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  • 1.
    Aue, Tatjana
    et al.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland; University of Chicago, IL, USA.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi. University of Geneva, Switzerland; Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    First evidence for differential and sequential efferent effects of stimulus relevance and goal conduciveness appraisal2007Inngår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 74, nr 3, s. 347-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    n the context of a memory task, participants were presented with pictures displaying biological and cultural threat stimuli or neutral stimuli (stimulus relevance manipulation) with superimposed symbols signaling monetary gains or losses (goal conduciveness manipulation). Results for heart rate and facial electromyogram show differential efferent effects of the respective appraisal outcomes and provide first evidence for sequential processing, as postulated by Scherer's component process model of emotion. Specifically, as predicted, muscle activity over the brow and cheek regions marking the process of relevance appraisal occurred significantly earlier than facial muscle activity markers of goal conduciveNess appraisal. Heart rate, in contrast, was influenced by the stimulus relevance manipulation only.

  • 2.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden .
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Department of Psychology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden .
    The effect of using different distractor sets in visual search with spiders and snakes on spider-sensitive and nonfearful participants2013Inngår i: Swiss Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1421-0185, E-ISSN 1662-0879, Vol. 72, nr 4, s. 171-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In two visual search experiments, we investigated the impact of distractor sets on fear-relevant stimuli by comparing a search set with spiders, snakes, flowers, and mushrooms to one with spiders, snakes, rabbits, and turtles. We found speeded responses to spider and snake targets when flowers and mushrooms, but not when rabbits and turtles served as distractors. In Experiment 2, we compared spider-sensitive to nonfearful participants. Spider-sensitive participants responded faster than nonfearful participants to spider targets when we used flowers and mushrooms as distractors, but not when we used rabbit and turtle distractors. These results indicate that behavioral responses to the visual search task not only depend on the individual’s relationship to the stimuli included in the search set, but also on the context in which the feared or fear-relevant objects are presented.

  • 3.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.
    Arriaga, Patrícia
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.
    Carneiro, Paula
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Emotional Responses (verbal and psychophysiological) to pictures of food stimuli2010Inngår i: Psicologia, ISSN 0874-2049, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 89-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional processing of food-related pictures was studied in four experiments, comparing participants who revealed unhealthy attitudes toward food, dieting and body shape with control groups. All subjects were female and responses to pictures of low and of high calorie foods were compared to responses to other emotional stimuli. The first three experiments measured verbal and autonomic responses and Experiment 4 was a classical conditioning study. In Experiments 2-4, pictures were presented backward masked in order to observe automatic, non-conscious responses. The results showed that, in general, food pictures were processed in the same way as other emotional material, both verbally and psychophysiologically. Although there were some results indicating a difference between groups, the general pattern was that participants selected for being more worried about food and dieting did not show higher reactivity to food cues.

  • 4.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    A threat imminence approach to human fear responding: direction of threat, aversive contexts, and electrodermal responses.1998Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    A threat imminence approach to human fear responding: direction of threat, aversive contexts, and electrodermal responses.1999 (oppl. Ny utg.)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi. Mid Sweden University.
    Preparedness for action: responding to the snake in the grass2006Inngår i: American Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0002-9556, E-ISSN 1939-8298, Vol. 119, nr 1, s. 29-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a visual search study by Öhman, Flykt, and Esteves (2001) shorter reaction times (RTs) were shown to snake and spider targets than to flower and mushroom targets. The current study investigated if preparation for action to potential threats could explain this difference. In this study two main changes were made to the paradigm. All possible combinations of target and distractors were used to disentangle the effects of targets and distractors, and the responses had to be withheld until after detection. The results suggest that the shorter RTs to snakes and spiders than flowers and mushrooms were due to preparation for faster action to potential threats than to non-threats.

  • 7.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Visual search with biological threat stimuli: Accuracy, reaction times, and heart rate changes2005Inngår i: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 349-353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-four participants were given a visual search task of deciding whether all the pictures in 3 x 3 search arrays contained a target picture from a deviant category, and heart rate was measured. The categories were snakes, spiders, flowers, and mushrooms. Shorter reaction times (RTs) were observed for fear-relevant (snake and spider) targets rather than for fear-irrelevant/neutral (flower and mushroom)targets. This difference was most pronounced for the participants presented with a gray-scale version of the search arrays. The 1st interbeat interval (IBI), after the search array onset, showed an effect of the target, whereas the 2nd IBI also showed an effect of the distractors. The results suggest that controlled processing of the task operates together with automatic processing.

  • 8.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    The time course of resource allocation in spider-fearful participants during fear reactions2008Inngår i: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 1381-1400Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of resource allocation to pictures of spiders and other animals in spider-fearful participants was investigated. The task of the participants was to respond rapidly and accurately to various probe stimuli superimposed on pictures of different animals. These were arguably fear relevant (spiders, snakes, and wolves) and fear irrelevant (beetles, turtles, and rabbits). The probes were shown with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) from picture onset to address the dynamics of resource allocation. A larger allocation of resources to spider pictures than to pictures of all other animals, with no difference between the latter regarding resource allocation was found. For the task that demanded more resources the fearrelated physiological responses decreased, suggesting that controlled processing modulates fear responses.

  • 9.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindeberg, Sofie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Voice parameters, heart rate changes, and skin conductance responses in animal fear2009Inngår i: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 46, nr Special issue, s. S57-S57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Social Science, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Caldara, Roberto
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Tracking fear in snake and spider fearful participants during visual search: a multi-response domain study2006Inngår i: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 20, nr 8, s. 1075-1091Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual search tasks snake or spider fearful participants showed shorter reaction times (RTs) to respond to their feared animal (e.g., snake) than to the nonfeared animal (i.e., spider) (Öhman, Flykt, & Esteves, 2001). Here, we used this paradigm with heart rate (HR), RTs, and event-related potential (ERP) measures, to investigate the nature of the responses to the feared animal, a nonfeared (but fear-relevant) animal, and fear-irrelevant target stimuli with snake fearful, spider fearful, and nonfearful participants. Fearful participants showed shorter RTs and evoked larger amplitudes on a late positive potential (LPP; 500-700 ms) for their feared compared to the nonfeared and the fear-irrelevant targets. No relevant significant differences were found on early ERP components and HR measures. These findings do not support an involvement of early information processing in the detection of the feared animal in fearful participants, they favour instead a more elaborated analysis of these complex stimuli to achieve the detection.

  • 11.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Dan, Elise
    University of Geneva.
    Scherer, Klaus
    University of Geneva.
    Using a Probe Detection Task to Assess the Timing of Intrinsic Pleasantness Appraisals2009Inngår i: Swiss Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1421-0185, E-ISSN 1662-0879, Vol. 68, nr 3, s. 161-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence and timing of emotion-antecedent appraisal checks are difficult to assess. We report an attempt to estimate the time window of the intrinsic pleasantness check using a dual-task probe paradigm. In three experiments, participants viewed negative and positive pictures. Their other task was speeded responding on a probe superimposed on the pictures with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Longer probe-reaction times were observed for negative than positive pictures. This effect appeared at SOA 300 or 350 ms, suggesting that the intrinsic pleasantness appraisal check yields a differential behavioral outcome around 300 ms after stimulus onset, and seems to continue unless attention to picture content is inhibited. This paradigm might be successfully used for the mental chronography of appraisal processes.

  • 12.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Psychology Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Psychology section, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Psychology Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Organizational and Social Psychology, ISCTE, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Öhman, Arne
    Psychology Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skin conductance responses to masked conditioned stimuli: phylogenetic/ontogenetic factors versus direction of threat?2007Inngår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 74, nr 3, s. 328-336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionarily old threat stimuli are likely to require less conscious information processing than threat stimuli of a more recent date. To test thisproposal two differential conditioning experiments, with biological threat stimuli (e.g. snakes) in half the groups and cultural threat stimuli (e.g.guns) in the other half, were conducted. The conditioned (CS+) and the control (CS) stimuli were backward masked during the extinction phase toprevent conscious recognition. The differential skin conductance responding for both biological and cultural threat stimuli survived the maskingprocedure when the conditioned stimuli were directed towards the participants (Experiment 1), but for neither type of CS when stimuli were notdirected towards the participants (Experiment 2). These findings are discussed in relation to the previous finding by O ̈hman and co-workers and inrelation to imminence of threat.

  • 13.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Johansson, M.
    Karlsson, J.
    Lindeberg, S.
    Lipp, O. V.
    Fear of Wolves and Bears: Physiological Responses and Negative Associations in a Swedish Sample2013Inngår i: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 416-434Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human fear is important in wildlife management, but self-reported fear provides only partial information about fear reactions. Thus, eye movements, skin conductance, and changes in heart rate were assessed during picture viewing, visual search, and implicit evaluation tasks. Pictures of bears, wolves, moose, and hares were presented to participants who self-reported as fearful of bears (n = 8), fearful of bears and wolves (n = 15), or not fearful of bears or wolves (n = 14). The feared animal was expected to elicit strong physiological responses, be dwelled upon, and be associated with negative words. Independent of fearfulness, bear pictures elicited the strongest physiological responses, and wolf pictures showed the strongest negative associations. The bear-fearful group showed stronger physiological responses to bears. The bear- and wolf-fearful group showed more difficulty in associating bears with good words. Presence of a feared animal in the search task, resulted in prolonged response time. 

  • 14.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Lindeberg, Sofie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Derakshan, Nazanin
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck University of London, London, UK .
    Fear makes you stronger: Responding to feared animal targets in visual search2012Inngår i: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 74, nr 7, s. 1437-1445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate whether fear affects the strength with which responses are made, 12 animal-fearful individuals (five snake fearful and seven spider fearful) were instructed to decide as quickly as possible whether an animal target from a deviant category was present in a 3 × 4 item (animal) search array. The animal categories were snakes, spiders, and cats. Response force was measured, in newtons. The results showed that the strength of the response was greater when the feared animal served as the target than when it served as the distractors. This finding was corroborated by evoked heart rate changes to the stimuli. Our findings strengthen the argument that focused attention on a single, feared animal can lead to increases in manual force.

  • 15.
    Frank, Jens
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Dept of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Public attitude towards the implementation of management actions aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears and wolves2015Inngår i: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220X, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 122-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on human fear of large carnivores has mainly been based on self-reports in which individual survey items and the objects of fear are measured, so whether a person fears attacks on humans or livestock and pets has not been identified. The objectives of this study were to differentiate between the objects of fear as well as capturing attitudes towards implementation of management actions and the potential for conflict index (PCI). These concern the implementation of a limited number of management actions currently used or discussed in Sweden that are aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears/wolves. 391 persons living in areas with either brown bear (n = 198) or wolf (n = 193) in Sweden responded to a questionnaire. The degree of self-reported fear varied between residents in brown bear areas and residents in wolf areas. The fear of attacks on livestock and pets was stronger than fear of attacks on humans in both brown bear and wolf areas. In brown bear areas, fear was strongest for livestock, while in wolf areas fear was strongest for pets. The fear of attacks on livestock and pets was significantly stronger in wolf areas, while the fear of attacks on humans was strongest in brown bear areas. In both brown bear and wolf areas, there was little acceptance of implementation of management actions that would allow people to carry pepper spray or a gun outdoors. Management actions aimed at setting a population cap for bear/wolf populations, information on how to act when encountering a bear/wolf, and providing information on local presence of bear/wolf had relatively high acceptability. This was especially true for respondents expressing high fear of attacks on humans. 

  • 16.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Karlsson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Lund University.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Factors governing human fear of brown bear and wolf2012Inngår i: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 58-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes people's subjectively experienced fear in areas with presence of brown bear or wolf. Departing from the Human-Environment Interaction Model (Küller, 1991), a hypothetical model of environmental and individual antecedents of fear was tested using structural equation modeling of survey data (n = 391). In the model of fear of brown bear, the main predictor was the appraisal of the species as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable. In the model of fear of wolf, the greater experience with the species and a stronger appraisal of wolf as dangerous, uncontrollable, and unpredictable led to low social trust and this, together with the appraisal of wolf as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable, increased the likelihood of fear. Efforts to reduce human fear of wolves should focus on building trust between the public and authorities, whereas efforts to reduce fear of brown bear should focus on the individual's appraisal of the species.

  • 17.
    Scherer, Klaus
    et al.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Dan, Elise
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Flykt, Anders
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    What determines a feeling's position in affective space?: a case for appraisal2006Inngår i: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 92-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The location of verbally reported feelings in a three-dimensional affective space is determined by the results of appraisal processes that elicit the respective states. One group of participants rated their evaluation of 59 pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) on a profile of nine appraisal criteria. Another group rated their affective reactions to the same pictures on the classic dimensions of affective meaning (valence, arousal, potency). The ratings on the affect dimensions correlate differentially with specific appraisal ratings. These results can be interpreted as showing that the reactions to the IAPS pictures are predictably produced through appraisal of picture content. The relevance of the findings for emotion induction paradigms and for emotion theory in general is discussed.

  • 18.
    Soares, Sandra C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Esteves, Francisco
    ISCTE, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Fear, but not fear-relevance, modulates reaction times in visual search with animal distractors2009Inngår i: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 136-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The research aimed at examining attentional selectivity in a visual search paradigm using pictures of animals that have provided a recurrent threat in an evolutionary perspective (i.e., snakes and spiders) and pictures of animals that have supposedly posed no such threat (i.e., cats and fish). Experiment 1 showed no advantage of fear-relevant stimuli over non-fear-relevant animal stimuli. However, an attentional capture seemed to emerge as a delay in the disengagement of attention, specifically when there was a massive presentation of fear-relevant stimuli in the array. The results from Experiment 2, where participants were selected based specifically on their fear of either snakes or spiders (but not both), showed a preferential processing of the congruent feared stimulus, when compared with non fearful participants, which strengthens the notion that fear significance may be an important factor drawing attention to a particular spatial location.

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