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  • 1.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Assessing the Myths on Energy Efficiency When Retrofitting Multifamily Buildings in a Northern Region2017In: Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies / [ed] Ali Sayigh, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2017, 1, p. 139-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of EU’s requirements to achieve a major cut in energy use by 2050, Sweden has the same target. The built environment must by 2020 reduce energy use by 20 and 50 % by 2050. The size of the future building stock will naturally increase and regardless of how energy efficient future buildings will be, the energy performance of the old stock must be improved in order to reach those goals. In major renovation projects involving multifamily buildings in large residential areas in the cities, 50 % reduction can be achieved. This is cost-effective and profitable even if the rent is increased.

    Gävleborg is a sparse region in the North, with few cities. Multifamily buildings are generally much smaller than in large cities and owners are reluctant to impose changes that increase rents due to the housing situation in the region. In consequence, the Regional Council and the University of Gävle set out to assess the potential and feasibility of reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in this region’s multifamily buildings. Eleven real buildings were investigated, each having various ownership forms, different technical attributes and heating sources. Energy audits and measurements were conducted to assess the condition of each building. Performances of the buildings and proposed improvements were simulated with building energy simulation programs, whilst life cycle cost analyses were conducted to study viability. Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) reductions were estimated for each improvement.

    Based on the results, a concluding discussion is made on whether or not some myths on energy use and retrofitting are true. The following is concluded: It is possible to reach a 50 % reduction, but it is not economical with the costs involved and with today’s energy prices and moderate price increase over time.

    Retrofitting or improvements made in the building’s services systems (HVAC) are more economical than actions taken to improve performance of building by constructions. HVAC improvements give about 20 % reduction in energy use. However, mechanical ventilation systems with heat recuperation are not economical, though these may or may not substantially reduce use of thermal energy.

    Solar energy is, despite the latitude of the region, economically viable—especially PV solar energy. Photovoltaic panels (PVs) are becoming viable—the combination of PVs and district heating is beneficial since saving electricity is more important than thermal energy in district-heated areas.

  • 2.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Reducing energy usage in multi-family housing2019In: 2019 9th International Conference on Future Environment and Energy 9–11 January 2019, Osaka, Japan, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 257, article id 012030Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy usage in residential sector have been around 22% of the total energy use in the world and increasing due to the population growth and higher living standards. The energy sources for this are made up primarily of non-renewable energy resources which generates a large amount of global greenhouse gases. A lot of countries have implemented various regulations and rules to reduce the energy usage in buildings and promoting the use of renewable energy technologies. This paper presents a parametric study of a typical multi-family building in its pre-design stage. The climate location used is Sweden (Gothenburg) and Japan (Osaka). The aim of the study is to compare various configurations and to examine how they affect the energy use. The most interesting configurations are the use of heat pump and solar cells. Other configurations that are examined are infiltration levels, pressure coefficients, wind impact, ventilation with heat recovery, ventilation scheduling, building orientation and finally changing U-values in the building material. Results of this study show that the energy saving, by utilizing a heat pump and solar panels, can reduce the total energy use by 34.9% for Gothenburg and 32% for Osaka. The results also show that the difference in total energy use between the two cities reduce substantially (3% difference) when utilizing a heat pump in combination with solar panels.

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  • 3.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Numerical investigation of indoor thermal comfort and air quality for an office equipped with corner impinging jet ventilation2023In: Advances in Building Energy Research, ISSN 1751-2549, E-ISSN 1756-2201, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 578-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the feasibility of using only corner impinging jet ventilation (CIJV) for heating and cooling a medium-sized office space with two occupants while maintaining adequate indoor thermal comfort and air quality compared to traditional mixing ventilation systems. This study examines what impact various outdoor temperatures, ranging from −15°C to 25°C, have on an office environment in terms of indoor thermal comfort and air quality. Three different workspace positions were evaluated. The results show that the CIJV system meets the ASHRAE thermal comfort standards for all three positions. In terms of indoor air quality, CIJV performs better than traditional mixing systems, with improved mean age of air and ACE values. This study concludes that CIJV can be used both close and far away from the supply inlets and still provide adequate indoor thermal comfort and air quality during both cooling and heating season.

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  • 4.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Experimental Investigation of Ventilation Performance of Different Air Distribution Systems in an Office Environment: Heating Mode2019In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 1835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vital requirement for all-air ventilation systems are their functionality to operate both in cooling and heating mode. This article experimentally investigates two newly designed air distribution systems, corner impinging jet (CIJV) and hybrid displacement ventilation (HDV) in comparison against a mixing type air distribution system. These three different systems are examined and compared to one another to evaluate their performance based on local thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness when operating in heating mode. The evaluated test room is an office environment with two workstations. One of the office walls, which has three windows, faces a cold climate chamber. The results show that CIJV and HDV perform similar to a mixing ventilation in terms of ventilation effectiveness close to the workstations. As for local thermal comfort evaluation, the results show a small advantage for CIJV in the occupied zone. Comparing C2-CIJV to C2-CMV the average draught rate (DR) in the occupied zone is 0.3% for C2-CIJV and 5.3% for C2-CMV with the highest difference reaching as high as 10% at the height of 1.7 m. The results indicate that these systems can perform as well as mixing ventilation when used in offices that require moderate heating. The results also show that downdraught from the windows greatly impacts on the overall airflow and temperature pattern in the room.

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  • 5.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Experimental investigation of ventilation performance of different air distribution systems in an office environment – cooling mode2019In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 1354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a newly designed corner impinging jet air distribution method with an equilateral triangle cross section was evaluated experimentally and compared to that of two more traditional methods (mixing and displacement ventilation). At nine evenly chosen positions with four standard vertical points, air velocity, turbulence intensity, temperature, and tracer gas decay measurements were conducted for all systems. The results show that the new method behaves as a displacement ventilation system, with high air change effectiveness and stratified flow pattern and temperature field. Both local air change effectiveness and air exchange effectiveness of the corner impinging jet showed high quality and promising results, which is a good indicator of ventilation effectiveness. The results also indicate that there is a possibility to slightly lower the airflow rates for the new air distribution system, while still meeting the requirements for thermal comfort and indoor air quality, thereby reducing fan energy usage. The draught rate was also lower for corner impinging jet compared to the other tested air distribution methods. The findings of this research show that the corner impinging jet method can be used for office ventilation.

  • 6.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Yamasawa, Haruna
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Kobayashi, Tomohiro
    Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
    Numerical investigation of the flow behavior of an isothermal corner impinging jet for building ventilation2022In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 223, article id 109486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corner impinging jet concept has been proposed as a new air distribution system for use in office environments. The present paper reports the mean flow field behavior of an isothermal corner-based turbulent impinging jet in a room. A detailed experimental study is carried out to validate the numerical simulations, and the predictions are performed using three turbulence models. RNG k−ε model was chosen for this study. This study investigates the influence different configuration parameters such as jet discharge height, diffuser geometry (shape and size) and supply airflow rate have on the flow field. The results show that the diffuser geometries used in this study had in general a minor effect on the velocity developments along the centerline of the floor, maximum velocity decay and jet spreading rate except for some specific cases. When evaluating the triangle geometry cases, the results show that all the cases with volume flow <20 L/s are able to meet Boverket's building regulations velocity requirement both for summer and winter. The applicability evaluation show that the results can be considered for room sizes between ≈25 and 100 m2. In addition, the wall confinement effect (90° vs. 180°) is having a significant impact on the maximum velocity decay for corner impinging jet ventilation. In the regression analysis the results shows that the distance along the diagonal centerline of the room has the most impact on the evaluation of maximum velocity decay and jet spreading rate.

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  • 7.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Yamasawa, Haruna
    Osaka University, Japan..
    Kobayashi, Tomohiro
    Osaka University, Japan..
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Energy saving, indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality evaluation of an office environment using corner impinging jet ventilation2023In: Developments in the Built Environment, ISSN 2666-1659, Vol. 15, article id 100179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a corner based impinging jet ventilation system (CIJV) in an office environment was evaluated numerically. The evaluation was done both in terms of the local thermal comfort and the local indoor air quality. Three different inlet configurations were tested for a range of outdoor temperatures that included both winter and summer conditions. In terms of indoor air quality, the results showed that CIJV performed better than a traditional mixing system. The study also revealed that CIJV creates a stronger temperature stratification in summertime compared to wintertime. When evaluating the energy saving potential the results showed a possible reduction of 7% for the ventilation flowrate when the outdoor temperatures were between -15 °C and -5 °C, 8 % when the outdoor temperatures were between 0 °C and 10 °C and 9 % when the outdoor temperatures were between 15 °C and 25 °C.

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  • 8.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Choonya, Gasper
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Experimental Evaluation of the Ventilation Effectiveness of Corner Stratum Ventilation in an Office Environment2019In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study was conducted in a room resembling an office in a laboratory environment. The study involved investigating the ability of corner-placed stratum ventilation in order to evaluate the ventilation’s effectiveness and local thermal comfort. At fixed positions, the air temperature, air velocity, turbulence intensity, and tracer gas decay measurements were carried out. The results show that corner-placed stratum ventilation behaves very similar to a mixing ventilation system when considering air change effectiveness. The performance of the system was better at lower supply air flow rates for heat removal effectiveness. For the heating cases, the draught rates were all very low, with the maximum measured value of 12%. However, for the cooling cases, the maximum draught rate was 20% and occurred at ankle level in the middle of the room.

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  • 9.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linköpings universitet.
    A numerical and experimental investigation of a confluent jets ventilation supply device in a conference room2022In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 5, article id 1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, confluent jets ventilation (CJV) supply devices with three different nozzle arrays (1 × 19, 2 × 19, 3 × 19) were investigated both numerically and experimentally at two different airflow and supply air temperature set-ups. The performance of the CJV supply devices was investigated concerning thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), and heat removal effectiveness in a conference room environment. A comparison between the experimental and numerical results showed that the v2−f model had the best agreement out of the investigated turbulence models. The numerical results showed that the size of the array had a great impact both on near-field development and on the conditions in the occupied zone. A larger array with multiple rows and a lower momentum conserved the inlet temperature and the mean age of the air better than a single-row array with a higher momentum. A larger array with multiple rows had a higher IAQ and a greater heat removal effectiveness in the occupied zone because the larger array conserved the mean age of air better and the buoyancy driven flow was slightly better at removing the heat. Because of the lower inlet velocities, they also had lower velocities at ankle level, which decreased the risk of draft and thermal discomfort.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linköping Universitet.
    An Investigation Concerning Optimal Design of Confluent Jets Ventilation with Variable Air Volume2024In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This  parametric study aims to predict the  performance of confluent jets ventilation (CJV) with variable air  volume (VAV) from four  CJV  design parameters. A  combination of  computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and response surface method (RSM) has  been used to  predict the  energy efficiency, thermal comfort and  IAQ  for  the  four  expected vital  design variables, i.e.,  heat load (XH),  number of  nozzles (XN),  airflow rate  (XQ) and  supply temperature (XTS).  The  RSM was  used to  generate a  quad-ratic  equation for  the  response variables exhaust temperature (TE),  sup-ply  temperature (TP),  PMV, DR, eT and  ACE. The  RSM  shows that  the  TE, TP and PMV were independent of the number of nozzles. The proposed equations were used to  generate setpoints optimized for  thermal com-fort  (PMV) for  summer, spring and  winter cases with different CLO  fac-tors  and  different TS under a  scenario where the  heat load varied between 10-30W/m2.  TE was  used as  setpoint to  regulate the  airflow rate  to  keep the  PMV values close to  zero. The  results show that  by adapting the TS to the CLO factor both thermal comfort and the energy efficiency can  be  improved. Further energy reduction can  be  gained by downregulating the airflow rate to keep the TP at a fixed setpoint when the  heat load is  decreased. This  means that  a  CJV  can  effectively be combined with VAV  to  improve environmental performance with good thermal comfort (-0.5<PMV <0.5,  DR <20%), above average IAQ (ACE = 106%) and  with a  higher heat removal efficiency (eT = 110%) than conventional mixing ventilation

  • 11.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energy-Saving Measures in a Classroom Using Low Pressure Drop Ceiling Supply Device: A Field Study2016In: 2016 ASHRAE Winter Conference Papers, ASHRAE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1990 and 2006 the energy use by ventilation systems in Swedish schools doubled. This is explained by high airflows in schools because of the high occupant density. Studies show that 87% of Swedish schools use constant air volume (CAV), and it is estimated that a change to variable air volume (VAV) could save 0.12-0.33 TWh (4.1*10(12) - 1.1*10(13) Btu) per year. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to replace displacement ventilation (DV) with mixing ventilation (MV) to create a comfortable indoor climate in a typical classroom and at the same time decrease the energy use by using VAV and Low Pressure Drop Ceiling Supply Device (LPDCSD). The study used two LPDCSDs which consist of circular channels with 190/228 round jets placed in an interlocking pattern, with a horizontal one/two-way-direction. The field study was carried out in a school which is intended to be extensively renovated. The school currently has DV and CAV. The study was carried out by installing MV with LPDCSD in one of the typical classrooms. Several different air-flow rates were investigated using tracer-gas technology to measure the local mean age of the air in the occupied zone. Simultaneously, thermal comfort and vertical temperature gradients were measured in the room. The results show nearly uniform distribution of the local mean age of air in the occupied zone, even in the cases of relatively low air-flow rates. Since the mixing of air is more or less the same in the entire occupied zone VAV can be used to reduce air-flow rate based on the desired CO2-level. Because of the number of students in each classroom and the fact that changes in air-flow rates have no significant effect on the degree of mixing, it is possible to reduce the air-flow rates for extended periods of time. Finally, since the LPDCSD has a lower pressure-drop than the currently used supply devices and it is possible to use VAV to lower the airflows in cases with reduced heat loads, it is possible to significantly reduce the energy usage in the school while maintaining the IAQ, increasing the thermal comfort and the available floor area of the occupied zone.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Experimental and numerical investigations of a new ventilation supply device based on confluent jets2018In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 137, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developed countries, heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for more than 10% of national energy use. The primary function of a HVAC system is to create proper indoor environment. A number of ventilation strategies have been developed to minimize HVAC systems’ energy use whilst still maintaining a good indoor environment. Among these strategies are confluent jet ventilation and variable air volume. In this study, an air supply device with a novel nozzle design that uses both of the above-mentioned strategies was investigated both experimentally and numerically at three different airflow rates. The results from the numerical investigation using the SST k - ω turbulence model regarding velocities and flow patterns are validated by experimental data carried out by Laser Doppler Anemometry. The results from both studies show that the flow pattern and velocity in each nozzle is directly dependent on the total airflow rate. However, the flow pattern does not vary between the three different airflow rates. The numerical investigation shows that velocity profiles for each nozzle have the same pattern regardless of the airflow rate, but the magnitude of the velocity profile increases as the airflow increases. Thus, a supply device of this kind could be used for variable air volume and produce confluent jets for the airflow rates investigated.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Linköpings universitet.
    On the ventilation performance of low momentum confluent jets supply device in a classroom2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 20, article id 5415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of three different confluent jets ventilation (CJV) supply devices was evaluated in a classroom environment concerning thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy efficiency. The CJV supply devices have the acronyms: high-momentum confluent jets (HMCJ), low-momentum confluent jets (LMCJ) and low-momentum confluent jets modified by varying airflow direction (LMCJ-M). A mixing ventilation (MV) slot jet (SJ) supply device was used as a benchmark. Comparisons were made with identical set-up conditions in five cases with different supply temperatures (TS) (16–18 °C), airflow rates (2.2–6.3 ACH) and heat loads (17–47 W/m2). Performances were evaluated based on DR (draft rating), PMV (predicted mean vote), ACE (air change effectiveness) and heat removal effectiveness (HRE). The results show that CJV had higher HRE and IAQ than MV and LMCJ/LMCJ-M had higher ACE than HMCJ. The main effects of lower Ts were higher velocities, DR (HMCJ particularly) and HRE in the occupied zone as well as lower temperatures and PMV-values. HMCJ and LMCJ produce MV conditions at lower airflow rates (<4.2 ACH) and non-uniform conditions at higher airflow rates. LMCJ-M had 7% higher HRE than the other CJV supply devices and produced non-uniform conditions at lower airflow rates (<3.3 ACH). The non-uniform conditions resulted in LMCJ-M having the highest energy efficiency of all devices.

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  • 14.
    Angele, Kristian
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Högström, Carl-Maikel
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Odemark, Ylva
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Mats
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Tinoco, Hernan
    Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Östhammar, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Hans
    Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Östhammar, Sweden.
    Hemström, Bengt
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Flow Mixing Inside a Control-Rod Guide Tube: Part 2—Experimental Tests and CFD-Simulations2010In: 18th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering: Volume 4, Parts A and B, 2010, p. 655-663Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alarge number of control rod cracks were detected during therefuelling outage of the twin reactors Oskarshamn 3 and Forsmark3 in the fall of 2008. The extensive damage investigationfinally lead to the restart of both reactors at theend of 2008 under the condition that further studies wouldbe conducted in order to clarify all remaining matters. Also,all control rods were inserted 14% in order to locatethe welding region of the control rod stem away fromthe thermal mixing region of the flow. Unfortunately, this measureled to new cracks a few months later due toa combination of surface finish of the new stems andthe changed flow conditions after the partial insertion of thecontrol rods. The experimental evidence reported here shows an increasein the extension of the mixing region and in theintensity of the thermal fluctuations. As a part of thecomplementary work associated with the restart of the reactors, andto verify the CFD simulations, experimental work of the flowin the annular region formed by the guide tube andcontrol rod stem was carried out. Two full-scale setups weredeveloped, one in a Plexiglass model at atmospheric conditions (inorder to be able to visualize the mixing process) andone in a steel model to allow for a highertemperature difference and heating of the control rod guide tube.The experimental results corroborate the general information obtained through CFDsimulations, namely that the mixing region between the cold crud-removalflow and warm by-pass flow is perturbed by flow structurescoming from above. The process is characterized by low frequent,high amplitude temperature fluctuations. The process is basically hydrodynamic, causedby the downward transport of flow structures originated at theupper bypass inlets. The damping thermal effects through buoyancy isof secondary importance, as also the scaling analysis shows, howevera slight damping of the temperature fluctuations can be seendue to natural convection due to a pre-heating of thecold crud-removal flow. The comparison between numerical and experimental resultsshows a rather good agreement, indicating that experiments with plantconditions are not necessary since, through the existing scaling lawsand CFD-calculations, the obtained results may be extrapolated to plantconditions. The problem of conjugate heat transfer has not yetbeen addressed experimentally since complex and difficult measurements of theheat transfer have to be carried out. This type ofmeasurements constitutes one of the main challenges to be dealtwith in the future work.

  • 15.
    Angele, Kristian
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Odemark, Ylva
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Hemström, Bengt
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Högström, Carl-Maikel
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Mats
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Tinoco, Hernan
    Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Östhammar, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Hans
    Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Östhammar, Sweden.
    Flow mixing inside a control-rod guide tube: Experimental tests and CFD simulations2011In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, ISSN 0029-5493, E-ISSN 1872-759X, Vol. 241, no 12, p. 4803-4812Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Arghand, Taha
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Awbi, Hazim
    School of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Linden, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, BMG laboratory.
    An experimental investigation of the flow and comfort parameters for under-floor, confluent jets and mixing ventilation systems in an open-plan office2015In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 92, p. 48-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a new trend to convert the workplaces from individual office rooms to open offices for motivating money saving and better communication. With such a shift the ability of existing ventilation systems in meeting the new requirements is a challenging question for researchers. The available options could have an impact on workers' health in terms of providing acceptable levels of thermalcomfort and indoor air quality. Thus, this experimental investigation focuses on the performances of three different air distribution systems in an open-plan office space. The investigated systems were: mixing ventilation with ceiling-mounted inlets, confluent jets ventilation and underfloor air distribution with straight and curved vanes. Although this represents a small part of our more extensiveexperimental investigation, the results show that all the purposed stratified ventilation systems (CJV and UFAD) were more or less behaving as mixing systems with some tendency for displacement effects. Nevertheless, it is known that the mixing systems have a stable flow pattern but has the disadvantage of mixing contaminated air with the fresh supplied air which may produce lower performance and in worst cases occupants' illness. For the open-plan office we studied here, it will be shown that the new systems are capable of performing better than the conventional mixing systems. As expected, the higher air exchange efficiency in combination with lower local mean age of air for corner-mounted CJV and floor-mounted UFAD grills systems indicates that these systems are suitable for open-plan offices and are to be favored over conventional mixing systems.

  • 17.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Mapping tracer gas concentrations using a modified Low Third Derivative method: numerical study2019In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 136-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In indoor applications, computed tomography is the process of transforming a network of intersecting attenuation measurements into a spatially resolved two-dimensional concentration map. In this study the Low Third Derivative method (LTD) was numerically evaluated and optimized for different conditions. A modified version of the LTD algorithm (LTDm) was proposed and evaluated against the original version. Eight test maps were reconstructed under different conditions, such as weight ratio, pixel resolution, beam density and measurement noise. Performance of both LTD algorithms was found to be intimately related to the number of peaks and complexity in the test map and the steepness of the peaks. The LTDm algorithm improved the quality, especially for concentration maps including steep gradients and regions with very low concentrations. The LTDm method heavily lessened aliasing distortions and efficiently minimized the effects of noise.

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  • 18.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Visualization of Airflow, Temperature and Concentration Indoors: whole-field measuring methods and CFD2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The thermal indoor climate is a complicated combination of a number of physical variables, all of which strongly affect people’s well-being. The indoor climate not only heavily affects people’s health and life quality, but also their productivity and ability to work efficiently.

    One of the reasons why so many problems are associated with indoor climate is that it is more or less invisible; it is hard to understand something that cannot be seen. In particular, the near-zone of supply air diffusers in displacement ventilation is very critical. Complaints about drafts are often associated with this type of ventilation system.

    The main aim of this research is to improve the knowledge of the whole-field techniques used to measure and visualize air temperatures and pollutant concentrations. These methods are explored with respect to applicability and reliability. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to predict the velocity and temperature distributions and to improve the current limitations.

    Infrared thermography is an excellent technique for visualization of air temperature and airflow pattern, particular in areas with high temperature gradient, such as close to diffusers. It is applicable to both laboratory and field test environments, such as in industries and workplaces. For quantitative measurements the recorded temperatures must be corrected for radiation heat exchange with the environment, a complicated task since knowledge about the local heat transfer coefficients, view factors and surrounding surfaces are needed to be known with good accuracy.

    Computed tomography together with optical sensing is a promising tool in order to study the dispersion of airborne pollutants in buildings. However, the design of the optical sensing configuration and the reconstruction algorithm has a major influence on the performance of this whole-field measuring technique. A Bayesian approach seems to be a rational choice for reconstruction of pollutant concentration indoors, since it avoids the high noise sensitivity frequently encountered with many other reconstruction methods. A modified Low Third Derivative (LTD) method has been proposed in this work that performs well particular for concentration distributions containing steep gradients and regions with very low concentrations.

    CFD simulation is a powerful tool for visualization of velocities, airflow pattern and temperature distribution in rooms. However, for predictions of the absolute value of the physical variables the CFD model have to be validated against some reference case with high quality experimental data. CFD predictions of air temperatures and velocities close to a complex supply diffuser are very troublesome. The performance of CFD prediction of the airflow close to a complex supply diffuser depends mainly on the accuracy of the diffuser, turbulence and wall treatment modeling

  • 19.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Ameen, Arman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Claesson, Leif
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Lin, Yuanyuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Urban Morphology and City Ventilation2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to examine the relation between urban morphology, wind direction and air flow rates. In the study a highly idealized city model was used consisting of a circular block divided into two or four equally large sectors. Wind tunnel experiments and CFD predictions have been conducted. The interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and a city is considered to be both a function of the overall shape and the internal resistance to the flow caused by the friction when the wind flows over the urban surfaces. Flow along the streets is generated by pressure differences. In the wind tunnel, velocity measurements have been recorded in the streets at several points and pressure on the ground was registered in 400 points. The wind tunnel measurements were used to validate the CFD model. The CFD predictions provided complete flow and pressure fields for different configurations and wind directions. The flow balance is presented considering both the horizontal air flow and the vertical air flow (subsidence and updraft). Special attention was on the pressure distribution at ground level (pressure footprint), which is believed to provide valuable information that can be used for qualitative city ventilation analyses. 

  • 20.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Prediction of indoor airflow close to a supply device using SST-SAS Model2015In: Ventilation 2015 - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Industrial Ventilation / [ed] Taipale A., Li Z., Li X., and Zhang X, International Conference on Industrial Ventilation , 2015, Vol. 2, p. 681-688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern diffusers applied in the field of ventilation of rooms are often complex in terms of geometry, including perforated plates, dampers, guide rails, curved surfaces and other components inside the diffuser, with the intention to create satisfying thermal comfort for the occupants. Also connecting ducts can be different for the same diffuser in different situations, affecting the supply velocity profile. It is obvious that simulation of airflow and air temperature particularly in rooms with displacement ventilation is very troublesome, particularly if the near-zone of the diffuser is of interest. Experiments commonly indicate very high turbulence intensities in the near-zone of displacement ventilation supply devices, especially close to the floor where high mean flow gradient occurs. This indicates that the air flow from inlet devices designed for displacement ventilation might be very unsteady; the position of the stream leaving the diffuser and entering the room is changing with time, hence diffusion of momentum and temperature are increased. Also Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities occurs, resulting in mixing and entrainment of surrounding air into the gravity current. These effects are not captured correctly in RANS simulations, since it is performed with the assumption of time-independent conditions. In this paper URANS simulations were performed for prediction of velocity and temperature distribution close to a complex air supply device in a room with displacement ventilation. The presented study show that URANS with the SST-SAS ᅵᅵ - ᅵᅵ turbulence model predicts the air velocities and air temperatures very well close to the air supply device. The URANS computation using the SST-SAS model seems to successfully contribute to the reproduction of large-scale unsteady flow patterns in the near-zone of the supply device, and therefore enable more accurate prediction of the velocity and temperature distributions compared to the steady-RANS computation and dissipative URANS models.

  • 21.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Unsteady CFD simulations for prediction of airflow close to a supply device for displacement ventilation2014In: Indoor Air 2014 - 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2014, p. 47-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern diffusers applied in the field of ventilation of rooms are often complex in terms of geometry, including perforated plates, dampers, guide rails, curved surfaces and other components inside the diffuser, with the intention to create satisfying thermal comfort for the occupants. Also connecting ducts can be different for the same diffuser in different situations, affecting the supply velocity profile. It is obvious that simulation of airflow and air temperature particularly in rooms with displacement ventilation is very troublesome, particularly if the near-zone of the diffuser is of interest. Experiments commonly indicate very high turbulence intensities in the near-zone of displacement ventilation supply devices, especially close to the floor where high mean flow gradient occurs. This indicates that the air flow from inlet devices designed for displacement ventilation might be very unstable; the position of the stream leaving the diffuser and entering the room is changing with time, hence diffusion of momentum and temperature are increased. This effect is not captured in RANS simulations, since it is performed with the assumption of time-independent conditions. In this paper URANS simulations were performed for prediction of velocity and temperature distribution close to a complex air supply device in a room with displacement ventilation. The presented study show that unsteady simulations with the realizable turbulence k-ε model generates too high eddy viscosity and therefore damps out the unsteadiness of the flow especially inside the diffuser.

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  • 22.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Ameen, Arman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Comparing thermal comfort and air quality performance of two active chilled beam systems in an open-plan office2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 22, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional air distribution and supply devices in ventilated rooms are not always able to effectively remove excess heat from the space. Therefore, chilled beams, especially the active systems, are used to achieve the desired cooling demand. The focus of this paper was the potential benefit of a newly designed active chilled beam (ACB) system, to improve heat removal effectiveness local thermal condition and indoor air quality in the occupants’ breathing zone. The system based on 1-way flow design (1W-ACB) was installed in an open-plan office and its performance was studied by analysing the temperatures, velocities and tracer gas concentrations in predetermined risky zones. The system was compared against a traditional 4-way flow design (4W-ACB).

    The obtained results showed that heat removal effectiveness was slightly higher for the 1W-ACB system compared to the 4W-ACB system. The local thermal condition was very good close to the workstations when using 1W-ACB. The benefits of the new system were also shown in the occupied zone by analysing the mean age of air and air-change effectiveness (ACE) in the breathing level at the workstation locations. The 1W-ACB system provided air with lower mean age (fresher air), and therefore higher ACE, near the breathing zone at the workstations compared to the 4W-ACB. On the other hand, the 4W-ACB system had the advantage of providing high thermal and mean age of air uniformity throughout the room.

  • 23.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Komfort- och inomhusmiljökonsekvenser av strukturerad energieffektivisering av vårdlokaler2009Report (Other academic)
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  • 24.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Chen, Huijuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Division of Built Environment - Energy and circular economy, Borås, Sweden.
    Numerical investigation of Air Change Effectiveness in an Office Room with Impinging Jet Ventilation2018In: Proceedings of the 4th international Conference on Building Energy & Environment / [ed] K. Inthavong*, C.P Cheung, G. Yeoh, J.Y. Tu, Melbourne: Conference On Building Energy & Environment - COBEE2018, Melbourne Australia , 2018, p. 641-646Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing occupant comfort and health with minimum use of energy is the ultimate purpose of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems. This paper presents the air-change effectiveness (ACE) within a typical office room using impinging jet ventilation (IJV ) in combination with chilled ceiling (CC) under different heat loads ranging from 6.5 - 51 W per square meter floor area. In this study, a validated CFD model based on the v2f turbulence model is used for the prediction of air flow pattern and ACE. The interaction effect of chilled ceiling and heat sources results in a complex flow with air circulation. The thermal plumes and air circulation in the room result in a variation of ACE within the room but also close to the occupant. For all studied cases, ACE is above 1.2 close to the occupants, indicating that IJV is more energy efficient than mixing ventilation.

  • 25.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Lin, Yuanyuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Claesson, Leif
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Towards benchmarking of urban air quality based on homogenous surface emission2023In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 20, article id 101617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, it is presented a possible methodology and experimental model for benchmarking of air quality in cities. The concept behind the methodology is that a city’s inherent structure affects the potential for contaminant removal due to the resistance it poses to inflow. The approach is based on homogenous emission across the street surface network, representing a worst-case situation. Different levels of complexity can be used for benchmarking, making it valuable for evaluating different layouts. Additionally, an urban ventilation index suitable for these kinds of experimental studies has been suggested. 

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  • 26.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Numerical Modeling of a Complex Diffuser in a Room with Displacement Ventilation2010In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 2240-2252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A micro/macro-level approach (MMLA) has been proposed which makes it possible for HVAC engineers to easily study the effect of diffuser characteristics and diffuser placement on thermal comfort and indoor air quality. In this article the MMLA has been used to predict the flow and thermal behavior of the air in the near-zone of a complex low-velocity diffuser. A series of experiment has been carried out to validate the numerical predictions in order to ensure that simulations can be used with confidence to predict indoor airflow. The predictions have been performed by means of steady Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and the results have good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively with measurements. However, measurements indicated that the diffusion of the velocity and temperature was to some extent under-predicted by the RSM, which might be related to high instability of the airflow close to the diffuser. This effect might be captured by employing unsteady RSM. The present study also shows the importance of detailed inlet supply modeling in the accuracy of indoor air prediction.

  • 27.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Visualization of Isothermal Low-Reynolds Circular Air Jet Using Computed Tomography.2005In: Proceedings of 6 th World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, and Thermodynamics, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this paper was to demonstrate the principle and usefulness of computed tomography for concentration field measurements. Radial extinction coefficient profiles have been reconstructed using the LTD approach in the transition region of an isothermal jet of air at Reynolds number of 2 600. Reconstructed profiles were compared against velocity profiles at axial distances ranging from 2 to 20 nozzle diameters downstream. Results indicate that the width parameter of the reconstructed scalar distribution is around 23 % larger than the velocity distribution for distances between 10 and 20 nozzle diameters downstream. This finding is in good agreement with the results of other investigators. This technique has evidently yielded an accurate description of the scalar field of the round isothermal free jet.

    The quality of the reconstructions is very promising considering the relatively few measurement data, projection angles and low pixel resolution used in this study.

    Ccomputed tomography is superior for monitoring chemical concentrations over larger areas (whole room) when PMS and PLIF are unfeasible.

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  • 28.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Analysis on Thermal Comfort for a Hospital Building by Multi-zone Modeling: Summer Condition2008In: Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress X, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Measurements of air temperatures close to a low-velocity diffuser in displacement ventilation using an infrared camera2002In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 687-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The near zone of supply air diffusers is very critical for the indoor climate. Complaints of draft are often associated with low-velocity diffusers in displacement ventilation because the air is discharged directly into the occupied zone. Today, the knowledge of the near zone of these air supply diffusers is insufficient, causing an increased need for better measuring methods and representation of the occupied zone.

    A whole-field measuring technique has been developed by the authors for visualization of air temperatures and airflow patterns over a large cross-section. In this particular whole-field method, air temperatures are measured with an infrared camera and a measuring screen placed in the airflow. The technique is applicable to most laboratory and field test environments. It offers several advantages over traditional techniques; for example, it can record real-time images within large areas and capture transient events.

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a parameter and error analysis of the proposed whole-field measuring method applied to a flow from a low-velocity diffuser in displacement ventilation. A model of the energy balance, for a solid measuring screen, was used for analyzing the influence of different parameters on the accuracy of the method. The analysis was performed with respect to the convective heat transfer coefficient, emissivity, screen temperature and surrounding surface temperatures.

    Theoretically, the temperature difference between the screen and the ambient air was found to be 0.2–2.4 °C for the specific delimitation in the investigation. However, after applying correction the maximum uncertainty of the predicted air temperature was found to vary between 0.62 and 0.98 °C, due to uncertainties in estimating parameters used in the correction. The maximum uncertainty can be reduced to a great extent by estimating the convective heat transfer coefficient more accurately and using a screen with rather low emissivity.

  • 30.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stymne, Hans
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Kartläggning av inneklimatparametrar i Volvo Eskilstuna: byggnad SE75 Zon 7, 10 och 122000Report (Other academic)
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  • 31.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Stymne, Hans
    Mapping of Indoor Climate Parameters in Volvo, Eskilstuna2000Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Computed tomography for indoor application2006In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 349-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with tomographic techniques for two-dimensional spatially resolved concentration measurements indoors. This represents a significant advance over the traditional point measuring method for mapping tracer gas and pollutants. Methods for recording of data are stressed as well as different types of tomographic reconstruction algorithms such as the Smooth Basis Function Minimization (SBFM) and the modified Low Third Derivative (LTDm) methods. Among the reconstruction algorithms available today, SBFM and LTDm are among the most promising. These algorithms show potential for reconstruction of gas concentration in rooms, since they are regularized to converge towards smooth concentration distributions. Using the LTD method and ‘snapshot’ configuration enables the examination and real-time monitoring of transient flows.

  • 33.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Computed Tomography for Indoor Applications2006In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 349-364Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with tomographic techniques for two-dimensional spatially resolved concentration measurements indoors. This represents a significant advance over the traditional point measuring method for mapping tracer gas and pollutants. Methods for recording of data are stressed as well as different types of tomographic reconstruction algorithms such as the Smooth Basis Function Minimization (SBFM) and the modified Low Third Derivative (LTDm) methods. Among the reconstruction algorithms available today, SBFM and LTDm are among the most promising. These algorithms show potential for reconstruction of gas concentration in rooms, since they are regularized to converge towards smooth concentration distributions. Using the LTD method and ‘snapshot’ configuration enables the examination and real-time monitoring of transient flows.

  • 34.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Time evolution of gravity currents discharged from low velocity diffusers2007In: Roomvent 2007, 2007, p. 61-70Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Time evolution of gravity currents discharged from low velocity diffusers2007In: Roomvent 2007: 10th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, 13-15 June 2007, Helsinki, Finland, 2007, p. Vol. 3 61-70Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Chen, Huijuan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Computational investigation on the factors influencing thermal comfort for impinging jet ventilation2013In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 66, p. 29-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impinging jet ventilation (IN) has been proposed to achieve an effective ventilation of an occupied zone in office and industrial buildings. For IJV systems, draught discomfort is the issue of most concern since it supplies cooled air directly to the occupied zone. This study investigated a number of factors influencing draught discomfort and temperature stratification in an office environment equipped with IJV. The factors considered were: shape of air supply device, discharge height, supply airflow rate and supply air temperature. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to identify the level of the significance of the parameters studied, as well as to develop the predictive models for the local thermal discomfort. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was employed to perform a set of required studies, and each simulation condition was determined by the Box-Behnken design (BBD) method. The results indicated that at a low discharge height, the shape of air supply device had a major impact on the flow pattern in the vicinity of the supply device because of the footprint from impinging jet, which consequently affected the draught risk level in the occupied zone. A square-shaped air supply device was found to result in lower overall draught discomfort than rectangular and semi-elliptic shapes. The RSM analysis revealed that the supply airflow rate had a significant impact on the draught discomfort, while the shape of air supply device and discharge height had moderate effects. The temperature stratification in the occupied zone was mostly influenced by the supply air temperature within the range studied.

  • 37.
    Chen, Huijuan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Investigation on the flow and thermal behavior of impinging jet ventilation systems in an office with different heat loads2013In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 59, p. 127-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the flow and temperature field within an office using impinging jet ventilation (IJV) under different heat loads ranging from 17 to 65 W per square meter floor area. The measurement was carried out in a full-scale test room to verify the reliability of three turbulence models, i.e., the RNG k-epsilon, SST k-omega and (nu(2)) over bar - f models. It is found that all the tested models show good agreements with measurements, while the (nu(2)) over bar - f model shows the best performance, especially on the overall temperature prediction. The (nu(2)) over bar - f model is used further to investigate a number of important factors influencing the performance of the IJV. The considered parameters are: cooling effect of chilled ceiling, external heat load as well as its position, number of occupants and supplied air conditions. The interaction effect of chilled ceiling and heat sources results in a complex flow phenomenon but with a notable feature of air circulation. The appearance and strength of the air circulation mainly depends on the external heat load on window and number of occupants. It is found that with higher external heat load on window (384 W and 526 W), the air circulation has a strong tendency towards the side wall in the opposite direction to occupant, while with lower power on window (200 W) the air circulation has a strong tendency in the center of the room and extends to a larger area. When two occupants are present, two swirling zones are formed in the upper region. The effects of air circulation consequently alter the temperature field and the level of local thermal comfort.

  • 38.
    Chen, Huijuan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Numerical investigation of the flow behavior of an isothermal impinging jet in a room2012In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 49, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impinging jet concept has been proposed as a new ventilation strategy for use in office and industrial buildings. The present paper reports the mean flow field behavior of an isothermal turbulent impinging jet in a room. The detailed experimental study is carried out to validate the numerical simulations, and the predictions are performed by means of the RNG k-ε and SST k-ω model. The comparisons between the predictive results and the experimental data reveal that both of the tested turbulence models are capable of capturing the main qualitative flow features satisfactorily. It is found that the predictions from the RNG k-ε model predicts slightly better of the maximum velocity decay as jet approaching the floor, while the SST k-ω model accords slightly better in the region close to the impingement zone.

    Another important perspective of this study is to investigate the influence of different flow and configuration parameters such as jet discharge height, diffuser geometry, supply airflow rate and confinement from the surrounding environment on the impinging jet flow field with the validated model. The obtained data are presented in terms of the jet dimensionless velocity distribution, maximum velocity decay and spreading rate along the centerline of the floor. The comparative results demonstrate that all the investigated parameters have certain effects on the studied flow features, and the diffuser geometry is found to have the most appreciable impact, while the supply airflow rate is found to have marginal influence within the moderate flow range. 

  • 39.
    Chiesa, Giacomo
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Teufl, Helene
    Vienna University of Technology.
    Mahdavi, Ardeshir
    Vienna University of Technology.
    Breesch, Hilde
    KU Leuven.
    Sengupta, Abantika
    KU Leuven.
    Kacanzi, Ongun B.
    Technical University of Denmark .
    Bogatu, Dragos-Ioan
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Olesen, Bjarne W.
    Technical University of Denmark .
    Elnagar, Essam
    Université de Liège.
    Lemort, Vincent
    Université de Liège.
    Arghand, Taha
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Javed, Saqib
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Sayadi, Sana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Forghani, Sadegh
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Sodagar, Behzad
    University of Lincoln.
    Stern, Philipp
    Institute of Building Research & Innovation.
    Yoon, Nari
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Rahif, Ramin
    Univeristé de Liège.
    Attia, Shady
    Univeristé de Liège.
    Zhang, Chen
    Aalborg University.
    Heiselberg, Per
    Aalborg University.
    Remove sensible heat from indoorenvironments2023In: International Energy Agency - Resilient Cooling of Buildings - State of the Art Review / [ed] Peter Holzer and Philipp Stern, Vienna: Institute of Building Research & Innovation , 2023, p. 130-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is facing a rapid increase of air conditioning of buildings. It is the motivation of Annex 80 to develop, assess and communicate solutions of resilient cooling and overheating protection. Resilient Cooling is used to denote low energy and low carbon cooling solutions that strengthen the ability of individuals and our community to withstand, and prevent, thermal and other impacts of changes in global and local climates. It encompasses the assessment and Research & Development of both active and passive cooling technologies of the following four groups:

    Reduce heat loads to people and indoor environments.Remove sensible heat from indoor environments.Enhance personal comfort apart from space cooling.Remove latent heat from indoor environments.The present review sums up the state of the art in cooling solutions which may be regarded as resilient. Its main objective is to systematically describe the available cooling solutions, their physical basis, their benefits and limitations, their technology readiness level, their practical availability, and applicability. Doing so, the State-of-the-Art Review forms the basis for the work of Annex 80.

  • 40.
    Haghshenas, Samira
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Sajadi, Behrang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Multi-Objective Optimization of Impinging Jet Ventilation Systems: Taguchi Based CFD Method2018In: Building Simulation, ISSN 1996-3599, E-ISSN 1996-8744, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1207-1214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Taguchi method-based approach that can optimize the operating performance of impinging jet ventilation (IJV) systems with limited computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results. The Taguchi optimization calculation finds the best operating design for the weighted overall objective function as a presenter of the multi-objective function problem. The method is used to optimize the operating characteristics of an IJV system considering the factors of supply air temperature, level of the return air vent and percentage of the air exhausted through the ceiling to achieve an overall best performance of thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ) and system energy performance as the objective functions. The study indicates the contribution percentage for each factor in each objective function. The level of the return air vent, the supply air temperature, and the percentage of air exhausted through the ceiling have a contribution of 35.8%, 28.5%, and 35.8% in the objective functions, respectively. Based on the results, the best performance of the IJV system happens when the inlet air temperature is 18 °C, the height of the return air vent is 2 m above the floor, and the percentage of air exhausted through the ceiling is 22.5%.

  • 41.
    Honghao, Ren
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Bahrami, Alireza
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Literature Review on Development and Implementation of Cross-Laminated Timber2023In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, Singapore: Springer, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving the targets of the Paris Agreement as an international treaty on climate change requires global climate actions by all sectors, including ensuring that buildings are more energy efficient. Today’s modern buildings employ a worldwide well-known and versatile usable building material which is a new type of green low-carbon engineered wood product, cross-laminated timber (CLT), for their structural frames. CLT as an innovative plate-shaped product provides a laminated structure and great physicomechanical characteristics. This article studies the development status and implementation of CLT in Europe, emphasizing its material properties and load-bearing characteristics. The newest findings related to CLT are reported. Also, the environmental benefits of using CLT in the construction industry are discussed. Moreover, the energy performance and performance of the utilized CLT elements are highlighted. According to our findings, the embodied energy and embodied carbon are significantly lower in CLT constructions compared with reinforced concrete and steel structures. Finally, the prospects of CLT are presented.

  • 42.
    Honghao, Ren
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Bahrami, Alireza
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Proposing new adhesive-free timber edge connections for cross-laminated timber panels: A step toward sustainable construction2024In: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 20, article id e02975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of timber as a building material is becoming increasingly popular thanks to its superior environmental performance compared with concrete and steel. However, timber structures rely on solid connections to improve their weak expansibility. Steel connections can be prone to corrosion over time, leading to the decreased structural integrity. Additionally, steel connections require more material and energy to manufacture and install compared with timber connections. This article focuses on the flexural performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels with adhesive-free edge connections under four-point bending tests. First, numerical models of experimentally tested CLT panels were constructed using the finite element (FE) software ABAQUS. Then, these FE models were validated with the comparisons of their results with those of the experimental tests. Afterward, four new adhesive-free edge connections using timber for the CLT panels were developed in this study, helping sustainable construction. Utilizing the designed edge connections of the current study, forty-one parametric studies were numerically conducted on the connected CLT panels to investigate their ultimate loads, strains, displacements, moment capacities, failure modes, and effective stiffness. The factors affecting the edge connections’ load-bearing capacity were also examined and discussed. The study provides helpful insights into the development of CLT as a sustainable construction material with improved adhesive-free edge connections.

  • 43.
    Johansson, Lisen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Bahrami, Alireza
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Study on Properties and Performance of Green Concrete2023In: SynerCrete'23: International RILEM Conference on Synergising Expertise towards Sustainability and Robustness of Cement-based Materials and Concrete Structures / [ed] Agnieszka Jedrzejewska, Fragkoulis Kanavaris, Miguel Azenha, Farid Benboudjema, Dirk Schlicke, Springer, 2023, Vol. 44, p. 23-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional concrete (CC) is for decades the most used construction material worldwide thanks to its good properties such as high strength, high thermal mass, low noise transmission, and high fire resistance. Cement is an important component of CC. The cement industry is a significant source of emissions and accounts for roughly 8% of the world’s CO2 emissions today, which means all improvements that can be made within this single industry benefit the emissions reduction goals. Green concrete (GC) is the development in the field of construction technology, which offers a more sustainable and eco-friendly solution as a building material. GC deals with the mentioned negative issue of cement, since it offers new cementitious matrices where some part of the Portland cement of CC is being replaced by some supplementary cementitious materials, such as industrial by-products, agricultural wastes, or municipal wastes. This paper studies the properties, structural performance, and environmental benefits of GCs. The investigation is done through a literature review, identifying the knowledge gaps, and providing suggestions for further research. The results indicate that there is a good potential to significantly reduce the climate impact of CC by using alternative binder materials in GC.

  • 44.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden .
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden .
    Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 103, p. 562-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

  • 45.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; SSAB Europe, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Svedung, Harald
    Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; SSAB Europe, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Numerical and experimental investigation of the influence of infrared reflective interior surfaces on building temperature distributions2017In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 355-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiative properties of interior surfaces can affect not only the building heat flux but also the indoor environment, the latter of which has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of surface emissivity on indoor air and surface temperature distributions in a test cabin with reflective interior surfaces. This was done by comparing experimental and simulation data of the test cabin with that of a normal cabin. This study employs transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using re-normalisation group (RNG) k-epsilon model, surface-to-surface radiation model and an enhanced wall function. Boundary conditions were assigned to exterior surfaces under variable outdoor conditions. The numerical and the measurement results indicate that using interior reflective surfaces will affect the indoor air temperature distribution by increasing the vertical temperature gradient depending on the time of the day. CFD simulations with high spatial resolution results show increased interior surface temperature gradients consistent with the increased vertical air temperature gradient. The influence of reflective surfaces is potentially greater with higher indoor surface temperature asymmetry. The vertical indoor air temperature gradient and surface temperatures are important parameters for indoor thermal comfort.

  • 46.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Comparing the efficiency of three turbulence models with experiments conducted for a two-dimensional wall jet in a ventilated room: 2011In: Proceedings of Roomvent 2011, 11th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms 19 - 22 June 2011 Trondheim, Norway, 2011, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Investigation of flow pattern for a confluent-jets system on a workbench of an industrial space2014In: Indoor Air 2014: 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2014, p. 192-199Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new air supply terminal based on confluent jets was installed on a workbench, in vicinity of a CNC machine, of an industrial space. The flow pattern and temperature field was carried out by CFD calculations and infrared camera imaging technique. A main goal of this technique is to save energy therefore the jet should distribute the air where it is desired. This is possible because the confluent jets system uses the benefits of both mixing (high momentum for better spreading of the air jet) and displacement (cleaner air in occupied zone). The results show that thermal comfort and air quality analysis relies on consistent facts and is in good agreements with the existed standards. It was shown that the supply terminal is able to spread the fresh air to the needed work area. This is an advantage of the high momentum air distribution system used in this investigation.

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  • 48.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Department of Construction, Gavlefastigheter Company, Gävle, Sweden.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in a Historic Building Refurbished to an Office Building with Modernized HVAC Systems2020In: Advances in Building Energy Research, ISSN 1751-2549, E-ISSN 1756-2201, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 218-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Envelopes with low thermal performance are common characteristics in European historic buildings, causing higher energy demand and insufficient thermal comfort. This paper presents the results of a study on indoor environmental quality (IEQ), with special focus on thermal comfort, in the historic City Hall of Gävle, Sweden, now used as an office building. There are two modern heat recovery ventilation systems with displacement ventilation supply devices. The district heating network heats the building via pre-heat supply air and radiators. Summer cooling comes from electric heat pump ejecting heat into the exhaust ventilation air. A building management system (BMS) controls the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment. The methodology included on-site measurements, BMS data logging and evaluating the occupants’ perception of a summer and a winter period indoor environment using a standardized questionnaire. In conclusion, indoor environmental quality in this historic building is unsatisfactory. Stuffy air, too high, too low and varying room temperatures, lighting problems and noise are constant issues. Although it is equipped with modern ventilation systems, there are still possibilities for improving thermal comfort by improved control strategies, since upgrading the building’s envelope is not allowed according to the Swedish Building Regulations in historic buildings with heritage value.

  • 49.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    On the Performance of Night Ventilation in a Historic Office Building in Nordic Climate2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 16, article id 4159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of mechanical night ventilation on thermal comfort and electricity use for cooling of a typical historic office building in north-central Sweden was assessed. IDA-ICE simulation program was used to model the potential for improving thermal comfort and electricity savings by applying night ventilation cooling. Parametric study comprised different outdoor climates, flow rates, cooling machine’s coefficient of performance and ventilation units’ specific fan power values. Additionally, the effect of different door schemes (open or closed) on thermal comfort in offices was investigated. It was shown that night ventilation cannot meet the building’s total cooling demand and auxiliary active cooling is required, although the building is located in a cold climate. Night ventilation had the potential in decreasing the percentage of exceedance hours in offices by up to 33% and decreasing the total electricity use for cooling by up to 40%. More electricity is saved with higher night ventilation rates. There is, however, a maximum beneficial ventilation rate above which the increase in electricity use in fans outweighs the decrease in electricity use in cooling machine. It depends on thermal mass capacity of the building, cooling machine´s coefficient of performance, design ventilation rate, and available night ventilation cooling potential (ambient air temperature).

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  • 50.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Construction, Gavlefastigheter Company, Gävle, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Thermal Comfort in Office Rooms in a Historic Building with Modernized HVAC Systems2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference On Building Energy & Environment, COBEE 2018: RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, Feb 5-9th 2018 / [ed] Kiao Inthavong,Chi Pok Cheung, Guan Yeoh, Jiyuan Tu, Melbourne: Conference On Building Energy & Environment , 2018, p. 683-688, article id 230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SUMMARY

    Envelopes with low thermal performance are common characteristics in European historic buildings, leading to higher energy demand and insufficient thermal comfort. This paper presents the results of a study on thermal comfort in the historic office building of City Hall in Gävle, Sweden. It is equipped with two modern heat recovery ventilation systems with displacement ventilation supply devices in offices. District heating network heats the building via pre-heat supply air and radiators. Summer cooling comes from electric heat pump, rejecting heat into the exhaust ventilation air. A building management system controls HVAC equipment. Methodology includes on-site measurements, data logging on management system and evaluating the occupants’ perception of a summer and a winter period indoor environment using a standardized questionnaire. In conclusion, thermal comfort in this historic building is poor although it is equipped with modern ventilation systems and there should be possibilities for improving comfort, by improved control strategies.

    Keywords — Historic Buildings, On-site Measurements, Standardized Questionnaire, Thermal Comfort

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