to. In a Swedish context Higher Education Institutions (HEI) appears as a guarantee for Sweden's opportunities on that market. As an insurance and as an answer to societies need to control HEI a changed quality system is discussed in Government Communication 2015/16:76. In that text internal quality assurance and external control appears as a necessity as well as associations with networks like OECD, EC, EUA, EQAF, EURASHE, BFUG, and ENQA and so on. In that framework each university is assigned as responsible (Government Communication 2015/16: 76; Education report 2015/16: UbU9) for its own internal quality assurance. The aim of this article is to visualize implicit control mechanisms that may appear in the new internal quality assurance system and in that the construction of the desirable university as they occur in Bill 2015/16:76 and Report 2016:15.

    Six years earlier a Bill 2009/10:149, the so-called Bill of freedom, pronounced an ambition to give HEI a higher degree of freedom. In that Bill the government emphasizes the importance of coordination and cooperation regarding internal organization within HEI nationally and internationally. At the same time the government decided to implement a new quality assurance system according to Bill 2009/10:149. In short, Bill 2009/10:149 resulted in that Sweden’s quality assurance system was questioned by ENQA and caused the exclusion of membership. As a consequence of that a new quality assurance system was implemented (Bill 2015/16:76; Report 2016:15). One of the main purposes with the new quality system was that Sweden once again should become a full member of ENQA. Requirements for coordinated internal organizations in accordance with Bill 2009/10:149 and the need of the network and Sweden’s desire to belong to the ENQA create and display the paths possible for universities to choose. In that context we have chosen to analyze two texts, Report UKÄ[1] 2016:15 and Government Bill 2015/16:76 with purpose to visualize implicit control mechanisms that may appear in the new internal quality assurance system.

    Method

    Quality assurance system can be seen as a disciplinary technology with a purpose to control activities, actions and organizations (Foucault, 2003b). In this article we draw on Foucault’s concepts governmentality and discourse analysis to visualize implicit governance and the construction of desirable university (Foucault, 2003a, 2006). Freedom can be seen as an expression of power and is based on making the right choices according to what’s produced as desirable (Foucault, 1982; Rose, 1999). Disciplinary power is characterised by the normalising system of punishment and reward (Foucault, 1980, 1983). We will problematize the constructed need of quality assurance and the desire to belong to networks and what this may be a response to. Network is seen as desirable and cooperation and coordination is portrayed as a prerequisite for national HEI in a globalized knowledge-based economy market. Larsson (2015) argues that “Meta-governance of network should thus be understood as type of governance directed towards organizations that participates in network which the meta-governors tries to control at a distance without shattering their formally autonomous character” (pp 174). Our starting point is that policies are an expression and a part of current discourse, i.e. manifestations which are made possible in and through discourses, in this case by the construction of the desirable university.

    Expected outcome

    Changes in policies regarding the governing of HEI are powered by a tangle of wires of national, international and supranational governing mechanism. A contribution to current discussions regarding governing of HEI and autonomy could be that our research shows that implicit control mechanisms could contribute to uniformity through meta-governance as a way to provide conduct of conduct of organizations that take part in networks. Network is described as desirable since they can offer a connection between the state and the civil society. Disciplinary power shows itself in the identification of problems, in that, quality assurance system is a way to create and display the paths possible for universities to choose and to discern the undesirable. Another possible contribution may be the identification of the desirable university in the discourse of the role that HEI has in a society constructed as being on a globalized knowledge-based economy market.

    References

    Foucault, M. (1980) Prison talk. In C. Gordon, red. Power/Knowledge. Selected interviews & other writings 1972-1977, s 37-54. New York: Pantheon

    Foucault, M. (1982). The subject and power. In J. D. Faubion. (eds.). Essential Works of Foucault 1954-84, vol 3, s 326-348. London: Penguin Books

    Foucault, M. (1983). The Subject and Power. Afterword. In H. L, Dreyfus & P. Rabinow. (eds). Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press

    Foucault, M. (2003a). Regementalitet i Fronesis Lag och ordning 14-15 Göteborg: Tidskrift föreningen Fronesis.

    Foucault, M. (2003b). Övervakning och straff: fängelsets födelse. (4., översedda uppl.) Lund: Arkiv.

    Foucault, M. (2006). Biopolitikens födelse i Wennerhag, M & Unsgaard (red.) (2006) Fronesis Liberalism 22-23 Göteborg: Tidsskriftsföreningen Fronesis

    Larsson, O. (2015). The governmentality of meta-governance: identifying theoretical and empirical challenges of network governance in the political field of security and beyond. Diss. Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015. Uppsala.

    Proposition 2009/10:149 En akademi i tiden – ökad frihet för universitet och högskolor. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet

    Rapport 2016:15. Nationellt system för kvalitetssäkring av högre utbildning. Redovisning av ett regeringsuppdrag. Stockholm: Universitetskanslerämbetet

    Regeringens skrivelse 2015/16:76. Kvalitetssäkring av högre utbildning. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet

    Rose, N. (1999) Powers of Freedom: reframing political thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    Utbildningsutskottets betänkande 2015/16: UbU9. Kvalitetssäkring av högre utbildning. Stockholm: Utbildningsutskottet

    [1] The Swedish Higher Education Authority (Universitetskanslerämbetet, UKÄ). UKÄ has been given a mandate to develop and implement a new national system of quality assurance of higher education.

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