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  • 1.
    Carlander, Jakob
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linköping University.
    Barriers to implementation of energy-efficient technologies in building construction projects — Results from a Swedish case study2023In: Resources, Environment and Sustainability, ISSN 2666-9161, Vol. 11, article id 100097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 12% of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions derive from construction of and energy use in buildings. To decrease energy use in buildings, more energy-efficient technologies must be implemented. However, there are barriers to the implementation of energy-efficient technologies. In this study, interviews were conducted with different stakeholders within a city district development project to find barriers towards the implementation of energy-efficient technologies in buildings. First, an investigation of barrier theory followed by three pre-interviews was conducted, which helped in forming questions for the interview study, which involved a total of 18 respondents. The respondents were from the client, facility manager, developer, consultants, project planners, contractor, and the local energy supplier. The barriers mentioned in the interviews were connected to different phases of a building project. There is a scarcity of studies where barriers in various phases of the construction process are explored. In conclusion, the most frequently mentioned barriers were connected to the Planning Program phase and the Project Planning phase. Two new barrier categories are suggested: Lack of Knowledge and Fear. The most prominent barriers to implementation of energy-efficient technologies were Inertia, Risk, Access to Capital and Lack of Knowledge. To increase the implementation of energy-efficient technologies in buildings, knowledge needs to be increased throughout the whole industry, and stakeholders need to step out of their comfort zone and not always do as they have done before. A key policy implication is the importance of capacity building in the early phases of the building process. 

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  • 2.
    Carlander, Jakob
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Drivers for implementation of energy-efficient technologies in building construction projects — Results from a Swedish case study2022In: Resources, Environment and Sustainability, ISSN 2666-9161, Vol. 10, article id 100078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the EU, about 12% of the greenhouse gas emissions derive from buildings. To decrease the emissions from buildings, more energy-efficient technologies must be implemented. Drivers for the implementation of energy-efficient technologies are important to achieve this. Interviews were conducted with different actors within a city district development project to find drivers for the implementation of energy-efficient technologies in buildings. These drivers were connected to different phases of a building project to see when they have the highest potential impact. Connecting drivers to various phases of the construction process has not been explored before. In conclusion, drivers have the most impact during the Planning Program phase and the Project Planning phase. The most mentioned drivers are Cost reduction from lowered energy use, More knowledge within the building industry both stated by ten of 18 respondents, Long-term perspective at client, and National requirements and client demands both stated by eight of 18 respondents. The most prominent driver seems to be economic gains, and LCC calculations for showing potential economic gains are therefore a very important tool. Education with a subsequent certification on working with energy-efficient technologies and building techniques can be a driver and would also combat the lack of knowledge within the business. In-house knowledge at the client, Long-term perspective at the client, and Client demands are three great drivers. Clients in building projects should therefore aim to have good in-house knowledge, and a long-term perspective to be able to set the right requirements and drive for energy-efficient technologies.

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  • 3.
    Hasan, A. S. M. M.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, R.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Tuhin, R. A.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Sakib, T. H.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Empirical investigation of barriers and driving forces for efficient energy management practices in non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries of Bangladesh2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency is being considered as one of the significant challenges to mitigating climate change all over the world. While developed countries have already adopted energy management and auditing practices to improve energy efficiency, the developing countries lag far behind. There are a limited number of studies which have been conducted in the context of developing countries, which mostly revolve around highly energy-intensive sectors. This study looks into the existence and importance of the challenges to and motivating forces for the adoption of energy management practices in Bangladesh, a developing country, focusing on the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries. Conducted as a multiple case study, the results indicate the existence of several barriers towards adopting and implementing the management of energy practices in the non-energy-intensive industries of Bangladesh, where among them, "other preferences for capital venture" and "inadequate capital expenditure" are the most dominant. This study also identified a number of driving forces that can accelerate the acceptance of energy efficiency practices, such as the demands from the owner, loans, subsidies, and a lowered cost-benefit ratio. Findings of this study could assist the concerned stakeholders to develop beneficial policies and a proper regulatory framework for the non-energy-intensive industries of developing countries like Bangladesh. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 4.
    Hasan, A S M Monjurul
    et al.
    University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    Tuhin, Rashedul Amin
    East West University, Bangladesh.
    Ullah, Mahfuz
    University of Science & Technology, Bangladesh.
    Sakib, Taiyeb Hasan
    Islamic University of Technology, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linköping University.
    Trianni, Andrea
    University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    A comprehensive investigation of energy management practices within energy intensive industries in Bangladesh2021In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 232, article id 120932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy efficiency is acknowledged as a cost-effective mean contributing to sustainable development and industrial competitiveness. Implementing energy management practices becomes even more imperative for developing countries, considering their energy usage trends and economic development forecasts. Based on the circumstances, an empirical investigation is conducted on energy efficiency and management practices, as well as barriers and drivers to energy efficiency in the energy-intensive industries of Bangladesh. The study finds that majority of the companies barely implement the energy management practices. Energy audits represent the mostly implemented energy management practice at the industries, though a comprehensive approach on a detailed level is still lacking. In addition, this study finds that the number of dedicated and specialised energy professionals employed in the industries is yet negligible. The cumulated results show that energy efficiency is mostly disrupted due to inadequate support from preeminent administration and bureaucratic intricacy. Energy blueprint cost-saving due to less use of energy and rules and regulations were distinctively signified as most imperative drivers for energy efficiency. On the other hand, lack of information is found to be the most significant barrier to consult energy service companies. Analysis of the country's energy usage and supply-demand relationship points towards insufficient energy efficiency measures and energy management practices in the country. The study also finds that energy efficiency could be improved by 8%–10% through the practice of energy management. Our findings, besides pointing out specific issues to be tackled in the specific context of investigation, pave the way for further research over industrial energy efficiency in developing countries.

  • 5.
    Jalo, Noor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Johansson, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Andrei, Mariana
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköpings universitet.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linköpings universitet.
    Barriers to and drivers of energy management in Swedish SMEs2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 21, article id 6925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy efficiency gap is known as the difference between optimal level of energy efficiency and the actual level of achieved energy efficiency. Energy management has proven to further close the energy efficiency gap. Energy management may differ depending on whether it concerns a large, energy-intensive company or small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs are of high interest since they form a large share of the economy today. For SMEs, a lighter form of energy management, in the form of energy efficiency network participation, has proven to deliver sound energy efficiency impact, while for larger, energy-intensive firms, a certified energy management system may be more suitable. However, various barriers inhibit adoption of energy efficiency measures. While there is an array of research on barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in general, research on barriers to, and driving forces for, energy management is rare, one exception being a study of energy-intensive pulp and paper mills. This holds even more so for industrial SMEs. This paper aims to identify the barriers to, and drivers for, energy management in manufacturing SMEs. Results of this explorative study show that the top four barriers to energy management are lack of time/other priorities, non-energy-related working tasks are prioritized higher, slim organization, and lack of internal expert competences, i.e., mainly organizational barriers. The top four drivers for energy management are to reduce production waste, participation in energy efficiency networks, cost reduction from lower energy use, and commitment from top management. Furthermore, results show that energy management among the studied SMEs seems to not be as mature, even though the companies participated in an energy management capacity building program in the form of energy efficiency networks, which, in turn, shows a still largely untapped potential in the societal aim to reduce the energy efficiency and management gaps. The main contribution of this paper is a first novel attempt to explore barriers to, and drivers for, energy management among SMEs.

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  • 6.
    Jalo, Noor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Johansson, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Kanchiralla, Fayas Malik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linköpings universitet.
    Do energy efficiency networks help reduce barriers to energy efficiency?: A case study of a regional Swedish policy program for industrial SMEs2021In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 151, article id 111579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency is one of the key elements to decouple energy-related emissions from economic growth. Since the energy management practices in small and medium-sized enterprises are underdeveloped, most of the energy efficiency potential is left untapped. Studies show that several barriers pertaining to economic, technological, and organizational systems lead to poor implementation rates of energy efficiency measures. An energy efficiency network is considered effective in overcoming these barriers and promoting energy management practices in small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper explores the role of energy efficiency networks, and specifically the role of its functions in overcoming the identified barriers from literature. This study was carried out as a multiple case study including 13 industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using semi-structured interviews with participants from companies in a Swedish regional energy efficiency network program. Results show that energy efficiency networks are effective in overcoming some of the barriers to energy efficiency implementation and that the present functions are effective in addressing some barriers faced by small and medium-sized enterprises, e.g., energy efficiency implementation barriers such as lack of time and resources. However, some barriers still remain as constraints for energy efficiency implementation, even after energy efficiency network participation.

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  • 7.
    Johansson, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cornelis, Erwin
    Tractebel Engineering S.A., Brussels, Belgium.
    Kimura, Osamu
    Socio-Economic Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Designing Policies and Programmes for Improved Energy Efficiency in Industrial SMEs2019In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 1338Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, is driving policymakers to make decisions to promote more efficient energy use. Improved industrial energy efficiency is said to play a key role in the transition to more carbon-neutral energy systems. In most countries, industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 95% or more of the total number of companies. Thus, SMEs, apart from using energy, are a major driver in the economy with regard to innovation, GDP growth, employment, investments, exports, etc. Despite this, research and policy activities related to SMEs have been scarce, calling for contributions in the field. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to critically assess how adequate energy efficiency policy programmes for industrial SMEs could be designed. Results show that scientific publications in the field differ in scope and origin, but a major emphasis of the scientific papers has been on barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency. Scientific contributions from studies of energy policy programmes primarily cover energy audit programmes and show that the major energy efficiency measures from industrial SMEs are found in support processes. The review further reveals an imbalance in geographic scope of the papers within the field, where a vast majority of the papers emanate from Europe, calling for scientific publications from other parts of the world. The study synthesizes the findings into a general method on how to design efficiency programs for the sector.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Stenqvist, Christian
    EvalPart.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energy Efficiency Networks for SMEs - Program Theory and Ongoing Evaluation2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known from literature and experienced by practitioners that various barriers are hindering energy management practices and energy efficiency improvements in (industrial) SMEs. With relatively low-cost shares for energy end-use and other priorities, energy management and energy efficiency measures seldom become an area for attention or investments. Consequently, large cost-effective energy efficiency potentials are left untapped. The situation is not pleasing given the European 2020 strategy for "smart, sustainable and inclusive growth", in which energy efficiency is to form a centerpiece with its abilities to provide multiple benefits that goes beyond energy cost savings.

    There are good practice examples where SMEs take part in networks and thereby join forces and cooperate to build energy management capacities. For the first time formalized and applied, on a regional level in Sweden, an Industrial Energy Efficiency Network (IEEN) model currently operates with the aim to attract the participation of at least 80 SMEs in ten local networks. An ongoing evaluation approach has been initiated with the main intention to review key activities in project implementation and make proposals for improvements.

    As a joint analysis between the project management and the external evaluator, this paper aims to outline characteristics of the particular IEEN model, present intermediate results from implementation and provide further insights from the evaluation. To our awareness, program theory and ongoing evaluation has so far not been applied to IEENs. Our results show that it clarifies the change process and helps to identify unique intermediate results and challenges faced in different phases of implementation. These are important lessons with potential to enhance understanding and improve knowledge dissemination within the community of industrial energy efficiency policy analysts, project developers and evaluators in the Asian-Pacific region.

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  • 9.
    Johansson, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Non-energy benefits in energy audit and energy efficiency network policy programs for industrial SMEs2019In: ECEEE 2019 Summer Study Proceedings, 2019, p. 225-233Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency is a key component towards sustainable and climate-neutral industrial energy systems. The potential for industrial energy efficiency varies between sectors and processes but is stated to be high. Implementation of energy efficiency measures and activities could also result in benefits in addition to energy cost savings, benefits that are more difficult to quantify in economic terms. Research shows that additional gains from investments are underestimated as non-energy benefits (NEBs) are often neglected when the financial attractiveness of energy efficiency investments are evaluated. In the literature, great attention has been given to realise industrial energy efficiency potential through industrial energy policies and programs, in order to promote investments and implementation of new, more efficient technologies and processes. The most internationally common industrial energy policies for industrial SMEs are energy audit programs, but energy efficiency networks have also received increased attention from policymakers. However, there is a scarcity of studies exploring NEBs in relation to industrial SME energy audits and energy efficiency network policy programs. The aim of this study was to identify and compare NEBs from two key energy efficiency policies: energy audit and energy efficiency network programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with executives at two groups of industrial companies: companies that participated in the regional Swedish energy efficiency network policy program, and participants from the national energy audit program, Swedish Energy Audit Program (SEAP). The overall most commonly mentioned NEBs were related to production, such as increased lifetime of equipment and more reliable production. However, while participants from the energy audit program related these NEBs mainly to technical installations, network participants also saw these types of NEBs from energy management practices. If NEBs were to be included in energy audit programs the benefit of the audits could be increased, but will then particularly affect the technical installations. NEBs in terms of network participation were shown to lead to an increase in the general benefits of the networks, and for network companies NEBs are also linked to measures related to operation and maintenance, i.e., energy management practices. One difference between the two groups was that NEB improved the company’s environmental image. Two of the companies participating in the network policy program had presented their participation on their public webpage perceiving this as a very important benefit, while respondents from the energy audit program could not relate their company image to their energy audit. One additional NEB that was found, not previously mentioned in the scientific literature on NEBs, was that among the network participants, establishing contacts with other companies in the region was considered of great importance, and further contacts that would not have been established outside of the network. Results even found new customer relationships as a result of the network. This finding is of a general nature, thus apart from the other commonly known NEBs, an additional NEB that primarily relates to participation in energy efficiency networks that this study found is establishing new relationships with other companies in the region.

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  • 10.
    Johansson, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Esteban, Enrique
    Agencia de Desarrollo Económico de La Rioja, Spain.
    Schalk, Karin
    House of Energy, Germany.
    Baurecht, Dietmar
    Regionalmanagement Burgenland GmbH, Austria.
    Janssen, Maya
    Province of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Scimemi, Giovanni
    INVITALIA for the Ministry of Economic Development, Italy.
    Engers, Christian
    House of Energy, Germany.
    Marian, Mihai
    South-West Oltenia Regional Development Agency, Romania.
    Review of regional energy efficiency policies towards industrial SMEs from within Europe2020In: Eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2020, p. 15-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial SMEs represent 99 % or more of the total number of companies in most countries, and one-third of the total industrial energy use. Despite this, industrial SMEs have not received much attention both in terms of research and policies. The scientific papers published in the field covers national energy efficiency policy programs and evaluations of these, while scientific studies of regional policy programs are few. SMEs in general have a low capacity to work on improved energy efficiency, and the term SME is generally too vague to provide any guidance on how to design public policy programs. Administrative policies might be a sound approach for medium-sized enterprises but for small-sized enterprises the administrative policies could be less effective. For medium-sized and energy-intensive industrial SMEs, economic and/or regulatory incentives are important, while for small-sized and non-energy intensive industrial SMEs there is a need for a more supportive approach. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing regional energy efficiency policies targeting industrial SMEs in seven selected EU member states. This overview also provides an insight of the type of policy approach (informative, economic or administrative) that is most commonly used in regional policy activities.

  • 11.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Boork, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Barriers, driving forces and non-energy benefits for battery storage in photovoltaic (PV) systems in modern agriculture2019In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 18, article id 3568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery storage has been highlighted as one way to increase the share of renewables in energy systems. The use of local battery storage is also beneficial when reducing power variations in the grid, thereby contributing to more robust and cost-effective energy systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits (NEB) for investments in battery storage in photovoltaic systems (PV) in the context of farmers with PV systems in Sweden. The study is based on a questionnaire about barriers, driving forces and NEB for investment in battery storage connected to PV. The questionnaire was sent to farmers in Sweden who already have photovoltaics installed and about 100 persons answered, a response rate of 59%. The major barriers found are related to the technical and economic risks of investing in battery storage. One of the main conclusions is that the highest-ranked driver, i.e., to use a larger part of the produced electricity oneself, turns out to be the highest priority for the grid-owner seeking to reduce the need for extensive investments in the grid. The primary NEBs found were the possibility of becoming independent from grid electricity.

  • 12.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Success factors and barriers for facility management in keeping nearly-zero-energy non-residential buildings energy-efficient over time2024In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 14, article id 242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is a cornerstone of climate change mitigation. For buildings, facility management is an essential part of achieving efficient energy use while keeping tenants satisfied. This interview study explores success factors and barriers for facility management in maintaining energy efficiency over time in four approximately 10-year-old non-residential premises built as so-called nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) in Sweden. The study highlights the importance of functional digital tools, benchmarks, and building professionals’ involvement in ensuring energy efficiency. It also emphasizes the need for involvement communication and strategies to engage facility management in energy efficiency efforts. The study suggests that in-house and public policies can play a crucial role in sustaining high ambitions for energy efficiency. Access to professional support that is self-evident to use is identified as a critical success factor. Additionally, the research presents an analytic model that can be used in future studies to assess facility management organizations’ potential for maintaining energy performance in buildings over time.

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  • 13.
    Monjurul Hasan, A. S. M.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Rokonuzzaman, M.
    Institute for Intelligent Systems Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia.
    Tuhin, R. A.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Salimullah, S. Md.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Ullah, M.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Sakib, T. H.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Drivers and barriers to industrial energy efficiency in textile industries of Bangladesh2019In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 1775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bangladesh faced a substantial growth in primary energy demand in the last few years. According to several studies, energy generation is not the only means to address energy demand; efficient energy management practices are also very critical. A pertinent contribution in the energy management at the industrial sector ensures the proper utilization of energy. Energy management and its efficiency in the textile industries of Bangladesh are studied in this paper. The outcomes demonstrate several barriers to energy management practices which are inadequate technical cost-effective measures, inadequate capital expenditure, and poor research and development. However, this study also demonstrates that the risk of high energy prices in the future, assistance from energy professionals, and an energy management scheme constitute the important drivers for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the studied textile mills. The studied textile industries seem unaccustomed to the dedicated energy service company concept, and insufficient information regarding energy service companies (ESCOs) and the shortage of trained professionals in energy management seem to be the reasons behind this. This paper likewise finds that 3–4% energy efficiency improvements can be gained with the help of energy management practices in these industries. 

  • 14.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linköping University.
    Reframing energy efficiency in industry: A discussion of definitions, rationales, and management practices2019In: Energy and Behaviour: Towards a Low Carbon Future, Elsevier , 2019, p. 153-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is a priority goal and an important part of the transformation to a more sustainable society. The industrial sector is an important factor in this setting. In this chapter, we outline the major principles for energy efficiency and energy management in industry and discuss how to develop the energy management perspective with theories from social science focussing on how situated actions, tacit knowledge, and social networks can influence decision-making. By cross-pollinating fields that do not usually meet, the aim is to develop new insights contributing to existing research. We conclude that an energy management model is necessary, which can be adjusted to the local context in which it will be used. We also suggest an energy management model focussing the importance of knowledge and communication.

  • 15.
    Pan, Haozhi
    et al.
    School of International and Public Affairs, China Institute for Urban Governance, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Page, Jessica
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shi, Rui
    School of International and Public Affairs, China Institute for Urban Governance, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Cong, Cong
    Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Cai, Zipan
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Department of Economic and Industrial Development, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Contribution of prioritized urban nature-based solutions allocation to carbon neutrality2023In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 13, p. 862-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-based solutions (NBS) are essential for carbon-neutral cities, yet how to effectively allocate them remains a question. Carbon neutrality requires city-led climate action plans that incorporate both indirect and direct contributions of NBS. Here we assessed the carbon emissions mitigation potential of NBS in European cities, focusing particularly on commonly overlooked indirect pathways, for example, human behavioural interventions and resource savings. Assuming maximum theoretical implementation, NBS in the residential, transport and industrial sectors could reduce urban carbon emissions by up to 25%. Spatially prioritizing different types of NBS in 54 major European Union cities could reduce anthropogenic carbon emissions by on average 17.4%. Coupling NBS with other existing measures in Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios could reduce total carbon emissions by 57.3% in 2030, with both indirect pathways and sequestration. Our results indicate that carbon neutrality will be near for some pioneering cities by 2030, while three can achieve it completely. 

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  • 16.
    Raghunatha, Aishwarya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    Linköpings universitet.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linköpings universitet.
    Hansson, Erika
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jonsson, Greta
    Linköpings universitet.
    Critical assessment of emissions, costs, and time for last-mile goods delivery by drones versus trucks2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 11814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric drones as an autonomous mode of transport are scaling up to transform last-mile goods delivery, raising an urgent need for assessing impacts of drone transport from a systems perspective. In this paper, we conduct systems analyses to assess the environmental, economic, and delivery time impact of large drones for delivery scenarios to pick-up centers between mid-size cities predominantly in rural areas, and deliveries within city limits compared with electric and diesel trucks. Results show that large drones have lower emissions than diesel trucks for deliveries in rural areas and that drones don’t compete with electric trucks, mainly due to the high energy demand required for take-off and landing for each delivery. Furthermore, we show that electric drones are an economically more cost-effective option than road-bound transport modes such as diesel and electric trucks due to the high degree of automation, and also provide the fastest delivery times. Our analysis provides unique insights that drones can address rapid electrification and emergency applications due to low costs, high flexibility, and fast operations. However, for regulators and practitioners to realize it as an emission-friendly option it is necessary to determine the optimal size of drones, particularly for use cases in urban areas, avoid very low landings for deliveries, and have home deliveries instead of pick-up points.

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  • 17.
    Raghunatha, Aishwarya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Addressing the emergence of drones – A policy development framework for regional drone transportation systems2023In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 18, article id 100795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate crisis demands an energy transition away from fossil fuels, and for the transport sector, this implies finding more electric or hydrogen-fuelled solutions. An emerging disruptive solution with high potential for improved sustainability is using drones as a mode of transport, i.e., Advanced Air Mobility for passenger and freight transport in urban and rural areas,fuelled by electricity or green hydrogen. As drones are being rapidly commercialized, there is a need for a policy framework for local and regional actors to address this in decision-making. This paper aims to develop a policy framework through a systematic literature review where findings have been validated by experts from industry and appropriate governance bodies. The results reveal three conceptual elements in the Advanced Air Mobility system where policy actions are needed: 1) primary technology, including vehicle-related aspects; 2) functionality, including infrastructure and operations; and 3) adoption, including the environment, market, and society. The overall lack of a multi-level governance model for Advanced Air Mobility and the scarcity of knowledge of the topic within vital fields such as energy systems and regional planning are also addressed. The findings are discussed in light of regulatory frameworks for drone transportation in Europe. The paper concludes with a policy development framework for regional Advanced Air Mobility deployment and provides policy implications.

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  • 18.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Wollin, Johan
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    Introduction to industrial energy efficiency: Energy auditing, energy management, and policy issues2020Book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Palm, Jenny
    Department of Thematic Studies—Technology and Social Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency: €”Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination2015In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 5694-5703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being situated and impossible to predict.

  • 20.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linköpings universitet.
    Palm, Jenny
    Lunds universitet.
    The unhinged paradox – what does it mean for the energy system?2023In: Advances in Applied Energy, ISSN 2666-7924, Vol. 10, article id 100143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In man-made energy systems like the electricity system, new concepts have the potential to influence and shape the development of the system. Sometimes the influence leads to a positive development and in other cases the new concept may lead into disadvantageous pathways. In this paper we argue that when a new concept is introduced, it may give rise to an unhinged paradox. An unhinged paradox implies that introducing a new concept, such as a new governance or management model, might lead to unintended consequences where some parts or the whole system become more unstable, or less resilient or unhinged. The transition of energy systems includes many “wicked” problems, i.e., aspects that are difficult to foresee the outcome of. The need for a rapid transition with an urgent need to implement new concepts together with a lack of or delayed feedback loops may give rise to wicked problems and unhinged systems. This unhinged paradox is likely to be found even beyond the scope of energy systems and will be further discussed in this paper in relation to the deregulation of the energy market, improved energy efficiency and energy flexibility.

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  • 21.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linkoping Univ, Div Energy Syst, Dept Management & Engn, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Palm, Jenny
    Lund Univ, Int Inst Ind Environm Econ, S-22350 Lund, Sweden..
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Div Appl Thermodynam & Fluid Mech, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Energy efficiency as a wicked problem2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with increased shares of renewable energy supply, improved energy efficiency is the foremost means of mitigating climate change. However, the energy efficiency potential is far from being realized, which is commonly explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. Initially mentioned by Churchman, the term wicked problems became established in the 1970s, meaning a kind of problem that has a resistance to resolution because of incomplete, contradictory, or changing requirements. In the academic literature, wicked problems have later served as a critical model in the understanding of various challenges related to society, such as for example climate change mitigation. This aim of this paper is to analyze how the perspective of wicked problems can contribute to an enhanced understanding of improved energy efficiency. The paper draws examples from the manufacturing sector. Results indicate that standalone technology improvements as well as energy management and energy policy programs giving emphasis to standalone technology improvements may not represent a stronger form of a wicked problem as such. Rather, it seems to be the actual decision-making process involving values among the decision makers as well as the level of needed knowledge involved in decision-making that give rise to the wickedness. The analysis shows that wicked problems arise in socio-technical settings involving several components such as technology, systems, institutions, and people, which make post-normal science a needed approach.

  • 22.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Rohde, Clemens
    Fraunhofer Institute for System and Innovation Research, ISI, Germany.
    Kimura, Osamu
    Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan.
    Helgerud, Hans-Even
    Norsk Energi, Norway.
    Realini, Anna
    Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico, Italy.
    Maggiore, Simone
    Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico, Italy.
    Cosgrove, John
    Limerick Institute of Technology, Ireland.
    Johansson, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    A review of energy efficiency policies for small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises from around the world2019In: 2019 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry, Portland, August 12-14, 2019, 2019, p. 3-135-3-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most countries, small and medium-sized manufacturing (industrial) enterprises (SMEs) represent more than 99% of the number of companies and 60% of employment. Thus, this sector, apart from using energy, is a major driver in the economy with regard to innovations, GDP, investments and export. Despite the importance of SMEs in the economy, they have not received much attention in most countries' energy policy activities. Energy management in its various forms is regarded as one of the key drivers of industrial energy efficiency. While the term "energy management" is often associated with the ISO 50001 standard, there is a broad variety of different programs and schemes in place that do not strictly abide by the framework of the standard. Especially for SMEs, the standardized protocols of ISO 50001 are often too complex for cost-efficient implementation. The aim of this paper is to provide an international overview of existing energy efficiency policies with a focus on energy management practices in selected EU member states as well as Norway and Japan. Results indicate that different countries apply a broad variety of policy contexts in which the energy management practices are embedded.

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