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  • 1.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Assessing the Myths on Energy Efficiency When Retrofitting Multifamily Buildings in a Northern Region2017Inngår i: Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies / [ed] Ali Sayigh, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2017, 1, s. 139-161Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of EU’s requirements to achieve a major cut in energy use by 2050, Sweden has the same target. The built environment must by 2020 reduce energy use by 20 and 50 % by 2050. The size of the future building stock will naturally increase and regardless of how energy efficient future buildings will be, the energy performance of the old stock must be improved in order to reach those goals. In major renovation projects involving multifamily buildings in large residential areas in the cities, 50 % reduction can be achieved. This is cost-effective and profitable even if the rent is increased.

    Gävleborg is a sparse region in the North, with few cities. Multifamily buildings are generally much smaller than in large cities and owners are reluctant to impose changes that increase rents due to the housing situation in the region. In consequence, the Regional Council and the University of Gävle set out to assess the potential and feasibility of reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in this region’s multifamily buildings. Eleven real buildings were investigated, each having various ownership forms, different technical attributes and heating sources. Energy audits and measurements were conducted to assess the condition of each building. Performances of the buildings and proposed improvements were simulated with building energy simulation programs, whilst life cycle cost analyses were conducted to study viability. Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) reductions were estimated for each improvement.

    Based on the results, a concluding discussion is made on whether or not some myths on energy use and retrofitting are true. The following is concluded: It is possible to reach a 50 % reduction, but it is not economical with the costs involved and with today’s energy prices and moderate price increase over time.

    Retrofitting or improvements made in the building’s services systems (HVAC) are more economical than actions taken to improve performance of building by constructions. HVAC improvements give about 20 % reduction in energy use. However, mechanical ventilation systems with heat recuperation are not economical, though these may or may not substantially reduce use of thermal energy.

    Solar energy is, despite the latitude of the region, economically viable—especially PV solar energy. Photovoltaic panels (PVs) are becoming viable—the combination of PVs and district heating is beneficial since saving electricity is more important than thermal energy in district-heated areas.

  • 2.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    The City Hall in Gävle, Sweden: A historic office building2024Inngår i: International Energy Agency - Resilient Cooling of Buildings Field Studies Report (Annex 80): Energy in Buildings and Communities Technology Collaboration Programme, Vienna: Institute of Building Research & Innovation , 2024, s. 173-187Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This IEA Annex 80 Subtask C report and the associated brochures provide examples of well-documented field studies. These field studies apply resilient cooling technologies to reduce energy demand and carbon emissions for cooling and reduce the overheating risk in different types of buildings, including newly constructed and existing buildings. Examples and details on building information, energy systems, resilient cooling technologies, key performance indicators (KPIs), and performance evaluation amd lessons learned are included in the report and the brochures.

    The present report summarizes all 13 field study buildings collected in Subtask C of IEA-EBC Annex 80. This summary presents information on the field studies, the resilient cooling technologies applied in the field studies, the KPIs, and the performance evaluation and lessons learned. The values of KPIs for building similar functions, i.e., residential buildings, under different climate conditions were discussed. In the field study brochures, detailed information is inlcuded for each building.

    The field studies are presented in brochure format. Each brochure contains information in a standardized format. This includes the introduction & climate, building information, resilient cooling, KPI evaluation, design simulation, performance evaluation, discussion, lessons learned, references & key contacts.

  • 3.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Morberg, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Sustainability of world heritage: who inherits the ownership of decorated farmhouses of Hälsingland?2017Inngår i: A Good Life for All: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunningham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, s. 139-161Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses sustainability of Sweden’s most recent World Heritage (WH) site, the Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland. A general overview presents what WH is, why it is special and why it should be preserved for future generations. The views of WH farm owners on managing a WH site and how they feel about the task have been assessed. WH must be preserved for future generations and it is necessary for the farms to interact sustainably with their local communities. Most WH farms are privately owned and have been within the same family for centuries. Will this continue in the future or are there problems with succession?

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Simulated Long-term Thermal Performance of a Building That Utilizes a Heat Pump System and Borehole2008Inngår i: Durability of Building Materials & Components 11: Globality and Locality in Durability / [ed] A. Nil Türkeri, Özkan Sengül, Istanbul, Turkey: Istanbul Technical University, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, installation and use of heat pumps has grown rapidly in Sweden, to the extent that these mainly or partly heat roughly 25 % of the heated floor space in single-family houses. A majority are ground coupled where the heat exchanger is a borehole of 60-220 m depth. As the heat pump system operates, heat extraction will in time reduce borehole temperatures, rendering lowered efficiency of the heat pump system thus directly affecting its economical and environmental aspects. Within the building sector, durability and life performance dynamics of energy systems is often not reflected upon. System performance and efficiency is assumed to be static over time, changing only due to different operation scenarios. This paper serves to quantify the long-term thermal performance degradation of a component, in this case the borehole, and how the degradation of this component affects performance-over-time of an entire system, in this case the heating system of the building. A dynamic thermal simulation model is used to assess the long-term thermal performance of the borehole. The building, which the heat pump serves, is assumed to be a typical Swedish house with normal energy consumption. Simulation results show that the depth of the borehole is of great importance to limit over-time temperature drops. The efficiency of the heat pump system is directly dependent of temperatures in the borehole. How the overall system performance is affected by component performance degradation, is highlighted.

  • 5.
    Attia, Shady
    et al.
    Université de Liège, Belgium.
    Benzidane, Caroline
    Grenoble INP University of Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Rahif, Ramin
    Université de Liège, Belgium.
    Amaripadath, Deepak
    Université de Liège, Belgium.
    Hamdy, Mohamed
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Holzer, Peter
    Institute of Building Research & Innovation, Vienna, Austria.
    Koch, Annekatrin
    Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany.
    Maas, Anton
    University of Kassel, Germany.
    Moosberger, Sven
    Equa Solutions AG, Switzerland.
    Petersen, Steffen
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Mavrogianni, Anna
    University College London, United Kingdom.
    Maria Hidalgo-Betanzos, Juan
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Almeida, Manuela
    University of Minho Department of Civil Engineering, Portugal.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Kinnane, Olivier
    University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Kosonen, Risto
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Carlucci, Salvatore
    Overheating calculation methods, criteria, and indicators in European regulation for residential buildings2023Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 292, artikkel-id 113170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the ongoing significance of overheating calculations in the residential building sector, building codes such as the European Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) are essential for harmonizing the indicators and performance thresholds. This paper investigates Europe's overheating calculation methods, indicators, and thresholds and evaluates their ability to address climate change and heat events. e study aims to identify the suitability of existing overheating calculation methods and propose recommendations for the EPBD. The study results provide a cross-sectional overview of twenty-six European countries. The most influential overheating calculation criteria are listed the best approaches are ranked. The paper provides a thorough comparative assessment and recommendations to align current calculations with climate-sensitive metrics. The results suggest a framework and key performance indicators that are comfort-based, multi-zonal, and time-integrated to calculate overheating and modify the EU's next building energy efficiency regulations. The results can help policymakers and building professionals to develop the next overheating calculation framework and approach for the future development of climate-proof and resilient residential buildings.

  • 6.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Steen Englund, Jessika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    On Measuring Air Infiltration Rates Using Tracer Gases in Buildings with Presence Controlled Mechanical Ventilation Systems2016Inngår i: Indoor Air 2016: The 14th International Conference of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, July 3-8 2016, Ghent, Belgium: Conference Proceedings / [ed] E. Van Kenhove, J. Laverge, P. De Vlieger, ISIAQ , 2016, artikkel-id 875Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ventilation and air leakage of a school building was investigated. Information was collected from the parameters of the mechanical ventilation system and from measurements of the local mean age of air using the homogeneous emission method. While the average local mean ages of air can be accurately measured by passive integrative samplers, the estimation of the average room specific air change rate by taking the inverse of the measured average local mean age of air did not give correct results. The main problem is that integrative sampling represents a linear averaging process that is inappropriate to capture the average of nonlinearly related properties. This problem is accentuated when the ventilation rates for different periods differ a lot. A simple computational model was developed to discuss the system behavior. A partial solution to the measurement problem is to actively sample the different populations of air change rates separately.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Infiltration of Air into two World Heritage Farmhouses in Sweden during Winter Conditions2018Inngår i: Roomvent & Ventilation 2018: Excellent Indoor Climate and High Performing Ventilation / [ed] Risto Kosonen, Mervi Ahola, Jarkko Narvanne, Helsinki, Finland, 2018, s. 1079-1084Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of an ongoing study, we report measurements of air infiltration during winter conditions into two Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In winter these two-storied farmhouses are rarely heated, except for special occasions. In this measurement one farmhouse  was  unheated,  whereas  one  room  was  heated  for  a  brief  period  in  the  other  one.  The observed local mean ages of air measured with tracer gas techniques generally increase with height, both  locally  within  each  room  and  between  floors.  The  average  temperature  and  humidity  also increases from the first to the second floor. The indoor temperature follows the outdoor temperature with a time lag. The differences in water content between inside and outside air correlate with changes of the indoor relative humidity. The correlation is stronger for humidity increase than for humidity decrease, possibly due to moisture absorption by interior text.

  • 8.
    Carlander, Jakob
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköpings universitet.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Sweco Systems AB.
    Effects on Energy Demand in an Office Building Considering Location, Orientation, Façade Design and Internal Heat Gains: A Parametric Study2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 23, artikkel-id 6170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    12.9% of the energy use in the EU originates from the commercial and public sector. It has therefore become a priority to optimize energy efficiency in these buildings. The purpose of this study has been to explore how energy demand in a new office building is affected by different internal heat gains, location, orientation, and façade design, and also to see how different indicators can change perspective on energy efficiency. The study was performed with simulations in IDA-ICE with different façade design and changes in internal heat gains (IHG), orientation, and location. Energy demand was then compared to two different indicators. Using a façade designed to lower solar heat gains had little effect on energy demand in the north of Sweden, but slightly more effect further south. The amount of internal heat gains had significant effect on energy demand. Making deeper studies on design and internal heat gains should therefore be prioritized in the beginning of new building projects so the most energy-efficient design can be chosen. When the indicator kWh/m2 was used, the cases with low internal heat gains were perceived as the most energy efficient, while when kWh/(m2 × hpers) (hpers = hours of use) was used, the cases with high occupancy and low electricity use were considered to be the most energy efficient. Therefore, revising the standardized indicator is of great importance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Chiesa, Giacomo
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Teufl, Helene
    Vienna University of Technology.
    Mahdavi, Ardeshir
    Vienna University of Technology.
    Breesch, Hilde
    KU Leuven.
    Sengupta, Abantika
    KU Leuven.
    Kacanzi, Ongun B.
    Technical University of Denmark .
    Bogatu, Dragos-Ioan
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Olesen, Bjarne W.
    Technical University of Denmark .
    Elnagar, Essam
    Université de Liège.
    Lemort, Vincent
    Université de Liège.
    Arghand, Taha
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Javed, Saqib
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Sayadi, Sana
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Forghani, Sadegh
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Sodagar, Behzad
    University of Lincoln.
    Stern, Philipp
    Institute of Building Research & Innovation.
    Yoon, Nari
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Rahif, Ramin
    Univeristé de Liège.
    Attia, Shady
    Univeristé de Liège.
    Zhang, Chen
    Aalborg University.
    Heiselberg, Per
    Aalborg University.
    Remove sensible heat from indoor environments2023Inngår i: International Energy Agency - Resilient Cooling of Buildings - State of the Art Review / [ed] Peter Holzer and Philipp Stern, Vienna: Institute of Building Research & Innovation , 2023, s. 130-189Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is facing a rapid increase of air conditioning of buildings. It is the motivation of Annex 80 to develop, assess and communicate solutions of resilient cooling and overheating protection. Resilient Cooling is used to denote low energy and low carbon cooling solutions that strengthen the ability of individuals and our community to withstand, and prevent, thermal and other impacts of changes in global and local climates. It encompasses the assessment and Research & Development of both active and passive cooling technologies of the following four groups:

    Reduce heat loads to people and indoor environments.Remove sensible heat from indoor environments.Enhance personal comfort apart from space cooling.Remove latent heat from indoor environments.The present review sums up the state of the art in cooling solutions which may be regarded as resilient. Its main objective is to systematically describe the available cooling solutions, their physical basis, their benefits and limitations, their technology readiness level, their practical availability, and applicability. Doing so, the State-of-the-Art Review forms the basis for the work of Annex 80.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköpings universitet.
    Development and validation of energy signature method – Case study on a multi-family building in Sweden before and after deep renovation2020Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 210, artikkel-id 109756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building energy use constitutes a large part of total energy use, both in the European Union and Sweden. Due to this energy use, and the resulting emissions, several goals for energy efficiency and emissions have been set. In Sweden, a large portion of multi-family buildings were built between 1960 and 1980, which have major energy savings potential. The purpose of this paper is further development and validation of previously introduced energy signature method and its inherent parameters. The method was applied on a multi-family building where thermal energy data supplied by the district heating company was available before and after deep renovation. Using IDA ICE, a building energy simulation (BES) software model was created of the building, to aid in validation of the energy signature method. The paper highlighted the accuracy of the proposed energy signature (PES) method and a sensitivity analysis on the inherent parameters have been performed. The results showed new ways of treatment of the thermal energy data and revealed how more information can be extracted from this data.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Investigating energy use in a city district in nordic climate using energy signature2022Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, nr 5, artikkel-id 1907Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on multi-family buildings in a Swedish city district, erected between 1965 and 1973, which are now in need of renovation. For the two types of multi-family buildings in the district, tower buildings and low-rise buildings, dynamic energy use is predicted by using an energy signature method. The energy signature is then used to calculate the primary energy use number of the building stock, according to calculations methods dictated by Swedish building regulations. These regulations are also used to assess which multi-family buildings are in need of renovation, based on the buildings’ primary energy use. For buildings that need energy renovations, it is simulated so that the energy use of each multi-family building complies with these same building regulations. The proposed methodology for simulating energy renovation also determines new energy signature parameters, related to building heat loss coefficient, balance temperature and domestic hot water usage. The effects of simulated renovation are displayed in a duration diagram, revealing how a large-scale renovation affects the district’s heat load in different annual periods, which affects the local district heating system. Sensitivity analysis is also performed before and after simulated energy renovation. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kedbäck, Mikael
    Life Cycle Management System: a planning tool supporting Long-term based design and maintenance planning2008Inngår i: Durability of Building Materials & Components 11: Globality and Locality in Durability / [ed] A. Nil Türkeri, Özkan Sengül, Istanbul: Istanbul Technical University , 2008, s. 1871-1878Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction projects include large amounts of information that has to be communicated to a number of actors, such as authorities, companies, clients and end users. Information exchange is complex, involving various players on different levels and phases of the construction process. For private clients, who generally have little experience and knowledge of this process, the on-going “Bygga Villa”-project has developed a web-portal, which offers them relevant information about the process and a number of services to facilitate realisation of their projects. One of the services provides a tool for supporting long-term strategy planning. The tool is based on the Life cycle Management System (LMS) that is a predictive and generic life cycle-based management system, aimed to support decision-making and planning of optimal design and maintenance of any construction works. The LMS-Bygga Villa tool estimates service life and maintenance intervals of different building parts and systems based on environmental-dependent degradation models. Simulated scenarios can give optimised solutions by applying life cycle cost analysis. This paper presents two case studies within LMS-Bygga Villa. The first case focuses on service life performance analysis of exterior parts of buildings. The second focuses on service life performance analysis of energy systems; here specifically a borehole assisted heat pump system used for heating a Swedish single-family residence.

  • 13.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Långsiktig underhållsplanering av fjärrvärmenät: en förstudie av möjligheter till utveckling av LMS2007Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Samtidigt som fjärrvärme är ett effektivt sätt att leverera värme så leder en centraliserad värmeproduktion till att fler personer drabbas vid eventuella driftavbrott. Detta skapar ett behov av ökad leveranssäkerhet och kontroll av prestanda över hela fjärrvärmenätets livscykel. Genom en långsiktig planering av nätets utbyggnad och förvaltning erhålls effektivare resursanvändande och större säkerhetsmarginaler. Långsiktig planering bygger till stor del på analys av olika scenarier där såväl rådande förutsättningar som ”worst cases” kan beaktas utifrån olika aspekter (tekniska, ekonomiska, säkerhetsmässiga m.m.). Målet är att hitta optimerade åtgärder, vilket kräver systematisk hantering och bearbetning av en stor mängd information. Detta kan endast göras rationellt med hjälp av IT-verktyg. Life cycle Management System (LMS) är ett resultat av tre konsekutiva EU-finansierade forskningsprojekt där gruppen för byggnadsmaterialteknik – Högskolan i Gävle, har haft en ledande roll. Systemet innehåller utvecklade rutiner och metoder för hantering av information som ligger till grund för långsiktig planering och optimerad förvaltning av byggnadsverk. Systemmässigt är LMS uppbyggt av moduler som hanterar och analyserar data på olika sätt. Anledningen till systemets modulbaserade struktur är att det, helt eller i delar, kan anpassas mot de krav och önskemål som klienten ställer på systemet. På så sätt behöver klienten bara komplettera sitt befintliga system med de funktioner som önskas av LMS, samtidigt som denne undviker att ”kasta ut” det gamla systemet. Förstudien omfattar en litteraturstudie och analys av Gävle Energi AB:s (GEAB) drift- och underhållsdata. Förstudiens syfte är att identifiera och kartlägga de anpassnings- och utvecklingsbehov som föreligger en implementering av LMS som planeringsverktyg för GEAB:s fjärrvärmenät.

  • 14.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - byggnadsmateriallära.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - byggnadsmateriallära.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggnadsteknik.
    Status, needs and possibilities for service life prediction and estimation of district heating distribution networks2012Inngår i: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 41-54Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimised and proactive maintenance strategy aims to maximise the economical profit, minimise environmental impacts and keep the risk of failure to a low level. Implementation of such strategy in the context of district heating requires efforts and abilities for predicting future performances and estimating service life of district heating components. A literature review on failures (damages and performance reductions) occurring on district heating pipes, reveals that failures in district heating pipes are mainly leaks due to corrosion or mechanical impacts and reduced thermal insulation performance: leaks being the more serious damage type. A feasible service life estimation method for this type of damage is the Factor Method. Since the application of this method within the context of DH pipes has not been found in other publications, this paper focuses on describing the method and discusses the possibilities on how to apply it in two specific cases with respect to leakage: service life estimation of repaired district heating pipe sections (i.e. maintenance of district heating network) and of district heating pipes in new or extended district heating networks. A particular attention is paid on which modifying factors to consider and how to quantify them.

  • 15.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Influence of energy units in building certification system, Miljöbyggnad: A case study of a school building in Sweden2022Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE 2022), 2022, artikkel-id 1391Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish environmental assessment certification system Miljöbyggnad rewards lower energy use in comparison to that of building regulations, related to total heated floor area. Previous studies suggest that this indicator shows the efficiency of the technical design of the building; not how well the building is utilized. Thus, a more suitable quantity/unit can be the one that takes into account the extent of how the building is used in a more efficient and sustainable way. The aim of this paper is to discuss if current energy units are sustainable enough to assess efficient use of buildings and investigate how indicators can affect the grades and criteria of a certification system. Normalization of simulated energy use of a school building, by using the total heated floor area, the total building’s enclosing area, number of occupants and the schedule of occupancy, give different results. 

  • 16.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    A case study of mapping the heating storage capacity in a multifamily building within a district heating network in mid-Sweden2022Inngår i: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikkel-id 1007Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector accounts for a third of the total energy use in Sweden, and district heating provides half of the heating needs. The peak demand loads within a district heating network occur both regularly and irregularly and impose a burden on the energy company to fulfill the demand, often by using more expensive and less environmentally friendly resources (e.g., fossil fuels) instead of the waste heat from industry or biofuels. Heat storage during hours of less demand and prior to colder periods can be used for load management and sustainable planning of energy supply, as well as reduction of total greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, heat supply to the building can be lowered temporarily during the peak power period to utilize the stored thermal energy within the building thermal inertia. The use of indoor temperature decay and the delivery of heating power to a multifamily building are studied here, and heating storage capacity and thermal inertia are calculated. During the performed decay test, the energy supply was estimated to be reduced by 61% for 5 h, which resulted in only a 0.3 °C temperature decay. Therefore, the suggested method can shave eventual peaks in supplied heat with minimal influence on the thermal comfort.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Development of a Numerical Air Infiltration Model Based On Pressurization Test Applied On a Church2016Inngår i: ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 — Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 2016, ASHRAE, 2016, s. 224-231, artikkel-id C030Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurization (blower door) test is a well-established standardized method, performed in order to quantify the total leakage in a building envelope. However, blower door results are not adequate to use when air leakage through the building envelope during natural conditions (non-pressurized) is to be estimated. A common assumption made when estimating air leakage during natural conditions, is that air leakage paths are evenly distributed in the areas of the building envelope. This assumption gives quite poor calculation results since different leakage configurations are often situated unevenly in the envelope. In order to improve the correspondence between Blower door and air leakage model results, more information on the types and locations of the leakage paths are required as input to simulation models. 

    This paper investigates if additional information from visual inspection and IR-thermography observations at site can increase the precision when simulating air change rates due to air leakage in natural conditions.  A numerical model is developed in this study by allocating leakage in various parts of the building envelope. The leakage allocation is based on visual inspection and IR-thermography observations at the site during the blower door test.

    This procedure is tested in the case study of a large single zone church. Blower door, neutral pressure level measurement and leakage allocation results are used as input in the numerical model. Model results are compared with tracer gas measurements and result accuracy is compared with results from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory model (LBL) and the Alberta Air Infiltration Model (AIM-2) for the same church. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Simulation of Ventilation Rates and Heat Losses during Airing in Large Single Zone Buildings in Cold Climates2019Inngår i: Cold Climate HVAC 2018: Sustainable Buildings in Cold Climates / [ed] Johansson, D., Bagge, H., Wahlström, Å., Springer, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Airing can be a solution to introduce extra ventilation in large single zone buildings, especially where there are large aggregations of people such as churches or atriums. In naturally ventilated domestic and ancient buildings, opening of a window or door can introduce extra fresh air and remove particles and other contaminants emitted from people and other sources such as lit candles in churches. However, the energy use might be an issue in cold climates, where airing might lead to waste of heated air, at the same time as indoor air temperatures can be uncomfortably low. In the present study, the energy loss and ventilation rate due to airing in a large single zone (church) building is investigated via IDA-ICE simulation on annual basis in cold weather conditions. The results can be used in order to prepare airing guidelines for large single zone buildings such as atriums, churches, industry halls and large sport halls. According to the results, one-hour of airing in the studied church building resulted in 40-50 % of exchanged room air and, if practiced once a week, an increase of around 1 % in heating energy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Khadra, Alaa
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Greenhouse Gas Payback Time of Different HVAC Systems in the Renovation of Nordic District-Heated Multifamily Buildings Considering Future Energy Production Scenarios2024Inngår i: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 14, nr 2, artikkel-id 413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) has implemented several policies to enhance energy efficiency. Among these policies is the objective of achieving energy-efficient renovations in at least 3% of EU buildings annually. The primary aim of this study was to offer a precise environmental comparison among four similar district-heated multifamily buildings that have undergone identical energy efficiency measures. The key distinguishing factor among them lies in the HVAC systems installed. The chosen systems were as follows: (1) exhaust ventilation with air pressure control; (2) mechanical ventilation with heat recovery; (3) exhaust ventilation with an exhaust air heat pump; and (4) exhaust ventilation with an exhaust air heat pump with a Photovoltaic (PV) panel. This study involved a life cycle assessment that relied on actual material data from the housing company and energy consumption measurements. This study covered a period of 50 years for thorough analysis. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to account for various future scenarios of energy production. The findings revealed that the building with an exhaust air heat pump exhibited the lowest greenhouse gas emissions and the shortest carbon payback period (GBPT), needing only around 7 years. In contrast, the building with exhaust ventilation without heat recovery showed the highest emissions and the longest carbon payback period (GBPT), requiring approximately 11 years. Notably, the results were significantly influenced by future scenarios of energy production, emphasizing the crucial role of emission factors in determining the environmental performance of distinct renovation scenarios.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Khadra, Alaa
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Hugosson, Mårten
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Development of a Weight Factor Method for Sustainability Decisions in Building Renovation: Case Study Using Renobuild2020Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 17, artikkel-id 7194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency investments have become strategically important for the European Union. In particular, energy efficient renovation and investment in the existing building stock have become major challenges. Renovation of a building should involve a holistic and integrated design process, which considers all aspects of sustainability. The aim of this work is to suggest a mathematical model that weighs economic, social and ecological aspects into a measure that supports housing owners/decision makers to find the optimal renovation alternative from their perspective, taking factors such as budget, energy consumption, etc. into consideration. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) concerns structuring and solving multiple-criteria decision problems. MCDM has become popular in energy planning as it enables the decision maker to pay attention to all the criteria available and make the appropriate decision as per the priority of the criteria. In this study, the concept is introduced based on economic, social and ecological aspects assessed during a renovation project. A pedagogical example illustrates the suggested numerical system for comparing different renovation alternatives. The suggested method will facilitate decision-making processes in renovation projects and will allow decision makers to choose the best renovation alternatives that are in line with their business ideas and principles.

  • 21.
    Khadra, Alaa
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Hugosson, Mårten
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Economic performance assessment of three renovated multi-family buildings with different HVAC systems2020Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 224, artikkel-id 110275Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU has adopted several policies to improve energy efficiency. One of these policies aims to achieve energy efficient renovations in at least 3% annually of buildings in EU. The aim of this study was to provide an accurate economic comparison between three similar multi-family buildings that have undergone the same energy efficiency measures, with essential differences regarding the installed ventilation systems. The selected ventilation systems were: 1) balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery; 2) exhaust ventilation with air pressure control; and 3) exhaust ventilation with an exhaust air heat pump. In the latter two cases, radiators pre-heat supply air. Life cycle cost analysis were conducted using real investment and operational costs for the three buildings. Sensitivity analysis was also made for different discount rates and energy price escalation patterns. It was found that the building with exhaust ventilation has the lowest life cycle cost. At 2% inflation rate, 3% real discount rate and 1% real energy price escalation, the building with exhaust air heat pump and the building with mechanical ventilation with heat recovery has 13% and 29% higher life cycle cost than the building with exhaust ventilation, respectively. The sensitivity analysis further showed that a lower discount rate gives higher future costs and gives more profitability of systems with heat recovery with lower future costs. Energy price assumptions have a crucial impact on the results and change the profitability of studied renovation packages.

  • 22.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Department of Construction, Gavlefastigheter Company, Gävle, Sweden.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in a Historic Building Refurbished to an Office Building with Modernized HVAC Systems2020Inngår i: Advances in Building Energy Research, ISSN 1751-2549, E-ISSN 1756-2201, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 218-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Envelopes with low thermal performance are common characteristics in European historic buildings, causing higher energy demand and insufficient thermal comfort. This paper presents the results of a study on indoor environmental quality (IEQ), with special focus on thermal comfort, in the historic City Hall of Gävle, Sweden, now used as an office building. There are two modern heat recovery ventilation systems with displacement ventilation supply devices. The district heating network heats the building via pre-heat supply air and radiators. Summer cooling comes from electric heat pump ejecting heat into the exhaust ventilation air. A building management system (BMS) controls the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment. The methodology included on-site measurements, BMS data logging and evaluating the occupants’ perception of a summer and a winter period indoor environment using a standardized questionnaire. In conclusion, indoor environmental quality in this historic building is unsatisfactory. Stuffy air, too high, too low and varying room temperatures, lighting problems and noise are constant issues. Although it is equipped with modern ventilation systems, there are still possibilities for improving thermal comfort by improved control strategies, since upgrading the building’s envelope is not allowed according to the Swedish Building Regulations in historic buildings with heritage value.

  • 23.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    On the Performance of Night Ventilation in a Historic Office Building in Nordic Climate2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 16, artikkel-id 4159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of mechanical night ventilation on thermal comfort and electricity use for cooling of a typical historic office building in north-central Sweden was assessed. IDA-ICE simulation program was used to model the potential for improving thermal comfort and electricity savings by applying night ventilation cooling. Parametric study comprised different outdoor climates, flow rates, cooling machine’s coefficient of performance and ventilation units’ specific fan power values. Additionally, the effect of different door schemes (open or closed) on thermal comfort in offices was investigated. It was shown that night ventilation cannot meet the building’s total cooling demand and auxiliary active cooling is required, although the building is located in a cold climate. Night ventilation had the potential in decreasing the percentage of exceedance hours in offices by up to 33% and decreasing the total electricity use for cooling by up to 40%. More electricity is saved with higher night ventilation rates. There is, however, a maximum beneficial ventilation rate above which the increase in electricity use in fans outweighs the decrease in electricity use in cooling machine. It depends on thermal mass capacity of the building, cooling machine´s coefficient of performance, design ventilation rate, and available night ventilation cooling potential (ambient air temperature).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Department of Construction, Gavlefastigheter Company, Gävle, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Thermal Comfort in Office Rooms in a Historic Building with Modernized HVAC Systems2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference On Building Energy & Environment, COBEE 2018: RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, Feb 5-9th 2018 / [ed] Kiao Inthavong,Chi Pok Cheung, Guan Yeoh, Jiyuan Tu, Melbourne: Conference On Building Energy & Environment , 2018, s. 683-688, artikkel-id 230Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    SUMMARY

    Envelopes with low thermal performance are common characteristics in European historic buildings, leading to higher energy demand and insufficient thermal comfort. This paper presents the results of a study on thermal comfort in the historic office building of City Hall in Gävle, Sweden. It is equipped with two modern heat recovery ventilation systems with displacement ventilation supply devices in offices. District heating network heats the building via pre-heat supply air and radiators. Summer cooling comes from electric heat pump, rejecting heat into the exhaust ventilation air. A building management system controls HVAC equipment. Methodology includes on-site measurements, data logging on management system and evaluating the occupants’ perception of a summer and a winter period indoor environment using a standardized questionnaire. In conclusion, thermal comfort in this historic building is poor although it is equipped with modern ventilation systems and there should be possibilities for improving comfort, by improved control strategies.

    Keywords — Historic Buildings, On-site Measurements, Standardized Questionnaire, Thermal Comfort

  • 25.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Gavlefastigheter AB.
    Sayadi, Sana
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    How Will Mechanical Night Ventilation Affect the Electricity Use and the Electrical Peak Power Demand in 30 Years? – A Case Study of a Historic Office Building in Sweden2023Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, Singapore: Springer, 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at assessing how well a mechanical night ventilation of today, will cope with delivering acceptable thermal comfort while minimizing the electricity use and the electrical peak power demand for cooling in a historic office building in Sweden at both typical current climate and typical future climate in 2050s. The method includes numerical study in IDA-ICE simulation program using the typical current and future climate profiles. The results show that, for coefficient of performance of 3 and specific fan power of 1.5 kW/(m3/s), it would be possible to lower the electrical peak power demand and the electricity use in cooling machine by up to 2.2 kW (13%) and 1.4 MWh (48%) by night ventilation rate of 2.1 lit/(s·m2) at typical future climate in 2050s. Corresponding figures for typical current climate are 4.6 kW (36%) and 0.9 MWh (72%) owing to cooler nights and more diurnal temperature differences. 

  • 26.
    Liu, Linn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden2014Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 84, s. 704-715Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly growing energy use in the building sector is considered a serious problem by both the European Union (EU) and Sweden. Reducing energy demand in the building sector is important for Sweden in order to reach national energy goals for reduced energy use and CO 2 emissions in the future. This project aims to find energy efficiency potential in multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region, which is a cold climate region in Sweden. Measurements and simulations have been made on eleven multifamily buildings from the whole region. The results include different energy efficiency measure packages, profitability analysis of individual measures and packages, and primary energy use analysis. The paper also includes CO 2 emissions reduction analysis based on different methods. The project shows that the multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region have good potential to reduce their energy use by more than 50%, which in turn will contribute to 43% primary energy reduction and 48% CO 2 emissions reduction. 

  • 27.
    Lundström, Lukas
    et al.
    Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi, Mälardalens högskola; Eskilstuna Kommunfastighet AB.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Bayesian calibration with augmented stochastic state-space models of district-heated multifamily buildings2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable energy models are needed to determine building energy performance. Relatively detailed energy models can be auto-generated based on 3D shape representations of existing buildings. However, parameters describing thermal performance of the building fabric, the technical systems, and occupant behavior are usually not readily available. Calibration with on-site measurements is needed to obtain reliable energy models that can offer insight into buildings' actual energy performances. Here, we present an energy model that is suitable for district-heated multifamily buildings, based on a 14-node thermal network implementation of the ISO 52016-1:2017 standard. To better account for modeling approximations and noisy inputs, the model is converted to a stochastic state-space model and augmented with four additional disturbance state variables. Uncertainty models are developed for the inputs solar heat gains, internal heat gains, and domestic hot water use. An iterated extended Kalman filtering algorithm is employed to enable nonlinear state estimation. A Bayesian calibration procedure is employed to enable assessment of parameter uncertainty and incorporation of regulating prior knowledge. A case study is presented to evaluate the performance of the developed framework: parameter estimation with both dynamic Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling and penalized maximum likelihood estimation, the behavior of the filtering algorithm, the impact of different commonly occurring data sources for domestic hot water use, and the impact of indoor air temperature readings.

  • 28.
    Lundström, Lukas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Framtidens energi, Västerås, Sweden; Eskilstuna Kommunfastighet AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Zambrano, Jesus
    Mälardalens högskola, Framtidens energi, Västerås, Sweden.
    Development of a space heating model suitable for the automated model generation of existing multifamily buildings: a case study in Nordic climate2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikkel-id 485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building energy performance modeling is essential for energy planning, management, and efficiency. This paper presents a space heating model suitable for auto-generating baseline models of existing multifamily buildings. Required data and parameter input are kept within such a level of detail that baseline models can be auto-generated from, and calibrated by, publicly accessible data sources. The proposed modeling framework consists of a thermal network, a typical hydronic radiator heating system, a simulation procedure, and data handling procedures. The thermal network is a lumped and simplified version of the ISO 52016-1:2017 standard. The data handling consists of procedures to acquire and make use of satellite-based solar radiation data, meteorological reanalysis data (air temperature, ground temperature, wind, albedo, and thermal radiation), and pre-processing procedures of boundary conditions to account for impact from shading objects, window blinds, wind- and stack-driven air leakage, and variable exterior surface heat transfer coefficients. The proposed model was compared with simulations conducted with the detailed building energy simulation software IDA ICE. The results show that the proposed model is able to accurately reproduce hourly energy use for space heating, indoor temperature, and operative temperature patterns obtained from the IDA ICE simulations. Thus, the proposed model can be expected to be able to model space heating, provided by hydronic heating systems, of existing buildings to a similar degree of confidence as established simulation software. Compared to IDA ICE, the developed model required one-thousandth of computation time for a full-year simulation of building model consisting of a single thermal zone. The fast computation time enables the use of the developed model for computation time sensitive applications, such as Monte-Carlo-based calibration methods. 

  • 29.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Karlsson, Björn O.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Fältstudie av två metoder för energieffektivisering av äldre fönster – fönsterfilmer testade med hotbox-teknik2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie har undersökt två typer av fönsterfilmer som avser förbättra fönster avseende energi- och komfortaspekter. Filmerna utgörs av tunn självhäftande plast med högteknologisk strålningsreflekterande beläggning. Framför allt har en ny typ av värmeisolerande film (här kallad ”Energifilm”) testats, vilken främst syftar till att minska värmeförlusten genom fönstret mot ett kallare uteklimat. Energifilmen har i detta projekt provats i fält med den s.k. hotbox-metoden, varvid ett 2-glasfönsters värmeförlust kunnat mätas på plats i en verklig, kulturhistorisk byggnad – Rådhuset i Gävle. Hotbox-metoden används normalt i laboratoriemiljö och ett viktigt syfte med projektet har varit att utvärdera metoden i fält. Förutom energifilmen provades även solreflekterande film (”Solfilm”), vilken främst avser minska transmission av strålningsvärme från direkt solljus. Studien innefattar även antikvariska och estetiska aspekter på applicering av fönsterfilmer, där byggnadsantikvarier anlitats för subjektiv bedömning.  

    Resultaten pekar på att hotbox-metoden är användbar i fält, om än ganska mödosam att få på plats rent praktiskt. Mätresultaten indikerar att montage av Energifilm minskar värmetransporten (U-värdet) genom fönstrets glasade del med ca 31 % om filmen placeras på någon av glasytorna i spalten mellan glasen, medan minskningen blir ca 19 % vid placering på insidan av innerglaset. Placering i spalten tycks därmed effektivast när så är möjligt; det minskar också risken för kondens och kallras längs fönstrets insida. Rent ekonomiskt tycks det emellertid svårt att räkna hem någon vinst genom investering i vare sig Energifilm eller Solfilm. Montage av Solfilm tenderar tvärtom att öka energikostnaderna. Termisk buffring i den tunga rådhusbyggnaden bidrar till att hålla nere den värmeökning som kan ske vid mycket solinstrålning och internvärme; Solfilm torde komma bättre till pass i lättare byggnader. Rådhusbyggnaden var även försedd med mekanisk behovsstyrd ventilation, med möjlighet till ganska höga ventilationsflöden för kylning; i byggnader utan sådant system kommer Solfilm till bättre nytta. Både energi- och Solfilm förbättrar dock den termiska komforten, både avseende kyla och värme, särskilt för personer som befinner sig i närheten av fönstren. Så, snarare än minskade kostnader torde det vara komfort- och/eller miljöskäl som kan motivera investering i fönsterfilmerna. 

    Fönsterfilmerna medförde minskad ljustransmittans (-16 % för Energifilm; -22 % för Solfilm) och viss (måttlig) färgförändring vid vissa ljusförhållanden och betraktelsevinklar. Överlag fick de studerade fönsterfilmerna emellertid tämligen hög acceptans av byggnadsantikvarierna, men man noterade att noggrannhet vid montaget är mycket viktigt. Montage av filmerna demonstrerades också gå förhållandevis snabbt och medföra liten störning på verksamheten i lokalerna under installation. Filmerna kan också klippas till att passa t.ex. krökta bågar, och de medför inte någon ökad belastning (tyngd) för fönstret, i jämförelse med andra metoder som innebär komplettering med ett extra glas på bågen. Test av borttagning av 3 år gammal Energifilm visade att detta kunde göras utan att skada fönster-glasen, men det synes tveksamt att montera filmerna på riktigt tunna, ömtåliga glas, då sådana riskerar gå sönder vid borttagning av filmen, som ändå noterades sitta tämligen hårt fast.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Slutrapport Fönsterfilmer testade i hotbox
  • 30.
    Miller, Wendy
    et al.
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Machard, Anaïs
    La Rochelle University.
    Bozonnet, Emanuelle
    La Rochelle University.
    Yoon, Nari
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Qi, Dahai
    Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Sherbrooke University, Canada.
    Zhang, Chen
    Department of the Built Environment, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Liu, Aaron
    School of Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Sengupta, Abantika
    Faculty of Engineering Technology, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Berk Kazanci, Ongun
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Levinson, Ronnen
    Building Technology and Urban Systems Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Conceptualising a resilience cooling system: a socio-technical approach2021Inngår i: City and Environment Interactions, ISSN 2590-2520, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 100065Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged and/or extreme heat has become a natural hazard that presents a significant risk to humans and the buildings, technologies, and infrastructure on which they have previously relied on to provide cooling. This paper presents a conceptual model of a resilient cooling system centred on people, the socio-cultural-technical contexts they inhabit, and the risks posed by the temperature hazard. An integrative literature review process was used to undertake a critical and comprehensive evaluation of published research and grey literature with the objective of adding clarity and detail to the model. Two databases were used to identify risk management and natural hazard literature in multiple disciplines that represent subcomponents of community resilience (social, economic, institutional, infrastructure and environment systems). This review enabled us to characterise in more detail the nature of the temperature hazard, the functionality characteristics of a resilient cooling system, and key elements of the four subsystems: people, buildings, cooling technologies and energy infrastructure. Six key messages can be surmised from this review, providing a guide for future work in policy and practice.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Moghaddam, Saman Abolghasemi
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Gameiro Da Silva, Manuel
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Simoes, Nuno
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Low‐Emissivity Window Films as an Energy Retrofit Option for a Historical Stone Building in Cold Climate2021Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 22, artikkel-id 7584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low‐emissivity (low‐E) window films are designed to improve the thermal comfort andenergy performance of buildings. These films can be applied to different glazing systems withouthaving to change the whole window. This makes it possible to apply films to windows in old andhistorical buildings for which preservation regulations often require that windows should remainunchanged. This research aims to investigate the impacts of low‐E window films on the energyperformance and thermal comfort of a three‐story historical stone building in the cold climate ofSweden using the simulation software “IDA ICE”. On‐site measurements were taken to acquirethermal and optical properties of the windows. This research shows that the application of the lowemissivitywindow film on the outward‐facing surface of the inner pane of the double‐glazedwindows helped to reduce heat loss through the windows in winter and unwanted heat gains insummer by almost 36% and 35%, respectively. This resulted in a 6% reduction in the building’sannual energy consumption for heating purposes and a reduction in the percentage of totaloccupant hours with thermal dissatisfaction from 14% (without the film) to 11% (with the film).However, the relatively high price of the films and low price of district heating results in a ratherlong payback period of around 30 years. Thus, the films seem scarcely attractive from a purelyeconomic viewpoint, but may be warranted for energy/environmental and thermal comfort reasons.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Sayadi, Sana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Analysing future cooling demand for a new preschool building in central Sweden2023Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, Singapore: Springer, 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is framed around two research questions to 1) investigate the probable changes in future climate and 2) evaluate the changes in cooling demand of a studied building when implementing an assemble climate representing mid-term future period (2041-2060). The chosen building is a preschool in central Sweden that fulfills the Nearly-Zero Energy Building (NZEB) requirements based on today’s Swedish National Building Regulations. To assess and cope with the present and future cooling energy needs of the building, a climate file representing present conditions along with a projected future typical climate file are utilized. The future climate is an assembled typical meteorological year climate file using the CORDEX data. 

    The present climate file underpredicts the future energy demands therefore verifying to be unsuitable for anticipated energy analysis. It was discovered that the cooling demand for assembled climate file is almost 4 times the present climate file for the studied conditions. 

  • 33.
    Sayadi, Sana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Analyzing the climate-driven energy demand and carbon emission for a prototype residential nZEB in central Sweden2022Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 261, artikkel-id 111960Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The changes in climate and the expected extreme climate conditions in the future, given the long life span of the buildings have pushed the design limits. In this study, the changes in primary energy use (PEPET), total energy use and CO2 emission were investigated for a prototype residential building. The building fulfils nearly zero energy building (NZEB) characteristics, imposed by the Swedish building regulations. Different cooling technologies and various typical meteorological year (TMY) climate files assembled for different periods, as well as automatic shading were investigated. The assembled TMY files advocated for the present (2001-2020) and mid-future (2041-2060) period using the CORDEX data. Different cooling methods and set-points (24-28°C) were defined to evaluate the cooling energy requirement changes.

    It was discovered that the freely available typical climate file fails to cover the induced changes in climate and its extreme implications on the building. The required cooling energy use increased from 1.7-5.8 times the freely available climate file, when using the projected TMY and the extreme climate files.

    Addition of automatic shading system reduced cooling energy up to 75% within the studied cooling methods and set-points. Moreover PEPET and CO2 emission also decreased for the studied cooling methods, climate and weather files.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Sayadi, Sana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Review on District Cooling and its Application in Energy Systems2021Inngår i: Urban Transition - Perspectives on Urban Systems and Environments / [ed] Marita Wallhagen & Mathias Cehlin, IntechOpen , 2021Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates the implementation of district cooling systems by exploring several research studies reported in the literature. The topics addressed include typologies and design parameters, benefits and limitations, applications of the system, and the technology readiness level. District cooling systems are generally regarded as cost-efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. One might think that district cooling is only a solution for areas with a very warm climate. However, based on the reported results of the surveyed studies, the number of operating district cooling systems has increased over the years, with the Scandinavian countries taking the lead in this market within European countries. Implementation of these systems concluded reduction in primary energy and electricity use, they also proved to be an environmentally efficient way.

  • 35.
    Sayadi, Sana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Comparison of Space Cooling Systems from Energy and Economic Perspectives for a Future City District in Sweden2023Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 9, artikkel-id 3852Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the performance of different cooling technologies from energy and economicperspectives were evaluated for six different prototype residential Nearly Zero Energy Buildings(NZEBs) within a planned future city district in central Sweden. This was carried out by assessingthe primary energy number and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for each building model and coolingtechnology. Projected future climate file representing the 2050s (mid-term future) was employed.Three cooling technologies (district cooling, compression chillers coupled/uncoupled with photovoltaic (PV) systems, and absorption chillers) were evaluated. Based on the results obtained fromprimary energy number and LCCA, compression chillers with PV systems appeared to be favorableas this technology depicted the least value for primary energy use and LCCA. Compared to compression chillers alone, the primary energy number and the life cycle cost were reduced by 13%, onaverage. Moreover, the district cooling system was found to be an agreeable choice for buildingswith large floor areas from an economic perspective. Apart from these, absorption chillers, utilizingenvironmentally sustainable district heating, displayed the highest primary energy use and life cycle cost which made them the least favorable choice. However, the reoccurring operational cost fromthe LCCA was about 60 and 50% of the total life cycle cost for district cooling and absorption chillers,respectively, while this value corresponds to 80% for the compression chillers, showing the high netpresent value for this technology but sensitive to future electricity prices.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Sayadi, Sana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cooling demand reduction approaches for typical buildings in a future city district in mid-Sweden2021Inngår i: Proceedings of Building Simulation 2021: 17th International Conference of IBPSA, International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), 2021, artikkel-id 30327Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in population and living standards, as well as global warming and heatwaves due to climate change, have created a challenge to meet the cooling demand in buildings. In this study, the cooling requirement for a multifamily building through simulations in a future city district in central-Sweden was determined. Different air supply set point  strategies, window to floor ratio and building rotations were employed to minimize the cooling requirements. The building was modelled so as to meet the Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB) requirements. Window to floor ratio of 10% with a piecewise proportional controller for supply temperature was depicted as appropriate for the building. A 45° rotation of the building increased the cooling demand. The cooling demand of the building increased by employing the extreme climate condition, as a representative for future climate, with factors 3.8 and 6.4 for cooling set points 25°C and 27°C for window to floor ratio 10%. This implies the need for a resilient building to withstand future climate conditions. The requirement to update the climate files was also used for decision making in the design process and building regulation. 

  • 37.
    Sayadi, Sana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cooling Demand Reduction Approaches in a Nearly Zero Energy Building for Future City District in Central-Sweden2022Inngår i: Building Simulation Conference Proceedings, IBPSA , 2022, s. 1413-1420Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in population and living standards, as well as global warming and heatwaves due to climate change, have created a challenge to meet the cooling demand in buildings. In this study, the cooling requirement for a multifamily building through simulations in a future city district in central-Sweden was determined. Different air supply set point strategies, window to floor ratio and building rotations were employed to minimize the cooling requirements. The building was modelled so as to meet the Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB) requirements. Window to floor ratio of 10% with a piecewise proportional controller for supply temperature was depicted as appropriate for the building. A 45° rotation of the building increased the cooling demand. The cooling demand of the building increased by employing the extreme climate condition, as a representative for future climate, with factors 3.8 and 6.4 for cooling set points 25°C and 27°C for window to floor ratio 10%. This implies the need for a resilient building to withstand future climate conditions. The requirement to update the climate files was also used for decision making in the design process and building regulation. 

  • 38.
    Steen Englund, Jessika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping Unviersty, Linköping, Sweden.
    Assessment of Airflows in a School Building with Mechanical Ventilation Using Passive Tracer Gas Method2017Inngår i: Mediterranean Green Buildings & Renewable Energy: Selected Papers from the World Renewable Energy Network’s Med Green Forum / [ed] Sayigh, Ali, Springer, 2017, 1, s. 619-631Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is to assess the airflows in a school building built in 1963 in Gävle, Sweden, which is subject to energy conservation measures (ECMs) in a forthcoming renovation. Today, the school building is mainly ventilated by several mechanical ventilation systems, which are controlled by a constant air volume (CAV) strategy. Schedules and presence sensors impose a high operation mode during the day and a low operation mode at night, on weekends and on holidays. The homogeneous tracer gas emission method with passive sampling is used to measure the average local mean age of air (τ) during different operation modes. Temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration are simultaneously measured. The calculated relative uncertainty for the average local mean age of air in every measured point is approx. ±20 %. The results during low operation mode show an average value of τ of approx. 8.51 h [corresponding to 0.12 air changes per hour (ACH)], where τ in various zones ranges between 2.55 and 16.37 h (indicating 0.06–0.39 ACH), which is related to the unintentional airflow in the school. The results during mixed operation mode show an average value of τ of approx. 4.60 h (0.22 ACH), where τ in various zones ranges between 2.00 and 8.98 h (0.11–0.50 ACH), which is related to both unintentional and intentional airflows in the school. Corridors, basement and attic rooms and entrances have lower τ compared to classrooms, offices and other rooms. High maximums of the CO2 concentration in some rooms indicate an imbalance in the mechanical ventilation systems. During a regular school week of mixed operation, which includes both high and low operation modes, it is found that mainly the low operation modes show up in the results. The dynamics of the highly varying airflows in the building cannot be identified using the passive sampling technique.

  • 39.
    Steen Englund, Jessika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Measured and Simulated Energy Use in a Secondary School Building in Sweden — A Case Study of Validation, Airing, and Occupancy Behaviour2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikkel-id 2325Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study, the energy performance of a secondary school building from the 1960s in Gävle, Sweden, was modelled in the building energy simulation (BES) tool IDA ICE version 4.8 prior to major renovation planning. The objectives of the study were to validate the BES model during both occupied and unoccupied periods, investigate how to model airing and varying occupancy behaviour, and finally investigate energy use to identify potential energy-efficiency measures. The BES model was validated by using field measurements and evidence-based input. Thermal bridges, infiltration, mechanical ventilation, domestic hot water circulation losses, and space heating power were calculated and measured. A backcasting method was developed to model heat losses due to airing, opening windows and doors, and other occupancy behaviour through regression analysis between daily heat power and outdoor temperature. Validation results show good agreement: 3.4% discrepancy between space heating measurements and simulations during an unoccupied week. Corresponding monthly discrepancy varied between 5.5% and 10.6% during three months with occupants. Annual simulation indicates that the best potential renovation measures are changing to efficient windows, improved envelope airtightness, new controls of the HVAC system, and increased external wall thermal insulation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - byggnadsmateriallära.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggnadsteknik.
    Build-up and long-term performance test of a full-scale solar-assisted heat pump system for residential heating in Nordic climatic conditions2010Inngår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 30, nr 2-3, s. 188-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the build-up and long-term performance test of a full-scale Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System (SAHPS) for residential heating in Nordic climatic conditions. This particular SAHPS was developed within the EU project ENDCHOUSING, by predominantly using components and techniques that are available on the market. The analysis primarily focuses on system performance, with emphasis on Heat Pump (HP) and total system Seasonal Performance Factor (SPF), based on long-term and full-scale operation. Analysis shows that despite unfavourable building conditions, for low energy use and utilisation of a SAHPS, the system was successfully in full operation (for about 2 years) fulfilling heating requirements. Data processing of the series representing the full year period of 2007(February)-2008(February), presented a HP and total SAHPS performance of. SPF(HP) = 2.85 and SPF(SAHPS) = 2.09. The authors argue that with an optimised SAHPS control and operation strategy, additional use of circulation pumps and energy (electricity) could be vastly reduced, hence attaining a SPF(SAHPS) value that is in parity with the SPF(HP). As the Nordic (Swedish) Endohousing SAHPS has not yet been properly optimised/designed and installed in an appropriate house, the SPFHP = 2.85 is considered satisfactory.

  • 41.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Long-Term Thermal Performance Modelling and Simulations of a Borehole2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the long-term thermal performance modelling and simulation of a single heat extraction borehole with a U-shaped pipe, by applying the Macro Element Modelling (MEM) method, developed by Schmidt (2004). The dynamic thermal performance of the ground around the borehole is analysed in the frequency domain. Thereafter, the ground properties are transformed into a network of discrete resistances and capacitances (RC’s) that together with the pipe, models the thermal performance of the borehole. The method allows the parameters of the RC-network components to be estimated and optimised for time domain simulations. The advantage of this modelling method is that it establishes a simplified yet accurate thermal borehole model, which requires less computing time and power compared to a traditional finite difference/element model. This makes it easier to perform several decades of long-term thermal performance simulations. In this paper the U-pipe was modelled by applying a star resistance network that calculates the weighted heat fluxes between the solid borehole and the U-pipe. The presented work shows that at small temperature increases and at relative large fluid velocities the U-pipe fluid temperature can be seen as rising linearly. This provides the borehole modelling with the possibility to model the entire borehole construction by using only one macro element. To compensate for any errors when using the linearly increasing fluid temperature for calculating the energy extraction from the borehole, the total U-pipe star resistance network is compensated. The U-pipe star network was also compared with a FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation, showing that the correspondence between the two models is good. The half 5-node network that was used by Schmidt (2004) for modelling the solid construction of the borehole was modified in this paper, with an additional resistance to ensure the stability of the network when simulation long-term heat extraction periods. The borehole RC-network was optimised for a time period of 100 years. The results from the long-term performance simulation made with the derived borehole model, were also compared to other presented borehole simulations. The model proved to have, at a first stage of comparison, a good correspondence with the other presented results.

  • 42.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Oglasade takintegrerade solfångare: Ett energitekniskt aktivt byggnadsskal2008Inngår i: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Use of a Peltier Element to Increase Time of Wetness of Unglazed Solar Collector Specimens in a Natural Field Exposure Test2008Inngår i: Durability of Building Materials & Components 11 (11DBMC), Istanbul, Turkey, 11-14 May 2008, 2008, s. 1169-1175Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In accelerated testing, material specimens are exposed to completely artificial environments, where exposure to individual degradation agents is enhanced. In contrast, field-testing exposes specimens to multiple degradation agents. When performing a semi-natural test, the influence of a selected degradation agent may be increased while the specimen is still situated in its natural environment. Moisture is such an agent. In an experimental set-up for evaluating long-term optical performance of an building integrated Unglazed Solar Collector, a sub-task was to increase Time of Wetness (TOW) for several collector specimens for two reasons: to “simulate” an active cooling of the component as is the case for solar collectors; and to assess the role of TOW on optical degradation of the solar collector. Specimen cooling and increase in TOW was achieved by utilisation of a Direct-Air Peltier Element. TOW was estimated through measurements with WETCORR sensors (monitoring surface temperatures and moisture) and climate parameters (temperature and relative humidity) at site. At this particular test site in Gävle, Sweden, TOW was more than doubled in comparison to non-cooled surfaces. The Peltier Element proved to be inexpensive and flexible for this purpose.

  • 44.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Natural and semi-natural field exposure testing and analysis, on optical degradation of a building integrated unglazed solar collector surface2008Inngår i: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 1057-1071Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Durability is of great importance when considering sustainable energy systems. In turn it lays emphasis on assessing performance over time of energy systems and components. This paper presents a study on optical degradation of a building-integrated Unglazed Solar Collector (USC) surface, by exposing USC specimens to a natural and semi-natural field exposure test. Particular interest is devoted to the semi-natural field exposure test method evaluation, and the degradation of optical properties. The study showed that about 11 months of field exposure testing did not cause any significant optical (total solar absorptance and IR emittance) or material (surface coating) degradation; although measurements revealed a decrease in specular reflectance as diffuse increased. It was likely due to surface pollution that predominantly consisted of quartz. The study also showed that it is possible to achieve a considerable increased moisture exposure on test surfaces (seminatural field exposure test), through a relatively simple cooling device (Direct-Air Peltier-Element) and rough control strategy.

  • 45.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Oostendrop, Peter
    TNO.
    Kronström, Urban
    IVT.
    Improvements in Heat Pumps for Endothermic Systems: ENDOHOUSING deliverable D7b2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - byggnadsmateriallära.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - byggnadsmateriallära.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggnadsteknik.
    A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector2010Inngår i: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 84, nr 10, s. 1838-1851Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (ID) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler ID analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the ID isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer course of events adopts a 1D heat flow that reassembles the conditions of the 1D simple model (for the assessed USC duct geometry); ID heat flow through the top and bottom fins/sheets as the duct wall reassembles a state of adiabatic condition.

  • 47.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Karlsson, Björn O.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Viewpoints on Environmental Assessment of Building Certification Method - Miljöbyggnad2021Inngår i: Urban Transition - Perspectives on Urban Systems and Environments / [ed] Marita Wallhagen & Mathias Cehlin, IntechOpen , 2021Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Production, management, use, and end-of-life of buildings has a large impact on climate change. Therefore, environmental targets are set to lower the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the building sector. To reach these targets building regulation and voluntary environmental assessment methods (EAMs) that evaluate and certify the building's environmental impact are put forward as tools to push the building sector towards lower GHG emissions. In Sweden, building design is governed by building regulations and the dominant EAM is ‘Miljöbyggnad’ (MB) (“Environmental building”). Today, more than 1900 buildings have been certified by MB and it has influenced the building and property sector. In this chapter the potential impact MB and the linked Swedish building regulations have on building performance, energy use and GHG emissions, will be reviewed and discussed. The analysis investigates several of the MB’s indicators, evaluate to what degree EAMs can influence the design of the building and the energy system to lower the energy use and GHG emissions based on material choices. The analysis presents important aspects that may influence the design of the building and its energy system and what challenges and possibilities the indicators, criteria and regulations can have on buildings and climate change. In addition, some modification and suggestion for improvements are presented.

  • 48.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Jungell, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Kopparstaden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Klimatpåverkan från byggnader i fokus - snart införs krav på klimatdeklaration2021Inngår i: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 1, s. 10-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällsbyggnadssektorn i Sverige står för en betydande andel av landets utsläpp av växthusgaser. I ett led att styra branschen mot en mer hållbar riktning har Boverket fått i uppdrag att underlätta införandet av klimatdeklaration vid nybyggnation. Redan i januari nästa år, 2022, föreslås att nya krav på redovisning av klimatdeklaration vid uppförande av nya byggnader införs för de som söker bygglov. Men vad innebär redovisning av klimatdeklaration?

  • 49.
    Zhang, Chen
    et al.
    Department of the Built Environment, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Berk Kazanci, Ongun
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy - ICIEE, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Levinson, Ronnen
    Building Technology and Urban Systems Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Heiselberg, Per
    Department of the Built Environment, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Olesen, Bjarne W.
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy - ICIEE, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Chiesa, Giacomo
    Department of Architecture and Design, Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Sodagar, Behzad
    School of Architecture and the Built Environment, University of Lincoln, UK.
    Ai, Zhengtao
    Department of Building Environment and Energy, Hunan University, China.
    Selkowitz, Stephen
    Building Technology and Urban Systems Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Zinzi, Michele
    ENEA Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Italy.
    Mahdavi, Ardeshir
    Department of Building Physics and Building Ecology, TU Wien, Austria.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Sayadi, Sana
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Forghani, Sadegh
    Zhang, Hui
    Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Arens, Edward
    Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Zhang, Guoqiang
    School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Republic of Korea.
    Resilient cooling strategies – A critical review and qualitative assessment2021Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 251, artikkel-id 111312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The global effects of climate change will increase the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as heatwaves and power outages, which have consequences for buildings and their cooling systems. Buildings and their cooling systems should be designed and operated to be resilient under such events to protect occupants from potentially dangerous indoor thermal conditions. This study performed a critical review on the state-of-the-art of cooling strategies, with special attention to their performance under heatwaves and power outages. We proposed a definition of resilient cooling and described four criteria for resilience—absorptive capacity, adaptive capacity, restorative capacity, and recovery speed —and used them to qualitatively evaluate the resilience of each strategy. The literature review and qualitative analyses show that to attain resilient cooling, the four resilience criteria should be considered in the design phase of a building or during the planning of retrofits. The building and relevant cooling system characteristics should be considered simultaneously to withstand extreme events. A combination of strategies with different resilience capacities, such as a passive envelope strategy coupled with a low-energy space-cooling solution, may be needed to obtain resilient cooling. Finally, a further direction for a quantitative assessment approach has been pointed out.

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    fulltext
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