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  • 1.
    Kusterer, Hanna Li
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Jordal, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Samverkan och arbetssätt för att motverka kvinnlig könsstympning: Följeforskning av ett lokalt utvecklingsprojekt2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, it is estimated that around 68,000 girls and women have been subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM), a practice described as gross violence and a violation of human rights with extensive health consequences. The study presented in this report was participatory research of a local project aiming to increase knowledge and develop work routines to prevent and detect FGM, resulting in a cooperation agreement between the participating organizations. The study was carried out to examine the project's importance for the development of knowledge, working methods and collaboration regarding FGM prevention, detection, and support. Questionnaires were sent out on three different occasions to all employees within the participating organizations, and interviews were conducted at the beginning of their work and after the project was completed. We also participated in the reference group's recurring meetings and, together with the project manager, developed a model that could function as a support in designing routines and action plans.

    The results indicated that the participants considered FGM as an existing problem and that they expected to meet girls and women who have been exposed or are at risk of FGM. The project had contributed to the development of working methods, routines, and readiness to detect and counter FGM and to help girls and women who have been exposed, and that more employees were familiar with such routines at the end of the project, but to what extent these are used is still unclear. There were no indications that the target group were asked questions about FGM more often or that cases of FGM had increased.

    The results have implications for the design of development work countering FGM. Based on the experiences of the professionals and the model that was developed, the work needs to be well anchored within management and prioritized in the organization. Another important aspect is that professionals obtain basic knowledge of FGM and that clear routines are devised to ask questions about FGM, detect FGM and deal with FGM cases. A third important point of departure for this work is the development of forms and routines for cooperation between organizations. The study raises questions about how basic knowledge, routines, cooperation, and communication can be maintained over time, especially in organizations were cases of FGM rarely occur.

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  • 2.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Accuracy and confidence in estimation of speaker age2020In: International Journal of Speech Language and The Law, ISSN 1748-8885, E-ISSN 1748-8893, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 163-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes two experiments investigating listeners’ accuracy in estimation of speaker age as well as the listeners’ confidence that their estimates were correct. In Experiment 1, listeners made age estimates based on spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, the estimates were based on read speech. The purpose of the study was to explore differences in accuracy and confidence depending on speech material, speaker characteristics (gender and age) and listener gender. Another purpose was to examine the realism in the listeners’ confidence ratings in estimations of spontaneous versus read speech. No differences in accuracy or confidence were found due to speech material type. Although accuracy was higher in estimates of male speakers, confidence was higher in estimates of female speakers, effects that were also dependent on speaker age. Possible acoustic and linguistic explanations behind the age and gender effects are discussed. As the correlation between confidence and accuracy was weak, it was concluded that confidence should not be relied on as an indicator of accuracy in estimation of speaker age. 

  • 3.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Estimation of Speaker Age: Effects of Speech Properties and Speech Material2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate factors related to accuracy in estimation of speaker age and the role of certain speech properties in perception and manipulation of speaker age, as well as their interaction with the speech material that the age estimates were based on. This thesis consists of three studies.

    In Study 1 the aim was to investigate the role of speech rate as well as the level of accuracy in estimation of speaker age, depending on linguistic variation in the speech material (read versus spontaneous speech). In two experiments, one using read speech from 36 female and male speakers in three age groups (younger: 20-25 years, middle aged: 40-45 years and older:60-65 years old) as stimuli, and the other using spontaneous speech from the same speakers, we investigated how changes in speech rate influenced listeners’ age estimates of young adult, middle aged and older speakers. The results revealed that listeners estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older speakers in comparison with younger speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate was decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech.

    Study 2 investigated how speakers spontaneously manipulate two age related vocal characteristics (fundamental frequency and speech rate) in attempts to sound younger versus older than their true age, and if the manipulations correspond to actual age related changes in fundamental frequency (F0) and speech rate. The study also aimed at determining how successful vocal age disguise is by asking listeners to estimate the age of generated speech samples and to examine whether or not listeners use F0 and speech rate as cues to perceived age. Participants from three age groups (20–25, 40–45, and 60–65 years) agreed to read a short text under three voice conditions. There were 12 speakers in each age group (six women and six men). They used their natural voice in one condition, attempted to sound 20 years younger in another and 20 years older in a third condition. Sixty listeners were exposed to speech samples from the three voice conditions and estimated the speakers’ age. Each listener was exposed to all three voice conditions. The results indicated that the speakers increased F0 and speech rate when attempting to sound younger and decreased F0 and speech rate when attempting to sound older. The voice manipulations had an effect on age estimation in the sought-after direction, although the achieved mean effect was only 3 years, which is far less than the intended effect of 20 years. Moreover, listeners used speech rate, but not F0, as a cue to speaker age. It was concluded that age disguise by voice can be achieved by naïve speakers even though the perceived effect was smaller than intended.

    In Study 3 the aim was to study confidence and accuracy in estimates of speaker age and whether confidence can serve as an indicator of estimation accuracy. Two experiments were performed investigating accuracy in estimation of speaker age, as well as the listeners’ confidence that their estimates were correct. In Experiment 1 listeners made age estimates based on spontaneous speech while in Experiment 2 the estimates were based on read speech. The purpose of the study was to explore differences in accuracy and confidence depending on speech material, speaker characteristics (gender and age) and listener gender. Another purpose was to examine the realism in the listeners’ confidence ratings in estimations of spontaneous versus read speech. No differences in accuracy or confidence were found due to speech material type. Although accuracy was higher in estimates of male speakers, confidence was higher in estimates of female speakers. As the correlation between confidence and accuracy was weak, it was concluded that confidence should not be relied on as an indicator of accuracy in estimation of speaker age.

    The three studies in this thesis provide some insight into different aspects of perception of speaker age. Possible implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  • 4.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Utan mig är du helt ensam: kvinnors levda erfarenheter av omgivningens och samhällets ensamgörande i spåren av mäns våld och eftervåld2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mäns våld mot kvinnor är ett allvarligt samhälls- och folkhälsoproblem som tenderar att osynliggöras och omförhandlas. Genom den här rapporten vill vi ge röst åt och synliggöra kvinnors erfarenheter av ensamhet kopplade till våldsutsatthet och till samhällets och omgivningens responser på våldet och på kvinnornas motstånd. Vi har djupintervjuat tjugo kvinnor om deras erfarenheter av social och existentiell ensamhet relaterat till våldet och omvärldens responser, samt om vilken roll ensamheten spelar i deras liv. Studien hade en narrativ ansats och undersökte mönster i kvinnornas levda erfarenheter av våldsutsatthet och ensamhet med hänsyn till strukturella faktorer. Datainsamlingen pågick från våren 2020 till våren 2021. Var och en av kvinnorna medverkade i en till tre intervjuer som i regel pågick i 1-3 timmar.

    Ensamhet hade en framträdande betydelse i kvinnornas liv, både under och efter relationen till den våldsutövande mannen. Männens våld hade återkommande varit inriktat på att begränsa och kontrollera kvinnans sociala relationer, men av olika orsaker fortsatte ensamheten efter uppbrottet från mannen. Ett av de viktigaste resultaten i rapporten var att samhällets responser på kvinnornas våldsutsatthet, motstånd och försök till frigörelse ofta ledde till att männens eftervåld och makt upprätthölls och att kvinnorna gjordes ensamma med våldet och dess konsekvenser. Ensamheten var på så vis inte bara en passiv konsekvens av våldsutsatthet utan en följd av aktivt ensamgörande processer på interpersonell och på strukturell nivå. Ensamgörandet manifesterade sig som en central del i männens våld på interpersonell nivå, men också i samhällets responser genom bemötande, bedömningar och beslut på strukturell nivå vilka upprätthöll männens makt samt kvinnornas och eventuella barns utsatthet. Stigma och skam utgjorde hinder för att synliggöra våldet samt för att söka och erbjudas hjälp. Men när kvinnan väl lämnat och sökt hjälp var frigörelsen från den våldsutövande mannen ofta villkorlig och begränsad, i synnerhet om kvinnan hade barn tillsammans med mannen. Trots att kvinnorna gjorde allt i sin makt för att bli fria fortsatte männen i många fall att utöva eftervåld. När kvinnorna hade barn med förövaren kunde myndigheter aktivt medverka i att bryta ner kvinnornas motstånd och göra dem ensamt ansvariga för sin och barnens situation. Kvinnornas barn behövde i regel ha fortsatt umgänge med eller växelvis boende hos våldsutövaren. Konsekvenserna kunde i dessa fall bli att kvinnor och barn fortsatte leva i påtaglig fara för liv och hälsa och i en rädsla utan slut. Den existentiella ensamheten var särskilt påtaglig i kvinnornas erfarenheter av att vara utsatta för livsfara och uppleva extrem rädsla men att förgäves försöka få de som kunde hjälpa att se hoten. Oavsett om kvinnorna hade barn tillsammans med förövaren eller inte så beskrev de att erfarenheter av att inte bli trodda eller att bli ignorerade när de sökte hjälp som svårare än männens våld.

    Våldet var sällan helt dolt för omvärlden eller för myndigheter, men kvinnornas synliggörande av männens våld möttes ofta av osynliggörande responser som tystnad, misstro och repressalier, i synnerhet om synliggörandet innebar att mannen pekades ut som våldsutövande pappa. Samhällets skyddande åtgärder kunde synliggöra kvinnan som offer, utan att mannen synliggjordes som förövare. Exempelvis kunde kvinnor och barn tvingas bryta med sitt kontaktnät, fly till en ny stad, leva med skyddade personuppgifter och med ett ständigt hot om att mannen skulle hitta dem, samtidigt som männen levde utan begränsningar. Även i dessa fall, när det funnits risk för dödligt våld, hade domstol beslutat om att kvinnorna skulle tillse att männen kunde ha umgänge med barnen. De kvinnor som levde med skydd beskrev det som att leva i ett fängelse utan galler på obestämd tid, utan vare sig trygghet eller frihet. Att bygga nya relationer kunde vara omöjligt på grund av riskerna, men också på grund av att kvinnorna berövats tillgången till sin livsberättelse i mötet med nya människor.

    Många av kvinnorna erfor social ensamhet till följd av våldet och omgivningens responser som ett kroniskt livsvillkor som till viss del kommit att bli en trygghet, men samtidigt ett fängelse. Ensamheten kunde ge känslor av styrka och självständighet i kontrast till den sårbarhet och hjälplöshet kvinnorna upplevt i relationen till våldsutövaren. Samtidigt uttryckte kvinnorna att de egentligen hade en önskan om att vara nära andra människor men att det kändes som en omöjlighet. Vänskapsrelationer liksom intima relationer hade kommit att förknippas med smärta eller fara, och kvinnorna kunde känna att de inte var värda att ha sociala relationer. Kvinnorna förblev många gånger ensamma, både socialt och existentiellt, med sina erfarenheter av det våld som männen utsatt dem för. Ensamgörandet och den endast villkorliga frigörelsen från männens våld begränsade kvinnors möjligheter att uppfylla några av de mest grundläggande psykologiska och existentiella behoven och värdena i livet, såsom möjligheten att dela sin livsvärld med andra, möjligheten att föreställa sig och planera sin framtid samt möjligheten att skydda sig själva och sina barn.

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  • 5.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Vocal age disguise: the role of fundamental frequency and speech rate and  its perceived effects2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between vocal characteristics and perceived age is of interest in various contexts, as is the possibility to affect age perception through vocal manipulation. A few examples of such situations are when age is staged by actors, when ear witnesses make age assessments based on vocal cues only or when offenders disguise their voice to appear younger or older. This paper investigates how speakers spontaneously manipulate two age related vocal characteristics (f0 and speech rate) in attempt to sound younger versus older than their true age, and if the manipulation corresponds to actual age related changes in f0 and speech rate (Study 1). Further aims of the paper is to determine how successful vocal age disguise is by asking listeners to estimate the age of generated speech samples (Study 2) and to examine whether or not listeners use f0 and speech rate as cues to perceived age. In Study 1, participants from three age groups (20-25, 40-45 and 60-65 years) agreed to read a short text under three voice conditions. There were 12 speakers in each age group (six women and six men). They used their natural voice in one condition, attempted to sound 20 years younger in another and 20 years older in a third condition. In Study 2, 60 participants (listeners) listened to speech samples from the three voice conditions in Study 1 and estimated the speakers’ age. Each listener was exposed to all three voice conditions. The results from Study 1 indicated that the speakers increased fundamental frequency (f0) and speech rate when attempting to sound younger and decreased f0 and speech rate when attempting to sound older. Study 2 showed that the voice manipulations had an effect in the sought-after direction, although the achieved mean effect was only 3 years, which is far less than the intended effect of 20 years. Moreover, listeners used speech rate, but not f0, as a cue to speaker age. It was concluded that age disguise by voice can be achieved by naïve speakers even though the perceived effect was smaller than intended.

  • 6.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Can you hear my age?: Influences of speech rate and speech spontaneity on estimation of speaker age2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive hearing science is mainly about the study of how cognitive factors contribute to speech comprehension, but cognitive factors also partake in speech processing to infer non-linguistic information from speech signals, such as the intentions of the talker and the speaker’s age. Here, we report two experiments on age estimation by “naïve” listeners. The aim was to study how speech rate influences estimation of speaker age by comparing the speakers’ natural speech rate with increased or decreased speech rate. In Experiment 1, listeners were presented with audio samples of read speech from three different speaker age groups (young, middle aged, and old adults). They estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older (60–65 years) speakers in comparison with younger (20–25 years) speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged (40–45 years) speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech. Potential implications for forensic investigations and other applied domains are discussed.

  • 7.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Kusterer, Hanna Li
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Trygged, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Våldsprevention genom Huskurage: Utvärdering och följeforskning av en förebyggande insats i Gävle kommun 20202021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestic violence is a wide-spread problem in Swedish society (Frenzel, 2014). Despite its gravity, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the usefulness of preventive methods (Jämställdhetsmyndigheten, 2019). Huskurage is a method to prevent, inhibit and discontinue men’s violence against women and domestic violence. The method is used in residential areas throughout Sweden. Important aspects of the method are to increase public awareness of domestic violence and the readiness to act on suspicions of violence in one’s vicinity. During 2020, Huskurage was implemented in three parts of Gävle city (Nordost/Norr, Gävle Strand/Alderholmen and Öster).  The work of implementing and disseminating Huskurage is done by the city of Gävle in co-operation with the housing company and some other actors. The University of Gävle conducted a research project to monitor the implementation and evaluate its impact. The purpose of the project was to examine how the implementation of Huskurage was carried out in these three parts of the city, and thereby identify successful aspects, challenges and suggestions for improvement. The project also aimed to examine changes in awareness and attitudes toward domestic violence, readiness to act on suspicion of violence toward a neighbour, and perceptions of safety in one’s residential area following the implementation of Huskurage. Another aim was to examine whether attitudes toward domestic violence and readiness to act on suspicion of violence are associated with an individual’s gender and extent of prosocialness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with individuals who worked with the implementation. A quantitative study was conducted that targeted the beliefs of the residents in the three areas. One questionnaire was sent out to all adult (18+ years) residents before the implementation of Huskurage, and a follow-up questionnaire was sent out 6 months later. Documents such as meeting minutes and email correspondence was also gathered. The results illuminate how different aspects regarding cooperation, commitment and communication can enhance work practices. The results also indicate that Huskurage can contribute to an increased readiness to act on suspicions of violence in one’s residential area. Furthermore, there are gender differences in attitudes toward domestic violence and the method Huskurage.

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  • 8.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    ”Jag önskar att dom hade trott mig”: En kartläggning av våld i nära relationer i Gävle kommun 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med kartläggningen var att undersöka förekomsten av utsatthet för olika typer av våld i nära relationer bland invånarna i Gävle kommun, med hänsyn till variabler som de utsattas kön och ålder, förövarens kön samt de utsattas relation till förövaren. Kartläggningen syftade även till att undersöka i vilken grad utsatta upplevt olika former av konsekvenser av våldet, gjort polisanmälan eller sökt stöd, samt om det funnits barn med i bilden.

    En enkätundersökning med personer folkbokförda i Gävle kommun genomfördes. Urvalet bestod av totalt 3000 slumpmässigt utvalda kvinnor och män, jämnt fördelade i åldersgrupperna 18-33, 34-46, 47-59, 60-72 och 73-85 år. Enkätfrågorna mätte bland annat utsatthet för psykiskt, fysiskt, sexuellt, ekonomiskt, materiellt och latent våld. Totalt 886 personer besvarade enkäten och svarsfrekvensen var 30%. Deskriptiv statistik i form av andelen utsatta för olika typer av våld i olika grupper beräknades. För att analysera skillnader mellan exempelvis kvinnor och män och olika åldersgrupper beräknades konfidensintervall, z-test och t-test. Samband mellan olika variabler samt prediktioner analyserades genom regressionsanalys.

    Resultatet visade att omkring var tredje svarande hade varit utsatt för våld i nära relationer under det vuxna livet. Personer i åldrarna 18-35 år hade i högre grad varit utsatta för våld i nära relationer jämfört med personer i åldrarna 36-85 år. Det var vanligast att ha varit utsatt av en partner i en tidigare relation och tre fjärdedelar av allt rapporterat våld hade utövats av män.

    Kvinnor hade i signifikant högre utsträckning än män varit utsatta för våld, och det gällde samtliga typer av våld. Våldet mot kvinnor var också i signifikant högre grad upprepat och bidragande till ständig rädsla och minskat livsutrymme hos den utsatta, jämfört med våldet mot män. Utsatta kvinnor upplevde också allvarligare konsekvenser av våldet jämfört med utsatta män.

    En fjärdedel av de svarande hade varit utsatta för våld i nära relationer i barndomen och bland dem var det vanligare att även ha varit utsatta senare, under det vuxna livet. I hälften av fallen där utsatta personer hade barn, hade barnen varit närvarande när den svarande utsattes för våld, och i en tredjedel av fallen hade barnen också blivit utsatta för direkt våld av samma förövare. I nio av tio fall, där barn varit närvarande eller även utsatta för direkt våld, var förövaren en man.

    Av de svarande som någon gång utsatts för våld hade en sjundedel varit i kontakt med någon myndighet eller annan enhet med anledning av våldet. Många utsatta beskrev att stödet de fått när de sökt hjälp var bristfälligt i förhållande till deras behov. Endast 6% av de utsatta hade någon gång polisanmält våldet.

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  • 9.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Measuring gender differences in exposure to domestic abuse in Sweden - taking account of coercive control, impact of violence and patterns over time2019In: Resisting state-corporate crimes and facing repression: Toward a theory of insurrection, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The controversy over gender differences in exposure to domestic violence (DV) seems to be a never-ending story. Researchers on one side of the debate argue that men and women are equally victimized (gender symmetry), while researches on the other side of the debate argue that women are victimized to larger extent, and with greater severity (gender asymmetry). Evidence for gender symmetry is based mainly on quantitative data from a plentitude of surveys measuring gender differences in perpetration and exposure to intimate partner violence. The asymmetry perspective, on the other hand, emphasizes investigation of contextual factors (e.g. the impact and meaning of violence) but have been based on studies that to a lesser extent include both men and women. Hence, there are conceptual and methodological differences between studies that find gender symmetry and those that propose gender asymmetry. We will present a survey performed to measure the prevalence of exposure to DV among men and women in the municipality of Gävle, Sweden. The presentation will highlight the significance of coercive control, temporal aspects, and impact of violence in measurement and understanding of gender differences in exposure to DV. Results from the survey suggest that women had been more exposed than men to all types of violence measured (psychological, sexual, physical, economicalmaterial, latent violence and negligence), that female exposure were more often repeated, and lead to more severe consequences than did male exposure to DV. We also found that having children with the perpetrator, which was more common among women, was a stronger predictor of negative consequences than any single type of violence. We will also present results concerning children of DV victims and experiences of help seeking and reporting violence.

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  • 10. Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Measuring gender differences in exposure to domestic abuse –: taking account of coercive control, impact of violence and patterns over time2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The controversy over gender differences in exposure to domestic violence (DV) seems to be a never-ending story. Researchers on one side of the debate argue that men and women are equally victimized (gender symmetry), while researches on the other side of the debate argue that women are victimized to larger extent, and with greater severity (gender asymmetry). Evidence for gender symmetry is based mainly on quantitative data from a plentitude of surveys measuring gender differences in perpetration and exposure to intimate partner violence. The asymmetry perspective, on the other hand, emphasizes investigation of contextual factors (e.g. the impact and meaning of violence) but have been based on studies that to a lesser extent include both men and women. Hence, there are conceptual and methodological differences between studies that find gender symmetry and those that propose gender asymmetry.

    We will present a survey performed to measure the prevalence of exposure to DV among men and women in the municipality of Gävle, Sweden. The presentation will highlight the significance of coercive control, temporal aspects, and impact of violence in measurement and understanding of gender differences in exposure to DV. Results from the survey suggest that women had been more exposed than men to all types of violence measured (psychological, sexual, physical, economical-material, latent violence and negligence), that female exposure were more often repeated, and lead to more severe consequences than did male exposure to DV. We also found that having children with the perpetrator, which was more common among women, was a stronger predictor of negative consequences than any single type of violence. We will also present results concerning children of DV victims and experiences of help seeking and reporting violence.

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