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  • 1.
    Alsins, J.
    et al.
    University of Uppsala, Department of Physical Chemistry, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björling, Mikael
    Royal Institute of Technology, Physical Chemistry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Furó, I.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Physical Chemistry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Egle, V.
    University of Uppsala, Department of Physical Chemistry, Uppsala, Sweden; Latvian State Inst. of Wood Chem., Riga, Latvia.
    Dimer formation of a stilbenesulphonic acid salt in aqueous solution1999Inngår i: Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0894-3230, E-ISSN 1099-1395, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 171-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and 1H NMR spectra of a stilbenesulphonic acid salt, commonly used as an optical brightening agent, was studied as a function of concentration in aqueous solution. The aggregates, formed at higher concentrations, were shown to be predominantly dimers with the central stilbene moieties of the molecules stacked plane-parallel. The equilibrium constant for the dimer formation at 25°C was obtained from both NMR and fluorescence measurements.

  • 2.
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Kemi.
    Air exchange and ventilation in an underground train station2012Inngår i: 10th International Conference on Healthy Buildings 2012: Vol. 2 / [ed] Eliza Morawska, 2012, s. 1406-1411Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor air climate of an underground train station was investigated during two days in January 2008. The underground platform was accessed from ticket halls on each side with air volumes of 1 000 m3 and 1 430 m3, respectively. The station platform air volume was approximately 14 300 m3. Air from the outside could enter either via the ticket halls or via the train tunnels from ventilation towers situated on each side of the platform area. The local mean age of air was determined in several locations at different heights using pumped sampling and homogeneous emission of PFTs. In addition, the temperature and relative humidity was measured at selected locations. The average air exchange rate per hour (ACH) was found to be 3.62 h-1, ranging from 4 h-1 at rush hours to slightly more than 3 h-1 at night and in the middle of the day. The largest ACH (4.5 h-1) was found at rush hour in one of the ticket halls, corresponding to a flow rate of 75 000 m3/h. The lowest ACH (2.8 h-1) was found in the other ticket hall at night, corresponding to a flow rate of 47 000 m3/h. In the middle of the station platform the ACH was lower than the ACH at the platform ends.

  • 3.
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Kemi.
    Att ändra sin förståelse: exemplet faser och fasövergångar2012Inngår i: I mötet mellan vetenskap och lärande: 13 högskolepedagogiska utmaningar / [ed] Göran Fransson & Helena Hammarström, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012, s. 195-216Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Förorenade byggnader: Provtagning och riskbedömning2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Högskolan i Gävle: Omorganisation - översyn: Scenario 1 SOM NU-fast bättre2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredningen för Scenario 1:Som Nu - fast bättre i Högskolan i Gävles översyn av organisationen. Rapporten lyfter fram flera skäl till att förbättra den nuvarande organisationen snarare än att söka skapa en ny, oprövad organisationsform.

  • 6.
    Björling, Mikael
    Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden .
    Interaction between Surfaces with Attached Poly(ethylene oxide) Chains1992Inngår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 25, nr 15, s. 3956-3970Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a self-consistent mean-field lattice theory of the Scheutjens-Fleer type where segments may adapt to temperature and the local environment by changing their distribution among internal states. Some new features are introduced in the theoretical treatment of incompressible systems, and it is demonstrated how the chemical potential may be calculated without reference to a bulk system. The theory is applied to make a qualitative prediction for the interaction between surfaces with grafted poly-(ethylene oxide), or PEO, chains. A simple two-state model for the PEO segments is used. The attractive force between the PEO-covered surfaces in water is predicted to be related to the temperature-dependent solubility of PEO in water. The contributions to the force are illustrated by simple examples. The attractive force does not change monotonically upon changing the graft density. At low coverages a strong bridging attraction is predicted if the surfaces are hydrophobic. As the surfaces become more polar, repulsion sets in at a larger separation and the overall attraction becomes less strong. A calculated, closed, solubility gap for a crude model of micelles of nonionic surfactants is presented.

  • 7. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Kemi för de yngre åren2016Inngår i: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, s. 109-132Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är bakgrunden till att små barn är fascinerande av att leka Titt-ut,men som alla föräldrar vet så försvinner den lekens lockelse när barnet blir äldre. Barn utvecklas snabbt i de yngre åren, vilket skapar både möjligheter och begränsningar för hur lärande i naturvetenskap och kemi uppstår i förskolan och grundskolan. Det finns många skäl till att kemirelaterade aktiviteter bör introduceras i de yngre åren och i det här kapitlet diskuteras några av dessa skäl ur ett kemididaktiskt perspektiv. Kapitlet är uppbyggt kring några av de betydande framsteg som gjorts i den utvecklingspsykologiska forskningen under de senaste tjugo åren (Gärdenfors, 2006). Idag vet vi ganska mycket om hur våra hjärnor fungerar och utvecklas. Insprängt i denna beskrivning kommer jag att reflektera kring hur detta skulle kunna påverka valet av innehåll när det gäller naturvetenskapligt lärande för yngre barn. På slutet sammanfattar jag tankarna om innehåll med ett speciellt fokus på kemi.

  • 8.
    Björling, Mikael
    Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Polymers at interfaces: or statistical thermodynamics for chain molecules subjected to constraints1991Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Sustainable science policy - in whom shall we trust?2017Inngår i: A good life for all: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunnigham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, s. 21-43Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of science as a provider of well-tested and trustworthy knowledgre in a sustainable society is discussed with respect to other social institutions: government and state bureaucracy, the market, the media and the public. In particular, societal pressures that threaten scientific endeavour are problematised with a slight bias towards examples from sustainability science. Global challenges of today transcend social institutions and therefore require novel modes of trans-institutional cooperation. Such modes of cooperation may produce unwanted clashes of institutional norms that imperil objective and mutually accepted norms need to be developed. The science policy for a democratic, sustainable society should strive for clear divisions among social institutions while encouraging suitable modes of cooperation to address global challenges to the sustainability of human life.

  • 10.
    Björling, Mikael
    Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using end-confined chains to model end-absorbing, triblock copolymers: 1. Analytical approach1998Inngår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 31, nr 25, s. 9026-9032Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The bridging attraction, mediated by associative, triblock copolymers with insoluble end blocks and a soluble spacer block, is analyzed using scaling arguments and analytical methods. Adsorbing these associative polymers (APs) onto a single surface, the approach of another, bare, surface results in a strong bridging attraction. When both slit surfaces bear adsorbed APs, the bridging attraction is much weaker. The main contribution is an entropic gain since bridge formation decreases the monomer number density in the crowded region near the surface.

  • 11. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik2016Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken samlar ett axplock av ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik från lärare och forskare med anknytning till Högskolan i Gävle (HiG). Den röda tråden är en vilja att göra ämnena mer tillgängliga samt stimulera utveckling av undervisning och lärande i dessa ämnen.

    Författarna till den här boken förenas av ett brinnande intresse för sina olika ämnen och en stark önskan att finna vägar till utveckling av undervisningen för att underlätta lärande och väcka nyfikenhet. Boken är skriven till dig som delar våra intressen. Vi hoppas att den ska inspirera till ytterligare utveckling av ämnesdidaktiken.

  • 12. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik2016Inngår i: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar– inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, s. 9-14Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Steen Englund, Jessika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    On Measuring Air Infiltration Rates Using Tracer Gases in Buildings with Presence Controlled Mechanical Ventilation Systems2016Inngår i: Indoor Air 2016: The 14th International Conference of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, July 3-8 2016, Ghent, Belgium: Conference Proceedings / [ed] E. Van Kenhove, J. Laverge, P. De Vlieger, ISIAQ , 2016, artikkel-id 875Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ventilation and air leakage of a school building was investigated. Information was collected from the parameters of the mechanical ventilation system and from measurements of the local mean age of air using the homogeneous emission method. While the average local mean ages of air can be accurately measured by passive integrative samplers, the estimation of the average room specific air change rate by taking the inverse of the measured average local mean age of air did not give correct results. The main problem is that integrative sampling represents a linear averaging process that is inappropriate to capture the average of nonlinearly related properties. This problem is accentuated when the ventilation rates for different periods differ a lot. A simple computational model was developed to discuss the system behavior. A partial solution to the measurement problem is to actively sample the different populations of air change rates separately.

  • 14.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Physical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden; Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Herslöf-Björling, A.
    Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Physical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stilbs, P.
    Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Physical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden; Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An NMR Self-Diffusion Study of the Interaction between Sodium Hyaluronate and Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide1995Inngår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 28, nr 20, s. 6970-6975Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A decrease of the NMR self-diffusion coefficient of sodium hyaluronate (NaHy) upon increasing tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) concentration in 202 mM NaCl (just enough to attain single phase conditions irrespective of the TTAB concentration) is interpreted in terms of the formation of NaHy–TTAB complexes containing several NaHy chains. The complexes are judged to be induced by multiple-site electrostatic condensation of TTAB micelles onto the Hy chains. Thus, the TTAB micelles may act as bridging points between, and within, the NaHy chains. For a 1% wt NaHy solution, at 202 mM NaCl, the fraction of adsorbed TTAB has a maximum at 10 mM TTAB where an estimated 54% of all the added TTAB is bound. At 70 mM TTAB, the fraction of bound TTAB has decreased to 42%. The decrease of the binding constant with increasing TTAB concentration is attributed to a more efficient electrostatic screening; i.e., the ionic strength (due to uncondensed species) increases. The observed NaHy–TTAB complexes are likely to be precursors of the precipitated phase formed at lower salt concentrations.

  • 15.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Jönsson, D.
    Building Services LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Bagge, H.
    Building Physics LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, D.
    Building Services LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Air infiltration into naturally ventilated apartments in multifamily dwellings2014Inngår i: Indoor Air 2014 - 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2014, s. 34-40Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the ACH for ten apartments in naturally ventilated multifamily dwellings for two cases inlet vent manipulations: i) fully opened inlet vents; and ii) fully closed and taped inlet vents. Even with fully opened inlet vents the resulting ventilation is rather poor. The average ACH is 0.26±0.16 h-1. All apartments fall in the lower quartile in terms of ACH when compared to other multifamily dwellings in Sweden. A method using two different tracers A and B is presented that allow for measurement of the partial flow from the stairway zone and the partial flow from other pathways into the apartment. On the average 10-20% of the airflow into a typical apartment in a naturally ventilated multifamily dwelling seems to originate from the stairway zone when the inlet vents are fully opened. By closing and taping the inlet vents, the airtightness of the apartments have been investigated. The average direct leakage flow, i.e. not from the stairway zone, is 17 m3/h but the variation is large. Layout B seems to leak the most, followed by A and then C.

  • 16.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlström, G.
    Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, Lund, Sweden; Theoretical Chemistry, Chemical Center, Lund, Sweden.
    Linse, P.
    Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, Lund, Sweden.
    Conformational adaption of poly(ethylene oxide). A 13C NMR study1991Inngår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3654, Vol. 95, nr 17, s. 6706-6709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 13C NMR chemical shift was used as a probe for the average partition of rotational conformers around the C-C bond in the O-CH2-CH2-O segments of polyethylene oxide). Dividing the conformers into a large group of trans and a smaller group of gauche conformers, we concluded that the trans conformers have a higher (downfield) average chemical shift than the gauche conformers. The shift of the main PEO 13C line with changing environment was interpreted as an adaption in the partition between the two groups of conformers. Furthermore, the trans conformers had nonpolar character and were favored at high temperatures, whereas the gauche conformers had polar character. The measurements were compared to the predictions of a model proposed by Karlström, and a semiquantitative agreement was found.

  • 17.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Kumlin, Anders
    Anders Kumlin AB.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Bengt Dahlgren AB.
    Local Determination of the Building Envelope Air Leakage2018Inngår i: Indoor Air 2018 / [ed] Michael Waring and Brent Stephens, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to determine the rate of local transport into the indoor air of a substance originating from the construction frame of a building has been devised and tested. In particular we demonstrate that a tracer located outside the air and vapour barrier in the construction frame of an office building can be detected in varying concentrations in the office indoor air. The tracer may either diffuse directly or follow with outside air leaking through the barrier. Cor-recting for the local air change rate yields an apparent emission rate as an estimate of the rate of local transport from the construction frame to the indoor air. Our interpretation is that high-er apparent emission rates predominantly reflect higher local air leakage rates through the air and vapor barrier. This information could be useful for interpreting office worker complaints and for decisions on renovation options. The tracer techniques used in the study are also more generally applicable to convert measured concentrations of indoor substances into apparent emission rates. Emission rates are more indicative of the location of pollution sources and may therefore be useful in other investigations of polluted buildings.

  • 18.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden; Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Linse, P.
    Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Self-consistent-field theory for hard-sphere chains close to hard walls1992Inngår i: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 97, nr 9, s. 6890-6900Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A continuum theory for confined hard-sphere polymers is presented. Starting from fundamental relations and applying defined approximations, a constitutive relation for the conformation probability (analogous to the result in mean-field lattice theories) is developed. The main problem of hard-sphere correlations is attacked by two approximate methods: First, using the Carnahan-Starling equation of state and local volume fractions (CS). Second, by an extension of the lattice theory to spherical components with unequal volumes (LATT). The agreement with Monte Carlo simulations is good for both approximations at low densities, but becomes only qualitative at the higher concentrations. The CS approximation seems to be favored over the LATT approach at the higher concentrations when correlation becomes more important. Both free and grafted chains are treated. The influence of chain length, grafting density, solvent concentration, solvent chain length, and surface curvature on the segment distribution is investigated.

  • 19.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Division of Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Linse, P.
    Division of Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlström, G.
    Division of Theoretical Chemistry, Chemical Center, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Distribution of segments for terminally attached poly(ethylene oxide) chains1990Inngår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3654, Vol. 94, nr 1, s. 471-481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A theory for describing the equilibrium ethylene oxide (EO) segment distribution for terminally attached poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains is presented. It is based on Scheutjens and Fleer's lattice model for polymer solutions in heterogeneous systems and a two-state model for the EO segments. The two-state model provides one explanation of the solubility gap of homogeneous PEO solutions. The segment distribution is examined as a function of temperature, grafting density, and curvature. The present theory predicts distributions, which cannot be reproduced with the use of temperature-dependent interaction parameters in a one-state model. Specifically, the segments tend to be more accumulated at the surface but also far away from the surface at the expense of the intervening transition region. Calculation on a model of a micelles formed by the nonionic surfactant C 12E 8 supports the experimental conclusions that the EO segments are preferentially accumulated nearby the hydrocarbon core and not completely extended into the water region.

  • 20.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Infiltration of Air into two World Heritage Farmhouses in Sweden during Winter Conditions2018Inngår i: Roomvent & Ventilation 2018: Excellent Indoor Climate and High Performing Ventilation / [ed] Risto Kosonen, Mervi Ahola, Jarkko Narvanne, Helsinki, Finland, 2018, s. 1079-1084Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of an ongoing study, we report measurements of air infiltration during winter conditions into two Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In winter these two-storied farmhouses are rarely heated, except for special occasions. In this measurement one farmhouse  was  unheated,  whereas  one  room  was  heated  for  a  brief  period  in  the  other  one.  The observed local mean ages of air measured with tracer gas techniques generally increase with height, both  locally  within  each  room  and  between  floors.  The  average  temperature  and  humidity  also increases from the first to the second floor. The indoor temperature follows the outdoor temperature with a time lag. The differences in water content between inside and outside air correlate with changes of the indoor relative humidity. The correlation is stronger for humidity increase than for humidity decrease, possibly due to moisture absorption by interior text.

  • 21.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Physical Chemistry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pellicane, G.
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Sez. Teorica, Messina, Italy; Ist. Nazionale Fisica della Materia, Messina, Italy.
    Caccamo, C.
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Sez. Teorica, Messina, Italy; Ist. Nazionale Fisica della Materia, Messina, Italy.
    On the application of Flory-Huggins and integral equation theories to asymmetric hard sphere mixtures1999Inngår i: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 111, nr 15, s. 6884-6889Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flory-Huggins (FH) and integral equation theories (IETs) are used to describe the equation of state and the relevant mixing properties of hard sphere binary mixtures in the limit of high size-asymmetry. The results are compared with those obtained from the heuristic equation of state of Mansoori et al. (BMCSL) [J. Chem. Phys. 54, 1523 (1971)] and with the Flory-Huggins scheme of other authors. By choosing a physical recipe for the volume fractions of the two species in the mixture FH theory is shown to be a good approximation to the entropy and the Gibbs free energy of mixing, which shows improvement at high size-asymmetry. In addition, the results of the IETs are found to be in overall quantitative agreement with BMCSL. The implications of our study concerning colloidal systems are discussed.

  • 22.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stilbs, P.
    Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using end-confined chains to model end-absorbing, triblock copolymers: 2. Numerical approach1998Inngår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 31, nr 25, s. 9033-9043Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The bridging attraction mediated by end-absorbing, triblock copolymers in a good solvent is analyzed using numerical methods and compared to analytical results. Good agreement is found. The main deviations may be attributed to the neglect of thermal fluctuations in the extension of the loops at the brush edge in the analytical treatment. With a suitable choice of "natural" units, the numerical results for the bridging probability and the free energy of interaction per chain collapse onto universal master curves in the two arrangements considered: symmetric and asymmetric adsorption of associative polymers (APs) on the surfaces of a planar slit.

  • 23.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Stymne, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Boman, Carl-Axel
    Pentiaq AB.
     The Indoor Climate of a Naturally Ventilated Church2009Inngår i: Healthy Buildings 2009, Sept 13-18, Syracuse, NY USA, IAQ , 2009, s. 1-4Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The indoor air climate of a church, with a total building volume of 9500 m3, was investigated from January to October, 2008. During this time, infiltration and ventilation measurements were performed at four periods ranging from 17 to 45 days. The local mean age of air was determined in several locations at different heights using passive samplers and homogeneous emission of PFTs. In addition, the temperature and relative humidity was measured at selected locations. The total infiltration of fresh air into the church was found to be mainly driven by the difference between indoor and outdoor temperature. The rate of infiltration ranges from 780 m3/h (deltat=14.8 degrees C) in January to 240 m3/h (deltat=3.5 degrees C) in August. The local mean age of air in the upper and lower air volumes were found to be roughly equal, both during the heating season and in the summer. This indicates that the air volume in the church is well-mixed throughout the year. Transient measurements to assess the effects of doors opening in the summer were also performed using pumped sampling.

  • 24.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Stymne, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Blomqvist, Claes
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Ventilation measurements combined with pollutant concentration measurements discriminates between high emission rates and insufficient ventilation2007Inngår i: IAQVEC 2007 Indoor Air Quality Ventilation and Energy Conservation: sustainable Buildings. P. 2, 2007, Vol. 2, s. 393-400Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High local concentrations of a pollutant can be the result of high local emission rates of the pollutant or insufficient ventilation. Using tracer gases to map the ventilation in multi-zone buildings combined with measurements of the local pollutant concentration provide the means to discriminate between these causes. In a similar manner, the propagation rate of pollutants from a source to a target zone and the emission rate of the pollutants at the source may be determined quantitatively.

    The paper presents both the theoretical framework for the techniques and experimental examples of the proposed methods.

  • 25.
    Halle, B.
    et al.
    Condensed Matter Magnetic Resonance Group, Lund University, Chemical Center, Lund, Sweden.
    Björling, Mikael
    Laboratoire S.R.S.I., U.R.A. C.N.R.S. 1662, Université P. et M. Curie, Paris, France; Division of Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Microemulsions as macroelectrolytes1995Inngår i: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 103, nr 4, s. 1655-1668Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-in-oil microemulsions, composed of discrete aqueous droplets dispersed in a continuous oil medium, constitute a special class of electrolyte solutions. Such macroelectrolytes are analogous to conventional electrolyte solutions in most respects, with the notable difference that, in a microemulsion, the ionic (droplet) charge is not fixed but depends on the droplet interactions. Describing the microemulsion as a primitive-model electrolyte mixture with ions of variable charge and evaluating the statistical mechanics within the mean-spherical approximation (MSA), we construct a self-consistent theory of charge fluctuations and droplet interactions in ionic microemulsions. The droplet charge distribution is calculated as a function of the size, shape, polydispersity, and volume fraction of the droplets. We argue that the net droplet charges can have a decisive influence on microemulsion structure, especially at the higher volume fractions where clustering and spinodal decomposition are observed. At lower volume fractions, where the MSA treatment should be quantitatively accurate, the Coulomb interaction between charged droplets has no effect on the structure factor deduced from scattering data.

  • 26.
    Hansson, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Stymne, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Permeation of the tracer gas SF6 through three common building materials with and without surface treatment2004Inngår i: Proceedings of Roomvent 2004: 9th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, Coimbra, Portugal, 2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tracer gas sorption in and permeation through building materials influence tracer gas ventilation measurements. The permeation of the commonly used tracer SF6 through three different building materials (gypsum board, wood particle board and MDF-board) with and without paint has been experimentally investigated. The results show that the tracer diffuse through untreated boards and that gypsum board has the largest permeability towards SF6. However, the diffusion rate of tracer is effectively reduced when the boards are coated with two layers of latex paint. Caution should therefore be exercised when using tracer gas measurements in rooms with walls of untreated porous materials.

  • 27.
    Herslöf-Björling, Å.
    et al.
    Physical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden; Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björling, Mikael
    Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundelöf, L.-O.
    Physical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Counter- and Colon Influence on the Interaction between Sodium Hyaluronate and Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide1999Inngår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 353-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The minimum concentration of salt (critical electrolyte concentration, CEC) required to suppress precipitation/coacervation in an aqueous solution of sodium hyaluronate (NaHy) and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) has been studied and CEC diagrams constructed for a set of inorganic salts, as a function of TTAB concentration. An initial rapid increase in the CEC is observed for low TTAB concentrations at the onset of the coacervation region. When the TTAB concentration is increased, a CEC plateau is reached at a certain TTAB concentration. Thereafter, the CEC value stays fairly constant, independent of TTAB concentration, until finally the CEC value starts to decrease at a sufficiently high TTAB concentration. The CEC plateau value and the onset of the decrease of CEC are shown to depend strongly on the valence of the ions constituting the salt. For ions of equal valency, ion-specific effects are observed.

  • 28.
    Linse, Per
    et al.
    Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden .
    Björling, Mikael
    Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden .
    Lattice Theory for Multicomponent Mixtures of Copolymers with Internal Degrees of Freedom in Heterogeneous Systems1991Inngår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 24, nr 25, s. 6700-6711Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have generalized the lattice theory recently presented by Evers, Scheutjens, and Fleer (Macromolecules 1990, 23, 5221) by extending it to the case where the polymer segments possess internal degrees of freedom. The theory is able to describe the adsorption from a multicomponent mixture of arbitrary composition of polymers and solvents where the segments of a polymer may be of different types and possess internal degrees of freedom. The use of internal states results in effective segment-segment interaction parameters, which are temperature and density dependent. This simple polymer model has previously been useful for describing the existence of a lower consolute point occurring in some aqueous polymer solutions and for predicting the conformational equilibrium of poly(ethylene oxide) in homogeneous solutions. We also present results from an application of our extended theory on the adsorption of Pluronic (a triblock copolymer) from aqueous solution. The nontrivial and prominent increase of the Pluronic adsorption as the temperature of the solution reaches the cloud point from below is accurately reproduced by the theory.

  • 29.
    Lisiecki, I.
    et al.
    Laboratoire SRSI, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; CEN Saclay, DRECAM-SCM Bat 522, Gifsur Yvette, France; Depagrtment of Applied Mathematics, Canberra, Australia; Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, France; CEN Saclay, France.
    Bjorling, Mikael
    Laboratoire SRSI, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; CEN Saclay, DRECAM-SCM Bat 522, Gifsur Yvette, France; Depagrtment of Applied Mathematics, Canberra, Australia; Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, France; CEN Saclay, France.
    Motte, L.
    Laboratoire SRSI, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; CEN Saclay, DRECAM-SCM Bat 522, Gifsur Yvette, France; Depagrtment of Applied Mathematics, Canberra, Australia; Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, France; CEN Saclay, France.
    Ninham, B.
    Laboratoire SRSI, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; CEN Saclay, DRECAM-SCM Bat 522, Gifsur Yvette, France; Depagrtment of Applied Mathematics, Canberra, Australia.
    Pileni, M. P.
    Laboratoire SRSI, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; CEN Saclay, DRECAM-SCM Bat 522, Gifsur Yvette, France; Depagrtment of Applied Mathematics, Canberra, Australia; Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, France; CEN Saclay, France; Department of Applied Mathematics, France.
    Synthesis of Copper Nanosize Particles in Anionic Reverse Micelles: Effect of the Addition of a Cationic Surfactant on the Size of the Crystallites1995Inngår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 2385-2392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The size of copper nanoparticles in reverse micelles can be controlled by varying the water content of anionic reverse micelles (AOT = sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate). In the presence of cetyltrim-ethylammonium chloride (CTAC), depending on the concentration, the size of the particles is strongly affected. At a low CTAC concentration ([CTAC] = 4 × 10-4 M), an unexpectedly large increase in the size is observed. At the other extreme, a decrease in the size is observed at higher CTAC concentration ([CTAC] = 6.4 × 10-3 M). The increase in the size at low CTAC concentration could be explained in terms of the formation of superaggregates containing most of the cationic surfactant. At higher CTAC concentrations, a random distribution of the positively charged surfactant takes place and the decrease in the size could be due to a decreasein the intermicellar attraction. Furthermore, the yield of particles drastically increases which is attributed to a change in the redox potential.

  • 30.
    Steen Englund, Jessika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping Unviersty, Linköping, Sweden.
    Assessment of Airflows in a School Building with Mechanical Ventilation Using Passive Tracer Gas Method2017Inngår i: Mediterranean Green Buildings & Renewable Energy: Selected Papers from the World Renewable Energy Network’s Med Green Forum / [ed] Sayigh, Ali, Springer, 2017, 1, s. 619-631Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is to assess the airflows in a school building built in 1963 in Gävle, Sweden, which is subject to energy conservation measures (ECMs) in a forthcoming renovation. Today, the school building is mainly ventilated by several mechanical ventilation systems, which are controlled by a constant air volume (CAV) strategy. Schedules and presence sensors impose a high operation mode during the day and a low operation mode at night, on weekends and on holidays. The homogeneous tracer gas emission method with passive sampling is used to measure the average local mean age of air (τ) during different operation modes. Temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration are simultaneously measured. The calculated relative uncertainty for the average local mean age of air in every measured point is approx. ±20 %. The results during low operation mode show an average value of τ of approx. 8.51 h [corresponding to 0.12 air changes per hour (ACH)], where τ in various zones ranges between 2.55 and 16.37 h (indicating 0.06–0.39 ACH), which is related to the unintentional airflow in the school. The results during mixed operation mode show an average value of τ of approx. 4.60 h (0.22 ACH), where τ in various zones ranges between 2.00 and 8.98 h (0.11–0.50 ACH), which is related to both unintentional and intentional airflows in the school. Corridors, basement and attic rooms and entrances have lower τ compared to classrooms, offices and other rooms. High maximums of the CO2 concentration in some rooms indicate an imbalance in the mechanical ventilation systems. During a regular school week of mixed operation, which includes both high and low operation modes, it is found that mainly the low operation modes show up in the results. The dynamics of the highly varying airflows in the building cannot be identified using the passive sampling technique.

  • 31.
    van Stam, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Briscoe, Sara
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Kronberg, Bengt
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Karlsson, Gunilla
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Thermodynamic understanding of Alkanes' solubility in tenside hydrocarbon layers2007Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial question concerning interfacial wetting phenomena, is how an organic solvent interacts with a tenside layer's hydrocarbon chains. This interaction will, as an example, influence the swelling of the tenside layer and, hence, the curvature of inverted w/o micelles. We have chosen to use chromatographic measurements to study the interactions between solvents and tensides. From HPLC, the retention time will be a measure on the solubility of the solvent in the hydrocarbon chain layer. From measurements of the temperature dependence and analyzing both the shift in retention time and peak tailing, an adsorption isotherm can be calculated. The concentration dependence, on the other hand, yield information on differences in solubility at different saturation levels. Combining the experimental results with thermodynamic modeling opens for a molecular understanding of solvent-tenside interactions.

  • 32.
    Wahlborg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Andersson, Lars T.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Allergenic potency of birch pollen2016Inngår i: Indoor Air 2016: The 14th International Conference of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, July 3-8 2016, Ghent, Belgium. Conference Proceedings / [ed] E. Van Kenhove, J. Laverge, P. De Vlieger, ISIAQ , 2016, artikkel-id 553Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of people sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 in industrialized countries is vast and still rising. The purpose of this study was to develop a method with sensitivity high enough to measure the Bet v 1 content of a few birch pollen grains without the interference of environmental factors such as diesel particles, ozone level, humidity, temperature and precipitation. Grains were collected from catkins at two locations in Sweden over a period of 5 years. Allergens were extracted over polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters and Bet v 1 quantification was made with a luminescence immunoassay. The average content of Bet v 1 was 3.6 ± 0.6 pg per pollen grain for samples collected in three different pollination seasons. This is the first in a series of controlled experiments on the release of the major allergen Bet v 1 from birch pollen grains.

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