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  • 1.
    Braat-Eggen, Ella
    et al.
    Avans University of Applied Sciences, Tilburg, the Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands .
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Hornikx, Maarten
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Kohlrausch, Armin
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Auditory distraction in open-plan study environments: Effects of background speech and reverberation time on a collaboration task2019In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 154, p. 148-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that semantic-based tasks are negatively influenced by semantic aspects in background speech. Collaboration is an important task in open-plan study environments and is a semantic task which might be disrupted by background speech. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of irrelevant background speech on student-collaboration. Participants worked in pairs to solve spot-the-difference puzzles, by using the 'DiapixUK' collaboration task, while they were exposed to different background sound scenarios. The composed sound scenarios varied in semantic content (mother tongue and foreign language background speech)and reverberation time (short vs long), the latter affecting speech intelligibility. Although a longer reverberation time decreases the intelligibility of background speech and a foreign language decreases meaningfulness of speech, no significant changes in performance were found. On the other hand, the data show an increased perceived disturbance for a longer reverberation time, which we interpret as an increased difficulty of interpersonal communication in the collaboration task due to the increased level of the background speech. The quiet reference condition was the most preferred sound condition which is in line with both the effect of a low background sound level and the absence of semantic interference. 

  • 2.
    Halling, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
     Lean:  en fråga om tvåfald eller enfald2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Biltillverkaren Toyota anses vara ett av världens effektivaste företag och beskrivs som en framgångssaga.Toyotas framgångar har lett till att många företag och organisationer inom olika branscher försökt lära av Toyota och deras sätt att bedriva sin verksamhet med syfte att nå liknande framgångar som Toyota way gett Toyota. Detta har vanligtvis skett under begreppet Lean. Lean som begrepp myntades och spreds av forskare i USA. Undersökningar av resultatet av de Lean införanden som gjorts i olika företag och organisationer visar att mycket få lyckas.

     Syfte

    Reflektera över motsättningar och överensstämmelser av olika beskrivningar av Toyota Way och Lean, samt 2. reflektera över varför få lyckas med Lean.

    Resultat

    en viktig faktor bakom den höga andelen misslyckade Lean införanden är att Toyota way är ett tvåfaldigt system medan Lean, som införs med syfte att nå framgångar liknande de Toyota uppnått, oftast införs som ett enfaldigt system. För att fungera behöver Lean samma tvåfaldighet som Toyota way annars uppnås bara något som kan benämnas ”bluff Lean”.

    Diskussion

    Är lösningen på nuvarande problem med den låga andelen framgångsrika Lean införanden att lära om och då från primärkällan Toyota.

    Finns det behov att skapa svenska Leanbegrepp?

    Är många Leankonsulter ett hot mot framgångsrikt införande av Lean?

    Vad lärs ut om Lean på svenska lärosäten, den tvåfaldiga eller den enfaldiga ”Lean modellen”?

    Är erfarenheterna från TWI och insikten från The European Productivity Agency’s Report of the Rome Conference 1958, om att överordnat allt annat är produktivitet en fråga om inställning, glömda i västvärlden?

  • 3.
    Halling, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lean Implementation: the significance of people and dualism2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean, with its origins at the Toyota Motor Company, is a concept that is known to increase effectiveness in manufacturing. The Lean concept is now argued to be relevant not only in manufacturing but in service and health-care delivery as well. The reported results of Lean implementation efforts are divided. There are reports that most of the Lean implementation efforts are not reaching the goal; on the other hand, there are reports of promising results. The divided results from Lean implementation efforts show how important it is to research and identify factors that are barriers to successful implementation of Lean. This thesis aims to contribute knowledge about barriers to Lean implementation by collecting empirical findings from manufacturing and health care and structuring the perceived barriers and difficulties to Lean implementation. My first study aimed to compare similarities and divergences in barriers to Lean described by key informants in manufacturing and health care. The data was collected via semi-structured interviews. Findings showed that the perceived difficulties and barriers are much the same in manufacturing and health care. The second study was a case study at a manufacturing firm, researching how the views on Lean of the managers implementing Lean influence its implementation. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews with 20 individuals and covered all hierarchical management levels in the company. Findings showed that managers' views on Lean influence the implementation but also that learning during the implementation process can alter managers' views of Lean. The third study aimed to research how management of Lean is described in the literature. This was done through a literature review. The findings showed that Lean management is a matter of dualism, consisting of two complementary systems of action, management and leadership, which are related to the two basic principles of Lean, continuous improvement and respect for the people.

  • 4.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Ergonomi, KTH.
    Bergman, Mikael
    Fagersta Stainless.
    Herdin, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Presentation av Human Lean Center2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 145-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning

    Human Lean började som ett samarbete mellan Bengt Halling och några produktionslinor hos Scania för att se om hälsoteorin Känsla av sammanhang (Kasam) kunde hjälpa cheferna vid dessa arbetsplatser att öka hälsoläget bland medarbetarna med bibehållande av den positiva utveckling av produktiviteten som företaget uppvisat. Lärdomar från samarbetet låg som grund för etablerandet av Human Lean Center (HLC) vid högskolan i Gävle. Human Lean kan beskrivas som ett koncept som kombinerar Kasam och Lean filosofi och där människan ses som central för produktivitet och kvalitet.

    Syfte

    Syfte med etablerande av HLC är att erbjuda organisationer en utbildning som kombinerar hälsoteori och Lean filosofi för långsiktigt uthållig och konkurrenskraftig verksamhet. HLC nyttjas numera även vid olika studentutbildningar.

    Metod

    Metod vid utbildningen vid HLC bygger på att kombinera teori och praktik. Teorin handlar om hälsoteori och hälsofrämjande kombinerat med beskrivning av Lean konceptets historiska framväxt och Lean filosofi. Den praktiska delen av utbildningen handlar om att montera trampbilar längs en taktad produktionslina med hjälp av Lean metoder och verktyg utgående från att människan är central för produktion, att hälsa är en resurs med påverkan på människans förmåga och det innebär att arbetsplatser bör utformas så att de stödjer tillgången till människors förmåga att göra sitt bästa varje dag på jobbet. Att skapa arbetsplatser som stöder människor genom ett hälsofrämjande perspektiv behöver en strategi på daglig basis i human Lean sker detta genom komb-inationen Kasam och Lean filosofi. Med det menas att arbetsmiljön runt människor skall utformas med syftet skapa en känsla av att deras arbetssituation upplevs som meningsfull, begriplig och hanterbar.

    Resultat

    Resultat från de arbetsplatser där Human Lean konceptet prövats visar på positiva effekter på såväl hälsa som produktivitet och kvalitet. Fagersta stainless avdelning för dragen tråd var ett av de första att genomgå utbildning vid HLC. Mikael Bergman från Fagersta finns på plats vid presentationen för att berätta om hur utbildningen uppfattats av personal och företaget.

    Slutsatser

    Slutsatser utifrån erfarenheter från utvecklingen av Human Lean konceptet och Human Lean Centers verksamhet är att Human Lean konceptet genom kombinationen hälsoteori och Lean filosofi samt teori och praktisk träning kan ge positiva effekter på verksam-heters produktivitet och kvalitet samtidigt som hälsonivån bland medarbetare höjs i form av minskad sjukskrivning och minskat behov av rehabilitering.

  • 5.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Ergonomi, KTH .
    Bergman, Mikael
    Fagersta Stainless.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Intervention för ökad produktivitet och minskad sjukskrivning vid ett svenskt stålföretag2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 49-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Vid Fagersta stainless produktionsenhet för dragen tråd vidareförädlas rostfri valsad tråd till dragen tråd som sedan kan användas för tillverkning av olika produkter. Vid produk-tionsenhet för dragen tråd hade de under en längre tid haft lönsamhetsproblem och hög sjukfrånvaro och företagets ledning ansåg att något måste göras för att ändra detta. En ny produktionschef och tre produktionsledare anställdes med uppdraget att vända den negativa situationen. Beslut togs om en intervention som påbörjades år 2015.

    Interventionen

    Samtlig personal vid produktionsenheten (n=46, inkluderande en produktionschef, tre produktions-ledare samt operatörer) genomgick utbildning under våren 2015 vid Human Lean Center, Högskolan i Gävle. Utbildningen bestod av en teoretisk och en praktisk del. Utbildningens teoretiska del handlade om hälsa och hälsofrämjande samt Lean filosofi. Utbildningens praktiska del innebar att montera trampbilar vid taktad monteringslina med hjälp av Lean metoder och ett hälsofrämjande perspektiv utgående från att arbete skall vara meningsfullt, begripligt och hanterbart. Kunskapen från utbildningen omsattes sedan vid Fagersta stainless produktionsenhet för dragen tråd genom att fyra förändringar gen-omfördes. 1. Skapa möjlighet för arbetsledarna att tillbringa tid på produktionsgolvet för att stödja produktionspersonalen. 2. Introduktion av ”whiteboardmöten” för information vid början av alla skift. 3. Byggandet av gemensam lunchplats. 4. Standardiserat arbets-sätt vid avvikelser.

    Metod

    Resultatet av interventionen mättes av Fagersta stainless med företagets system för upp-följning av produktivitet mätt i producerat ton stål per arbetare och sjukskrivningar mätta i procent av förlorad arbetstid i förhållande till möjlig arbetstid. Mätningar gjordes för år 2014, året före interventionen och för åren 2015-2017.

    Resultat

    Resultatet efter interventionen visar att Produktivitet per arbetare ökade för åren 2015-2017. År 2014 som var året före interventionen var produktiviteten per arbetare 158,3 ton. År 2015 ökade den med 24,9%, 2016 ökade produktiviteten per arbetare med 3,6% och för 2017 var ökningen 11,4%. Under samma tid åren 2015-2017 som produktiviteten ökade så minskade sjukskrivningar. 2014 året före interventionen uppgick sjukskriv-ningarna till 15% av total möjlig tid för arbete (100%). År 2015 sjönk sjukskrivningarna till 7% och 2016 sjönk de till 3% för att 2017 sjunka ytterligare till 2,5%.

    Slutsats

    Genom att kombinera hälsofrämjande teorier och Lean filosofi som delar i en utbildning med teoretiska och praktiska moment kan en kunskapsgrund läggas för en kontext-anpassad intervention som kan resultera i ökad produktivitet per arbetare samtidigt som sjukskrivningar kan minska. Verksamheter som vill öka produktivitet och samtidigt minska sjukskrivningar bör överväga att kombinera Lean filosofi med hälsofrämjande teori som strategi.

  • 6.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Renström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Swedish Royal Institute of Technology.
    From Fantasy to Reality: Learning From Seven Years of Lean Implementation2013In: Journal of US-China Public Administration, ISSN 1548-6591, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 368-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to address the question of how manager’s views on Lean in terms of “toolbox Lean” or“Lean thinking” impact their view of the implementation process. This paper is based on a case study at a globallyestablished Swedish manufacturing company. Findings show that managers’ definitions of Lean have evolved froma “toolbox” view toward more of a “Lean thinking” view during the implementation process, due to the learningtaking place in the organization during the implementation. As the understanding of Lean develops, new andunforeseen deviations or needs may be identified. This in turn affects the managers’ views on the implementationprocess and perceived needs in regard to Lean development. The study also shows that fragmented development ofan organization, such as production units developing individually without support from middle management orhuman resources (HR) may impede Lean development efforts. Lean implementation and development requiresystem wide change in order to be sustainable, which primarily concerns the management system and managementapproach but also all support functions within an organization. The use of external consultants in selected parts ofan organization, thereby by-passing management levels and support functions may generate conflicting prioritiesand tension within an organization. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding regarding the learning processrelated to Lean implementations and to the aspects of people development and leadership required for sustainableLean development.

  • 7.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Renström, Jonas
    Lean and the implementation process: managers perspective on change2011In: Det nya arbetslivet, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and aims: Research has shown that view on Lean production differs both between researchers and practitioners and that there is no uniform definition of the concept (Emiliani 2006; Pettersen 2009). Furthermore, the perspective on Lean production as toolbox or philosophy, sometimes expressed as Lean thinking, influences the Lean implementation. Implementation of Lean can be seen as a project or an initiation of an ongoing developmental process where learning is taking place (Rother 2010). The purpose of this paper is to survey managers´s wiew of lean in terms of “toolbox Lean” or Lean thinking and their view of the implementation process in terms of a project with a time limit or as an initiation of an ongoing developmental process. The intention is to increase understanding about the relationship betweenhow Lean production is defined and implemented.

    Method: This paper is based on a case study at a Swedish manufacturing company aiming tobecome a company working with a business system based on Lean principles. The study has a multilevel, vertical, perspective covering five hierarchical management levels in the organization, from president of the company to first line managers at the shop floor. Data was collected through individual semi structured interviews with 14 managers at different organizational levels.

    Findings and reflection: The view on Lean has, according to managers, evolved at all management levels within the organization during the implementation. From a starting point were Lean was perceived as a set of tools by most, it has, as the managers increased their knowledge evolved into a view that is more complex and also includes behavioral and cultural issues. This would indicate that even if the starting point of an implementation of Lean is Lean tool focused it may over time come to include issues of management protocol addressing cultural development, coaching and communication as learning regarding the organizational needs take place. The interviews showed that managers on different hierarchical levels of the organization believed there to be differences in view regarding Lean within the organization. We however found the view on Lean to be quite similar at all management levels, described as a customer focused; standardized way of working that is continuously improved by keeping a process focus. The impression of there being differences in view regarding Lean is most likely caused by a lack of dialogue between organizational levels within the organization. Varying competence levels regarding Lean and thereby varying ways of working within the organization may create a lack of support between production and support functions. Health and health promotion are seen as important factors at the production unit that was studied.

    Research limitations: Organizational size and only partial coverage of the organization may limit the results validity to the parts of the organization that was researched and to larger organizations.

    Value: This paper provides insights regarding the learning process connected to a Lean implementation and that alterations of perspectives and needs may take place during such a process.

    Keywords: Lean production; Lean management; Lean implementation

    Paper type: Case study

  • 8.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. KTH.
    Renström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH .
    Lean leadership: a matter of dualism2014In: International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, ISSN 1465-6612, E-ISSN 1741-5160, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 242-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of previous literature, this study takes a snowball approach to identify people influential on the topics through their writings. The aim was to conceptualise leadership and management in regard to lean, thus increasing understanding of the roles of leadership and management in lean development. The findings showed that leadership and management are two different but complementary action systems, similar to the duality of Toyota's two foundational principles: respect for people and continuous improvement. Differentiating between leadership and management is important in order to meet organisational needs during a lean implementation; each has complementary functions. Practical implications include the need to further train managers in leadership and to work within organisational culture to influence on–the–job behaviour. This lack of leadership competence may be one reason companies tend to address lean as a toolbox rather than an enterprise–wide system that covers all its operations and entails cultural and behaviour standards.

  • 9.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Renström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    LEAN och Ledarskap2012In:  , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Research has shown that leadership is an important factor when implementing and developing a TPS (Toyota Production System) inspired Lean way of working in organizations. In spite of it´s stated importance, leadership is indicated as a weak area and a problem in many organizations striving to develop as Lean enterprises. To successfully implement and develop a sustainable Lean way of working it becomes essential to understand what kind of leadership a Lean organization requires. There is a stated gap in Lean literature regarding management and difficulties in implementation are indicated to often occur due to overlooked but crucial differences in approach in management.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe leadership from a Lean perspective and identify possible key factors regarding leadership for a developing Lean organization.

    Method: This paper is based on a literature study.

    Results: Leadership within a Lean organization can be said to be characterized by a deep knowledge regarding the operation processes in order to be able to mentor, coach, and develop employees in line with company standards, goals and vision. It is indicated that a leaders primary responsibility is to support in the development of subordinates by taking active part in problem solving and by role modeling. To develop people in a way means to continuously challenge them, this challenge being a way to assure continuous improvement. With a long term perspective and the principle of “respect for people” in mind this means balancing the challenge to avoid overburdening (muri). Two aspects are of importance here; deep knowledge regarding company processes, standards and protocol and a close working relationship with subordinates in order to be able to continously coach, mentor, and take active part in problem solving.

    Discussion: Leadership and the role of management in Lean implementation and development will, if continuous improvement and not just implementation of tools is aspired, be to support structures and behaviors needed for problem solving and organizational learning. Toyota is by several sources described as a learning organization and Lean systems based on Toyota will thus require a leadership and a management system that meet the requirements of a learning organization. This type of leadership appears to be similar to what Bass (1999) describes as transformational and transactional leadership where inspiration & idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration are key factors as well as goal setting, contracting, structure and standards.

    Value: This paper provides insights regarding possible key factors concerning leadership in regard to Lean implementation and development as well as the importance and purpose of leadership in a lean organization.

  • 10.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public Health Medicine, County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden; County Council of Gävleborg, Sweden; Faculty of Educational Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Experienced Barriers to Lean in Swedish Manufacturing and Health Care2013In: International Journal of Lean Thinking, ISSN 2146-0337, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A B S T R A C T  

    Purpose: The purpose is to compare similarities and divergences in how the concepts of Lean and barriers to Lean are described by key informants at a production unit in a large manufacturing company and two emergency health care units in Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach: Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed with the constant comparative method (CCM) and Porras and Robertson’s

    (1992) change model.

    Findings: In both organizations, the view of Lean changed from a toolbox to a human behavior view. Eight barriers were experienced in both organizations. Three barriers

    were unique to manufacturing or to health care, respectively. Nine barriers were elements of social factors;five were elements of organizing arrangements.

    Research limitations/implications: Only people practically involved and responsible for the implementation at the two organizations participated in the study.

    Practical implications: Persons responsible for implementing Lean should consider organizational arrangements and social factors in order to limit barriers to

    successful implementation.

    Originality/value: Most research on Lean has been about successful Lean implementations. This study focuses on how Lean is viewed and what barriers personnel in

    manufacturing and health care have experienced. In comparing the barriers to Lean experienced in the two groups, common, archetypical, and unique barriers for manufacturing and health care can be identified, thus contributing to knowledge about barriers to Lean implementation.

  • 11.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Disruption of writing by background speech2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 49-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this contribution is to review parts of the knowledge gathered so far about the effects of background speech on writing performance and to discuss the implications for open-plan offices.

    Background

    Irrelevant background speech is amongst the most often mentioned sources of annoyance at work and it can impair writing performance. Thus, performance and health are challenged when working in open-plan offices wherein background sound is commonplace. To investigate the effects of irrelevant background speech on writing in a more detailed way, five studies were done. Study one investigated whether the semantic properties of the irrelevant background speech contribute to disruption of writing processes. A follow-up study investigated the relationship between Speech Transmission Index and writing fluency. In study three, Experiment 1 explored the appreciation and effectiveness of several ways of masking background speech. Experiment 2 studied whether background speech from simultaneous talkers (i.e. 3, 5 and 7 talkers compared to 1 single talker) lead to distraction. Study four investigated the combined effects of task interruptions caused by task shifting and task interruptions caused by background speech. The fifth study investigated whether sound source location and inattention could modulate the relation between background speech and writing fluency.

    Methods

    All studies had experimental within-subject designs. Participants wrote stories while they were exposed to different sound conditions.

    Results

    Study one revealed that meaningful speech disrupted writing performance compared to meaningless rotated speech and quiet. Study two showed that disruption kicks in with relatively low speech intelligibility. In Experiment 1 in study three, the most effective and appreciated way of masking background speech was with multiple voices and Experiment 2 revealed that performance was worst with 1 background voice and best with 7 voices. Study four showed that it took 10-15 seconds to reach the same writing speed after an interruption as before. In study five, results showed that high inattentive individuals might profit from low intelligible background speech located behind them. Self-reports revealed that speech coming from the front was perceived as more distracting compared to speech coming from behind.

    Conclusions

    The most important result is that writing fluency is highly sensitive to the intelligibility of background speech. This suggests that the designs of noisy work environments should be adjusted for the tasks that have to be executed. Writing should be done in a quiet environment with minimal risks for task interruptions.

  • 12.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Disruption of writing in noisy office environments2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the four experimental studies included in this dissertation was to investigate the influence of background speech on writing performance. In Paper I, a manipulation of speech intelligibility of background speech, by using the Speech Transmission Index (STI), revealed disruptive effects at lower STI values (i.e. with relative low speech intelligibility) than expected, based on an earlier developed model. This showed that writing is more sensitive to disruption from background speech than previously thought.

    Experiment 1 in Paper II addressed the question whether the sound of babble, sound of water waves, or pink noise is the most effective and appreciated way of masking background speech to reduce its intelligibility and thereby its disruptiveness. Masking with babble was best. Experiment 2 in Paper II followed this finding up by showing that the disruption of writing by background speech is a function of the number of voices talking in the background—less voices, more disruption.

    Paper III investigated the combined impact of background speech and task interruptions on writing performance. Background speech (which was played during the whole condition) after an interruption was expected to prolong the time it took to resume the same writing speed as before the interruption. This hypothesis was not confirmed, but participants’ self-reports showed that the combination of task interruptions and background speech convey a particularly high workload.

    Paper IV explored what role sound source location and individual differences (inattention, noise sensitivity and working memory capacity) play in the disruption of writing by background speech. Self-reports showed that speech in front of the individual was perceived as more distracting compared to speech from behind. Other results in the same study showed that high inattentive individuals profit more from less intelligible speech located behind them than attentive individuals and high noise-sensitive individuals were more distracted by highly intelligible background speech than by less intelligible background speech.

    The most important and replicable finding in this dissertation is that writing fluency is very sensitive to disruption from background speech; a finding relevant for the design of open work environments. In work areas where writing is a common task, the aim should be to create quiet work areas.

  • 13.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sjödin, Louise
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Disruption of writing by background speech: does sound source location and number of voices matter?2019In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 537-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual that people have to write in an environment where background speech is present. Background speech can vary in both speech intelligibility and location of the sound source. Earlier research has shown disruptive effects of background speech on writing performance. To expand and reinforce this knowledge, the present study investigated the role of number of voices and sound source location in the relation between background speech and writing performance. Participants wrote texts in quiet or in background speech existing of one or seven voices talking simultaneously, located in front of or behind them. Overall, one voice was more disruptive than seven voices talking simultaneously. Self-reports showed that sound from the front was more disruptive compared to sound from behind. Results are in line with theory of interference-by-process, attentional capture and the cross-modal theory of attention. The relevance of the results for open-office environments is discussed.

  • 14.
    Kusterer, Hanna Li
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Mählck, Paula
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, Stockholms universitet.
    Montgomery, Henry
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Rekrytering och befordring av professorer i Sverige: Betydelser av kön, etnicitet och bedömningskriteriers sociala konstruktioner2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 86-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Akademin och forskningens villkor undergår en mängd granskningar, och ett fokus på genus och jämställdhet har varit närvarande i denna forskning under en längre tid. Dock har andra maktordningar, så som etnicitet, klass eller funktionsvariation, lämnats utanför dessa granskningar, vilket är särskilt tydligt gällande forskningen som bedrivs i Sverige och studiet av den svenska akademin. Det är av stor vikt att undersöka dessa processer i strävan mot ett inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv. Rekryteringsprocesser och tilldelning av forskningsmedel har ofta visat sig missgynna kvinnor och minoriteter. Samtidigt ses erhållandet av forskningsmedel som en kvalitetsstämpel. Likaså poängteras betydelsen av antalet publikationer i vetenskapliga tidskrifter och citeringsmått, dvs. hur frekvent artik-larna är refererade till. Vilka bedömningskriterier som används, och hur dessa konstrueras och tillämpas, har visat sig vara både svårartikulerat och variera mellan forsknings-discipliner, samt mellan och inom specifika kontexter, så som inom en professors-rekrytering eller granskning av en ansökan om befordran till professor.

    Syfte: Inom ramen för ett projekt som utforskar hur forskningsmeriter för kvinnor och män med eller utan utländsk bakgrund konstrueras och värderas i sakkunnigprocesser, fokuseras i denna presentation på bedömningskriterier för rekrytering och befordring av professorer.

    Metod: Sakkunnigutlåtanden och rekryteringsgruppers protokoll från samtliga 50 professorsrekryteringar (drygt 370 sökande) under en femårsperiod från ett av Sveriges ledande universitet har granskats, och tillämpningen av olika bedömningskriterier har kodats genom en innehållsanalys. Jämförelser har gjorts mellan olika vetenskapsområden, och betydelsen av sökandes kön och etnicitet (vilken del av världen sökande kommer ifrån) har utforskats. En annan studie har fokuserat på betydelsen av antalet publikationer för individers möjlighet till professorsbefordran inom fyra olika ämnesområden (inkl. psykologi, nationalekonomi, delar av biologi respektive fysik). Även här undersöks betydelsen av sökandes kön och etnicitet.

    Resultat: Resultaten pekar på olikheter i vilka bedömningskriterier som betonas i sak-kunnigutlåtandena, och hur skiftande dessa kriterier konstrueras (ibland explicit formulerat av sakkunniga, men oftare för-givet-tagna tolkningar). Det är en stor variation i hur enskilda sakkunniga (inom och mellan de olika utlysningarna) konstruerar exemp-elvis kärnområdet för en utlysning, hur vetenskapliga publikationer eller doktorand-handledning värderas samt betydelsen av pedagogisk meritering. Relevanta meriter, så som de formulerats i utlysningstexten, belyses inte alltid systematiskt och likvärdigt. Det finns vissa tecken på att sökande från utlandet kan bedömas annorlunda än sökande med starkare anknytning till Sverige, och särskilt universitetet i fråga. Detta kommer att undersökas vidare i kommande analyser. Resultat från studien som undersöker betydelsen av antalet publikationer för professorbefordran väntas bli klart inom kort, och kan belysa hur just detta bedömningskriterium används.

  • 15.
    Renström, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH.
    Halling, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH.
    Cross-functional Alignment for Lean Development Obstacles and Facilitators for Organizational Learning2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To see and understand Lean as a management system, as well as a willingness within management to practice the desired approach, are often described as central for Lean implementation and development. To achieve this, a strategic, system-wide approach to Lean development may be required. Such an approach would require cross-functional cooperation in driving improvements that affect organizational interdependencies. Cross-functional operation is a key factor for organizational learning, where learning is said to require individuals interacting for a specific purpose, learning together by trying to solve tasks and to improve performance. This goes beyond “team learning,” since by its organizational focus it addresses the management of interdependencies between organizational functions as well as among departments and hierarchical levels. Toyota, a company linked to the Lean concept, can often be found described as a learning organization. Its success is said to be closely linked to its ability to generate and manage organizational learning. Organizational learning emphasizes cross-functional social practice as the way to learn and develop. This paper, based on an explorative case study at a global manufacturing company, assesses prerequisites for cross-functional alignment and cooperation within a larger international production company. The question for the study was how managers describe obstacles and facilitators for cross-functional interaction for Lean development. Descriptions of obstacles and facilitators for cross-functional interaction given by managers point to the importance of a controlled management turnover and induction training, as well as formally established target conditions and collective performance management. Further conclusions are that organizational learning theory can be used to further understand requirements for Lean management by highlighting the importance of how and by whom daily steering or performance management and deviation handling is set up and performed. The results stress the importance of routines and composition of local management teams and their approach to shared responsibility and target achievement.

  • 16.
    Wijk, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Halling, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Att väcka den björn som sover: reflektion över planering och implementering av en hälsointervention på en arbetsplats2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln problematiserar planering och implementering av pedagogisk hälsointervention på arbetsplats, utifrån en fallstudie på en arbetsplats. Handhavanden och motsättningar i interventionsarbetet reflekteras. Interventionen var teoretiskt förankrad i Social Learning Theory, varvid miljö, beteende och personella faktorer beaktades vid planering och implementering. Syftet med artikeln är att illustrera en formativ process genom att reflektera över praktik och teori i interventionsarbetet. Konkreta exempel på hur emperi från arbetsplatsen har väglett val av strategier i interventionsarbetet, presenteras.

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