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  • 1.
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap (upphört 080911).
    Bahai2008In: Religion i Sverige, Stockholm: Dialogos , 2008, p. 297-301Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof
    Teologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Bahá'í Identity and the Concept of Martyrdom2002Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BAHAI IDENTITY AND THE CONCEPT OF MARTYRDOM

    The Bahā’īs have been persecuted in Iran for the greater part of the existence of this movement, especially during the 1850’s and the period after 1979. The persecution has been a dominating part of the Bahā’ī history and an active part of the creation of a special Bahā’ī identity. This persecution could probably have been avoided if the Bahā’īs had chosen to hide their religious believes but this has generally not happened and this makes a difference from the Shī'a identity. The Bahā’ī identity seems to form the basis of a martyrideology as well as a servant ideology. The martyr ideology is, however, not an independent ideology but is rather an aspect of the servant ideology of Bahā’ī and can be traced to early Bābī texts.

    The servant ideology in Bahā’ī has been used in the building of the special Bahā’ī administration, that has been developed gradually from the time of Bahā’u’llāh. This administration has been used as a tool to keep together the two different Bahā’ī identities: the Western identity, based on Christian messianic expectations, and the Eastern identity based on Mahdi expectation in Shī'a Islam. The Bahā’ī administration has been used as a tool to diminish the effects of the persecutions in Iran and in this way the persecutions have served as an agent to unite these separate identities.

    The reaction of the Bābī and Bahā’ī movement has differed during different periods. During the first period, the 1840’s, the Islamic concept of jihad still existed among the Bābīs who met the persecution in some instances with sword in hand in defence. This was not in accordance to the instruction of the Bāb and in the persecution of the 1850’s there were no attempts from the Bābīs to defend themselves in any way. Important for the change of attitude among the Bābīs was the conference 1848 in Badasht, where Bahā’u’llāh was the driving force. What made the shah in Iran avoid any more national persecutions was probably the reaction of representatives of Western governments, but the persecutions continued on a local level. When the persecutions started on a larger scale again in 1979 the servant ideology of the Bahā’īs in Iran took the form of a martyr ideology and the Bahā’ī communities in other parts of the world could co-operate with the international community with the goal to stop the persecution, using diplomatic ways, by drawing upon the servant ideology that functioned as the motivating force in the Bahā’ī communities. 

  • 3.
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Religous studies.
    Martyrdom and Servanthood in the Bābī and Bahā’ī Faiths: A Struggle to Defend a Cosmic Order2014In: Martyrdom in the Modern Middle East / [ed] Sasha Dehghani, Silvia Horsch, Würzburg: Ergon-Verlag, 2014, p. 33-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Martyrideologi of the Bahá'í Faith2007In: Instances of Martyrdom / [ed] Lena Roos, Stockholm, 2007, p. 1-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Religous studies. Uppsala universitet.
    Självmordsbombare och korsriddare: Martyrideologi som drivkraft till politiskt handlande2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I boken Självmordsbombare och andra fundamentalister diskuteras frågan om vad som kan motivera människor att bli självmordsbombare. Detta fenomen har ofta uppfattats som en attack mot västvärldens grundläggande värderingar, men i diskussionen som genomförs i denna bok beskrivs det snarare som ett försök till försvar mot de man uppfattar som fiender till den världsordning som islamister finner i islam. I den diskussionen ingår en översikt över olika relevanta händelser i den islamiska historien, såväl som en jämförande diskussion om martyrbegreppet i judendom, kristendom och islam. I försöket att hitta en lösning på problematiken kring självmordsbombarna innehåller boken även en diskussion om hur man bygger upp en identitet med hjälp av roller och vilken funktion religion har i denna process. Denna del av boken innehåller även en analys av Hitlers bok ”Mein kampf” liksom en diskussion kring det dokument som Anders Behring Breivik hänvisar till när han försöker förklara det massmord som han genomförde.  

  • 6.
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof Johan
    Teologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Bahá'í Identity and the concept of Martyrdom2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap (upphört 080911).
    Den syrianska identiteten i skolan2005In: Religionsmöten och religiös mångfald: Religionsvetenskapliga essäer från Högskolan i Gävle, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press , 2005, 1, p. 42-47Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap (upphört 080911).
    Martyr Ideology of the Bahá'í Faith2007In: Religion on the Borders: new challenges in the academic study of religion : programme and abstracts, Stockholm: Södertörn University College , 2007, p. 337-338Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Martyrideologier i klassrummet2006In: Nya mål?: Religionsdidaktik i en tid av förändring / [ed] Birgit Lindgren Ödén och Peder Thalén, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press , 2006, 1, p. 96-103Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap (upphört 080911).
    The Blood of Hussain: ett gammalt tema i en film om identitet och makt i det moderna Pakistan2008In: Bogart och Betel: Texter om film och religion, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press , 2008, 1, p. 60-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
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