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  • 1.
    Andersson, I.
    et al.
    Obesity Unit, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rössner, Stefan
    Obesity Unit, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Meal pattern and risk factor evaluation in one-year completers of a weight reduction program for obese men - the "Gustaf" study2000In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 247, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in meal patterns and in obesity related risk factors after 1 year of treatment in obese men. Design: Data from two 24-h dietary recalls, performed at base-line and after 1 year of treatment, were related to changes in medical risk factors. Setting: Academic obesity unit. Subjects: Sixty-three men, aged 44 (eight) years (mean [SD]) and Base- line Body Mass Index (BMI) 37.4 (4.6) kg m-2, who had completed 1 year of treatment. The men were subdivided by tertiles according to weight change: tertile I (n = 21), mean +0.3 kg, tertile II (n = 21), mean -5.8 kg and tertile III (n = 21), mean -14.2 kg. Main outcome measures: Weight loss, changes in meal patterns and in obesity related medical risk factors. Results: The reported mean energy intake decreased after treatment in tertiles II and III by 700 (1300) kcal (P < 0.05) and 700 (900) kcal (P = 0.001), respectively. In tertile III the energy-% from fat decreased (P < 0.05) with a reciprocal increase in energy-% from protein (P < 0.05). The frequency of snacks of a low nutritional quality decreased (P < 0.01) in tertile III together with an increase in energy-% from 'hot meals of good quality' (P < 0.05). Obesity related risk factors (anthropometry, blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, blood glucose and plasma insulin) improved in a beneficial way only in tertile III. Conclusions: The weight loss in the successful tertile III men was to a great extent explained by fewer low quality snacks but more energy from high quality meals. These changes reflected the behaviour modification strategy recommended.

  • 2.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Gustafsson, Inga Britt
    Department of Culinary Art.
    Haraldsdóttir, Johanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary/Agricultural University, Copenhagen.
    Nydahl, Margaretha C.
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Vessby, Bengt O. H.
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Ytterfors, Arne
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Precoded food records compared with weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross-over design, 82 women and men recorded their food intake by a precoded 7-day record book (PR) including both standard portions in household measures and photographs, and a weighed 7-day record (WR), respectively. Single 24-h urine samples, for determination of nitrogen excretion, were collected for 39 subjects during the WR period. Comparing the PR to the WR method, the mean intake of some foods, as cheese, was higher, and bread and vegetables lower. For energy and nutrients, the fat energy percent (E%) was higher, and protein E%, dietary fibre, iron, thiamin, folate, carotene and α-tocopherol were all lower. Protein intake registered by the PR method was 20% lower compared to 24-h urine samples, and 11% lower for the WR method. The results indicate that some of the standard portion sizes, used by the PR method, contributed to the observed differences in food and nutrient intakes. The subjects found it easier and less time-consuming to record their food intake with the PR than with the WR method. The time spent on processing data was reduced by 50% when using the PR method. The results of the study will be used for improvements in the design of the PR for use in large-scale dietary surveys for monitoring dietary habits.

  • 3.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Haraldsdottir, Johanna
    Nydahl, Margareta
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Ytterfors, A
    Precoded or weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults: I Food intake1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4. Brattberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Socialtjänstens roll i det förebyggande folkhälsoarbetet1997Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Byström, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Landström, Ulf
    Statshälsan/Prevab, Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Kännedom, attityd och levnadsmönster bland högskolestuderande angående kost, motion och trötthet2003Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Byström, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå university, National Institute for Working Life.
    Landström, Ulf
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Måltidens inverkan på vakenhet och prestation2002Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Dahl Lassen, Anne
    et al.
    National Food Institute, Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke
    National Food Institute, Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Haapala, Irja
    School of Applied Educational Sciences and Teacher Education, Savonlinna, Finland; School of Social and Political Sciences, the University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Department of Food and Meal Science, Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Beck, Anne Marie
    Institute of Nutrition and Midwifery, Metropolitan University College, Denmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    National Food Institute, Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Food at Work around the Clock – The Nordic Model: Report from a Nordic Workshop, November 4, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report brings together 12 invited presentations and outcomes of a workshop on food and meals for employees working irregular hours “around the clock”. The workshop, “Food at work around the clock – The Nordic Model”, was hosted by the National Food Institute at the Technical University of Denmark on November 4, 2016, in Lyngby, near Copenhagen, Denmark. This was a culmination of the collaboration started in 2015 between researchers from the hosts institute, Gävle University and Kristianstad University in Sweden, and the School of Applied Educational Sciences and Teacher Education in Finland. The workshop was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers.

  • 8. Erlandsson, Maja
    et al.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Månsson, Helena Lindmark
    Mjölk & mejeriprodukter: viktiga näringskällor2005In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 30-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Gillberg, M.
    et al.
    Public health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pernler, H.
    Public health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordlund, G.
    Department of Education, University of Umeå , Umeå, Sweden.
    Norberg, H.
    Department of Education, University of Umeå , Umeå, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Longitudinal changes in the sleep habits of Swedish adolescents2006In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 15, no Suppl. 1, p. 83-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sleep habits change during adolescence both for biological and psychological/social reasons. Longitudinal studies on suchhabits are, however, scarce. The aim of the present study was toinvestigate the longitudinal changes of subjective sleep habits in Swedish adolescents.

    Method: The present study was part of a larger investigation mainlyon food habits that originally included all (about 2500) 14 year oldfrom three representative middle-sized Swedish towns. The adolescents filled in questionnaires at 14, 15 and 18 years of age. The 638 adolescents that answered all the questions on their sleephabits at each of the three occasions were included in the present study.

    Results and discussion: The adolescents developed later weekday bed- and rise times with increasing age (bedtimes from 22:35 h to23:20 h; risetimes from 06:50 h to 07:05 h). Consequently, time inbed on weekday nights decreased (from 8:15 h to 7:45 h). On weekends the adolescents went to bed later (around 2 h) and stayed in bed longer (around 1:20 h) than during the weekdays. Weekend time in bed decreased with increasing age. Differences between genders indicated that the changes observed were more obvious among boys. A dropout analysis implied that those adolescents that only participated at one occasion (at the age of 14) or at two occasions (at 14 and 15 years of age), respectively, went to bed later, woke up later and had shorter sleep compared to those who participated at all three occasions. Hence, the results might not be completely representative.

    Conclusions: A delay of bedtimes and of shortening of sleep duration as a function of age was observed. Weekend changes showed a delay of bedtimes and a (presumably) compensatory increase in sleep duration. Boys seemed 'worse off'.

  • 10.
    Graaf, Cees De
    et al.
    Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University.
    Gaag, Monique A. Van Der
    Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University.
    Kafatos, Anthony George
    School of Health Sciences, University of Crete.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kearney, John M.
    Institute of European Food Studies, Trinity College, Dublin.
    Stages of dietary change among nationally-representative samples of adults in the European Union1997In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 51, no Suppl. 2, p. S47-S56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the distribution across the different stages of change for each of the 15 participating European countries, and the effect of socio-demographic variables such as sex and education on this distribution. Also to assess the relationships between stages of change and influences of food choice, and other variables. Design: A cross-sectional study in which quota-controlled, nationally-representative samples of approximately 1000 adults from each country completed a face-to-face interview-assisted questionnaire. Setting: The survey was conducted between October 1995 and February 1996 in the 15 member states of the European Union. Subjects: 14,331 subjects (aged 15 y upwards) completed the questionnaire. Data were weighted by population size for each country and by sex, age and regional distribution within each member state. Subjects were divided into five different categories according to their attitudes towards 'changing their eating habits in order to eat healthier': (1) Precontemplation; do not consider any changes, (2) Contemplation; consider changes, (3) Decision; make plans to change, (4) Action; carry out the changes, and (5) Maintenance; maintained changes for more than six months. Results: 52% of the subjects were in the precontemplation stage, whereas 31% of the subjects were in the maintenance stage. Two, one, and seven percent of subjects were in the contemplation, decision and action stage, respectively. In the Mediterranean countries, and in Germany, there were more people (55-64%) in the precontemplation stage, whereas in the Scandinavian countries there were less people in precontemplation stage (20-38%). The opposite was true for the maintenance stage, whereas women and people with a higher education level tended to be more in the maintenance stage. With respect to influences on food choice, subjects in precontemplation stage found that taste was more important, whereas people in maintenance stage found that health was more important. Conclusions: The stages of change model makes a useful distinction between people with different attitudes towards nutrition and health. Nutrition education can benefit from this distinction.

  • 11.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    The difficulties of measuring adolescents' food intake and behaviors 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental cause of weight-related problems, from obesity to anorexia, is an imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. The "nutritional status" concept embraces more than food-intake. It elucidates the dynamics between supply, demand and factors that affect metabolism, energy balance and energy expenditure. In recent years, major changes in the spatial-temporal structures of everyday life that could be possible contributors to weight-related issues of adolescents have emerged. A modern life style of low activity, irregular meal times, late-night food intake, stress and sleep deprivation possibly leads to a disturbed regulation of food intake which further can generate physical and/or psychological illnesses. Traditional studies of eating behavior use food diaries focusing on the average intake of energy and nutrients (e.g. Bellisle et al., 2003). Such methods are demanding for the respondent and require details about consumed amounts. A "Meal Matrix" (Lennernas & Andersson, 1999) has been used in studies of several different Swedish cohorts (e.g. Wissing et al., 2000). The Meal Matrix consists of seven food categories and eight different meal "types". Categorization is based on visible properties (food types) but at the same time reflecting invisible properties (nutrients). In the present study the Meal Matrix was developed further to be used as part of a questionnaire in a study of eating behaviors in 1281 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old in a southern Swedish municipality. Meal patterns in adolescents were assessed in relation to time of day for intake, sleep and physical activity. The aim of the study was to 1) test a self-report concept for food based classification of eating behaviors in adolescents, 2) to evaluate the nutritional quality of food and meals among them and 3) to get information about the rhythm of eating and slee-ping in relation to time of day and the biological clock.

  • 12.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Institutet för psykosocial medicin (IPM), Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Löwden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Department of Medical Science and Clinical Chemistry, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Changes in blood lipid profile and endocrine response as a result of an isocaloric high carbohydrate or high-fat diet in consideration of circadian rhythm2001In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 15, no 4, p. A640-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Swedish Dairy Association, Karolinska Institute.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, IPM - National Institute of Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Löwden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute, Swedish Dairy Association, Karolinska Institute.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Department of Medical Science and Clinical Chemistry, Uppsala University Hospital, IPM - National Institute of Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, IPM - National Institute of Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Metabolic responses to nocturnal eating in men are affected by sources of dietary energy2002In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 132, no 7, p. 1892-1899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because night work is becoming more prevalent, we studied whether feeding at different times of a 24-h period would elicit different metabolic responses and whether dietary macronutrient composition would affect these responses. Seven men (26-43 y, 19.9-26.6 kg/m2) consumed two isocaloric diets, in a crossover design. The diets were a high carbohydrate (HC) diet [65 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 20E% fat] and a high fat (HF) diet (40E% carbohydrates, 45E% fat). After a 6-d diet-adjustment period, the men were kept awake for 24 h and the food (continuation of respective diet) was provided as six isocaloric meals (i.e., every 4 h). Energy and substrate turnover, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol were measured throughout the 24-h period. Significantly higher energy expenditure and NEFA concentration, and lower blood glucose and TAG concentrations were observed when the men consumed the HF diet than when they consumed the HC diet. Significant circadian patterns were seen in body and skin temperature (nadir, 0400-0500 h). When the men consumed the HF diet, significant circadian patterns were seen in fat oxidation (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1200-0800 h), heat release (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1600-0800 h), heart rate (nadir, 0000 h), blood glucose (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0000-0400 h), NEFA (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 1200-2000 h) and TAG (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0400-0800 h) concentrations. Energy expenditure, carbohydrate oxidation, MAP and glycerol concentration did not display circadian patterns. Unequal variances eradicated most circadian effects in the HC-diet data. The increased TAG concentration in response to feeding at 0400 h might be involved in the higher TAG concentrations seen in shift workers. Distinct macronutrient/circadian-dependent postprandial responses were seen in most studied variables.

  • 14.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Institutet för psykosocial medicin (IPM), Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Löwden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Changes in energy expenditure and substrate utilization as a result of a nigh carbohydrate or high fat diet in consideration of diurnal rhythm2000In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 14, no 4, p. A790-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Löwden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute, Institutet för psykosocial medicin (IPM), Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Department of Medical Science and Clinical Chemistry, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Endocrine responses to nocturnal eating: Possible implications for night work2003In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Night work is becoming more common and shift workers display several metabolic disturbances. Aim: To study the endocrine responses in relation to time of day during a 24-h period and how dietary macronutrient composition affects these responses. Design: Seven males (26-43 y and 19.9-26.6 kg · m-2) were studied in a crossover design. Isocaloric diets described as highcarbohydrates (HC; 65 energy percent (E%) carbohydrates and 20E% fat) or high-fat (HF; 40E% carbohydrates and 45E% fat) were given. After a 6-day diet adjustment period, the subjects were kept awake for 24 h in a metabolic unit and were served an isocaloric meal (continuation of respective diet) every 4-h. Blood samples were taken throughout the 24-h period. Results: Insulin and leptin responses to meal intake differed with respect to time of day (p ≤ 0.05). Time of day affected glucagon, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (fT4), total triiodothyronine (tT3), cortisol, chromogranin A (CgA) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) concentrations (p ≤ 0.05). Meal intake decreased cortisol concentration after meals at 0800, 1200 and 0400 but not at 1600, 2000 and 0000 h. The PP's postprandial increase was greater during 0800-1600 h compared to 2000-0800 h. With the HC meals, lower glucagon and CgA concentrations (p ≤ 0.05), and a tendency for lower tT3 concentrations (p = 0.053) were observed compared to the HF meals. Conclusion: Insulin, PP, TSH, fT4, cortisol and leptin responses to meal intake differed with respect to time of day. The decreased evening/nocturnal responses of cortisol and PP to meal intake indicate that nocturnal eating and night work might have health implications.

  • 16.
    Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Berndt H.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Örnkloo, Katarina
    Department of Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Landström, Ulf
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medicine, Nutrition, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Postprandial responses of glucose, insulin and triglycerides: Influence of the timing of meal intake during night work2002In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 16, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to study the postprandial responses of glucose, insulin and triglycerides to meal intake at different clock times during night work. Eleven night shift working nurses participated. Identical test meals were ingested at 19:30, 23:30 and 03:30, and contained 440 kcal/ 1860 kJ of energy (33 E% fat, 51 E% carbohydrate, 16 E% protein). The food intake was standardized three days before the first test meal. Blood samples were drawn just before the test meals were ingested and thereafter at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes. The postprandial responses were estimated as the total area under the curve (AUC) and significance testing was done using repeated measures ANOVA. The highest insulin level was found after meal intake at 23:30, and the lowest after meal intake 03:30. The glucose response showed the same pattern. The insulin response to food intake in night working nurses is more pronounced in the night compared with morning and evening. The results would have implications for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in night workers.

  • 17.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university, Mittuniversitetet, Department of Health Sciences, Sundsvall.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm.
    Field studies on the effects of food content on wakefulness2000In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation included six drivers engaged in day driving and six drivers engaged in night driving. Changes in wakefulness were analysed by means of a questionnaire where the drivers were asked to rate their wakefulness on a 100 mm rating scale. Changes in wakefulness were analysed during intake of food with higher and lower contents of fat. The day-drivers had their intakes as breakfast and lunch, the night-drivers as dinner and between meals. No significant difference was observed between the two types of intake, meaning that the balance between fat, protein and carbohydrate does not effect the development of drowsiness

  • 18.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenudd, Anita
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Onset of drowsiness and satiation after meals with different energy contents2001In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation consisted of a laboratory study with 10 healthy subjects who were both sleep and food deprived prior to each experimental condition. The aim of the study was to investigate the importance of energy content and the bulk of food on wakefulness and satiation. Each subject was tested in four conditions, each with equal food composition but different energy amounts: 100, 500 and 1000 kcal and 100 kcal with low bulk content. Recordings and ratings of wakefulness and satiations were carried out throughout the investigation, starting 30 minutes before and continuing until 90 minutes after intake of the food alternatives. No differences in wakefulness could be observed after the four food alternatives. However, subjects rated themselves as more satiated after the food alternatives with higher energy content and higher bulk

  • 19.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Deptartment of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Lena
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Laboratory studies of the effects of carbohydrate consumption on wakefulness2000In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 213-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in wakefulness before and after exposure to carbohydrate intake were tested in 30 test persons. Changes in wakefulness were tested via EEG and subjective estimates. The intakes consisted of 400 ml glucose, 250 kcal (GI 100), 400 ml fructose, 209 kcal (GI 20), and 400 ml water. The study has indicated that intake of fructose, glucose and water had a similar stimulating effect on wakefulness in drowsy subjects immediately after intake. Our results also indicate that intake of fructose can lead to a delay in the development of drowsiness. Compared to water, a 20-30 minutes delay of the point in time when high-degree drowsiness developed, took place. There was no significant difference between glucose and water.

  • 20.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university.
    Fältstudier avseende kostinnehållets inverkan på vakenhet1997Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lassen, Anne Dahl
    et al.
    Division for Risk Assessment and Nutrition, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    Division for Risk Assessment and Nutrition, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Department of Food and Meal Science, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Haapalar, Irja
    School of Social and Political Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; School of Applied Educational Sciences and Teacher Education, Savonlinna, Finland.
    Thorsen, Anne V.
    Division for Risk Assessment and Nutrition, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Møbjerg, Anna C. M.
    Institute for Nursing and Nutrition, University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Beck, Anne M.
    Institute for Nursing and Nutrition, University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark; Clinical Nutrition Research Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev-Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark.
    The impact of worksite interventions promoting healthier food and/or physical activity habits among employees working 'around the clock' hours: a systematic review.2018In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 62, article id 1115Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a systematic review of randomised studies on the impact of worksite interventions to promote healthier food and/or physical activity among people who work irregular hours 'around the clock', that is, outside of ordinary daytime working hours. The population-intervention-comparator-outcomes-study (PICOS) design format was used. Data sources were PubMed and CINAHL. An updated search was conducted on October 2017 using Google Scholar and the related articles function in PubMed on initially included studies to identify additional studies. Risk of bias was used to assess study quality. A total of seven studies (reports published in 14 papers) were included in the systematic review: Two interventions with a broader lifestyle approach, three focusing on physical exercise and two on providing healthier food or meal options. The studies had sample sizes from 30 to 1,000 and targeted a mixture of occupations, including both male- and female-dominated occupational groups. The interventions lasted from 2 to 12 months. Only one had an extended follow-up. In general, the studies showed small-to-moderate effect sizes on several measures, including dietary and/or physical activity measures, suggesting acceptable effectiveness for interventions involving community-level behaviour change. Our findings highlight a need to further develop and implement well-designed health promotion interventions with comparable outcome measures and effect size reports. A mixture of health promotion strategies is recommended for future practice in this target population, including individually tailored programmes, improving the food and physical activity environment and using broader lifestyle approaches including the use of participatory and empowerment strategies. While more research is needed in this field, the existing knowledge base on effective approaches awaits translation into practice.

  • 22.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Att äta är en fråga om tajmning: klinisk översikt2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 36, p. 2084-2095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dygnsrytm, hunger, törst, mättnad, temperatur, sexlust, blodsockermobilisering, substratutnyttjande och energiomsättning styrs från kärnor i hypotalamus.

    Dygnsrytmen styr beteende och fysiologiska processer till rätt tidpunkt för att hushålla med kroppens resurser. Vävnader och organ ska inte belastas kontinuerligt eller oväntat.

    Nattätande och dagsömn desynkroniserar dygnsrytmen.

    Åldersförändringar i hypotalamus orsakar aptitbortfall, tidsdesorientering, uttorkning och sömnstörningar hos äldre, som kan behöva äta frekvent och ha kortare nattfasta.

    Dygns- och måltidsrytmen bör utredas vid metabola störningar och fetma.

    Vid anorexi, bulimi, typ 2-diabetes, sängvätning och senil demens bör dygnsrytmens prestanda utredas – testa kronoterapi.

  • 23.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Betyder motivation mer än lokaler och lärare?2012In: Kristianstadsbladet, ISSN 1103-9523, no 15/5, p. B5-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Nutritionstorskning, Svensk Mjolk AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biological rhythms, appetite and odd eating behaviour [Dygnsrytm, matlust och udda matvanor]2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 118-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not only what we eat, but also when we eat seems to be of importance for well-being, nutritional status, and health. The regulation of food intake (amounts) operates through feed backs from the periphery reporting to the central nervous system about the energy content of the body. Timing of eating is controlled by circadian rhythms in activity and sleep, internal rhythms being entrained by the external light-dark rhythm. Disturbed behavioural rhythms, e.g. shift work and travelling across time zones, interact strongly with internal physiology. Life-style in the 24-hour society makes people stay awake, eat and sleep at the wrong times with respect to human circadian rhythms in metabolism and performance.

  • 25.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association (Svensk Mjolk), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dietary assessment and validity: To measure what is meant to measure1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 63-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutritional assessment is the interpretation of information obtained from dietary, biochemical, anthropometric and clinical studies. In individuals, qualitative or quantitative food consumption data may be collected by food frequency questionnaires or interviews (retrospective methods), by use of food records (prospective methods); weighed food record, estimated food record or menu record, or by observations. Nutrient values derived from food composition data or direct chemical analysis represent the maximum available to the body and not the amount actually absorbed and utilized. The design of the study is crucial and the methods for carrying it out are aimed at minimizing bias to improve internal and external validity. This paper will focus on factors of importance to improve the internal validity of dietary assessment studies; selection of method; data collection, assessment of nutrient intakes from food consumption data and evaluation of data.

  • 26.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Dygnsrytm2008In: Elevhälsa, ISSN 1102-3112, no 2, p. 5-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    En hungrig elev är en rastlös elev2002In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 33-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Geléhallon dyrare än morötter: prispolitik löser inte fetmaproblemet2003In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 14-, article id 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Mejerierna Service AB.
    Goda matvanor1998In: Barn och ungdom med övervikt / [ed] Kathleen Gustafsson Lundmark, Gisela Dahlqvist, Ann-Charlotte Kihlstedt-Ödeen, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB , 1998, p. 15-27Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Ifrågasätt budskapet om det farliga mättade fettet2008In: Näringsvärt, ISSN 1653-8137, no 1, p. 21-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Inre miljö lika viktig som yttre2008In: Näringsvärt, ISSN 1653-8137, no 2, p. 29-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Kan vi lita på alla larmrapporter?: minisymposium om epidemiologi och kostrekommendationer1998In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Lunch och lärande - skollunchens betydelse för elevernas prestation och situation i klassrummet: inventering av kunskapslärandet, teorier och begrepp2011Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Med måltider och kärlek skall folkhälsan byggas2008In: Näringsvärt, ISSN 1653-8137, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Metoder för aptitreglering2008In: Näringsvärt, ISSN 1653-8137, no 4, p. 29-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för hushållsvetenskap (IHV); Statens Livsmedelsverk.
    Nutrition i ett biosocial perspektiv: Recension av Food intake and energy expenditure1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 46-Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för hushållsvetenskap (IHV).
    Nutrition i ett biosocialt perspektiv1995In: Vår Föda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 47, p. 47-48Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för hushållsvetenskap (IHV).
    Ny dimension inom näringsforskningen: Samlad EU-forskning kring måltidsmönster1995In: Livsmedelsteknik : tidskrift för livsmedelsförädling och näringsfrågor, ISSN 0024-5399, Vol. 11, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    När på dygnet ska vi äta?1996In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 3-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Störd dygnsrytm vilseleder aptiten och kroppen2008In: Elevhälsa, ISSN 1102-3112, no 2, p. 23-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Så tycker EU-konsumenten om mat, näring och hälsa1997In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Sömn och fysisk aktivitet påverkar aptiten: Nordiska nutritionskonferensen2008In: Nordisk Nutrition, ISSN 1654-8337, no 3, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Lennernäs, Maria A. C.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nutrition and shift work: the effect of work hours on dietary intake, meal patterns and nutritional status parameters1993Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Nutrition and 3-shift work: the 24-hour intake of energy and nutrients1994In: Ecology of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 0367-0244, E-ISSN 1543-5237, Vol. 32, no 3-4, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food consumption was studied (repeated 24-hour recalls) during five days (four different work shifts and days off) in 16 healthy Swedish male papermill workers (rotating 3-shift). A comparison (energy, fourteen nutrients) between 24-hr periods showed a higher intake of energy and five nutrients during the 12 h work shift day compared to days off. The mean 24-hr energy-intake varied between 16,7 MJ (12 h work shift) and 13,3 MJ (days off). When only work hours were considered, the intake of energy and six nutrients were significantly higher during the morning-shift compared to the night-shift. There were no differences in the quality of the diet or the coffee consumption between 24-hr days or between 8-hr shifts. It was concluded that shift work affects 24 h nutrient intake to a very limited extent, although the distribution within 24 hours may vary.

  • 45.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Andersson, Ingalena
    Obesity Unit and Health Behaviour Research, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Food-based classification of eating episodes (FBCE)1999In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept for categorization of eating episodes in dietary surveys was originally developed in studies of shift workers to compare 'meal patterns' between night and day work shifts. The concept has been further improved through experience from applications in dietary surveys in other populations. In this paper, results from categorization of eating episodes in shift workers, elderly women and men during life transition periods, elderly female leg ulcer patients and obese men and their lean controls are shown and discussed. The categorization concept is based on seven food categories with food items of similar nutrient characteristics within each category. Each eating event is categorized as any of four types of 'meals' or four types of 'snacks' due to its combination of food categories. Thus, categorization is based on visible properties (food types) but at the same time reflecting invisible properties (nutrients). Criteria is also established to sub-categorize the 'meal' types as being either 'prepared' or 'quick-prepared' from a behavioural perspective. Use of a defined and reliable concept for categorization is necessary to study eating episodes in dietary surveys, their determinants and also consequences on health and performance. Nocturnal eating during the circadian nadir might affect nutritional status. Since increasingly western populations appear to be moving from regular and planned meals to more episodic eating 'around the clock', such analyses are of increasing interest in a bio-social perspective.

  • 46.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Becker, Wulf
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Hagman, Ulla
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Matvanor före och efter beskattningen av lunchsubventionerna1994Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Institutionen for Hushållsvetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Fjellström, Christina
    Department of Home Economics, University of Uppsala, Institutionen for Hushållsvetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University, Institutionen for Hushållsvetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    En spektralanalys av måltiden: kostsociologi - nytt ämne i Uppsala1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 144-145Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Fjellström, Christina
    Department of Home Economics, University of Uppsala.
    Becker, Wulf
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Giachetti, Ismène
    CNERNA, Paris, France.
    Schmitt, Anette
    Reinheim, Germany.
    Remaut-De Winter, A. M. E.
    University of Gent, Faculty of Agriculture and Applied Biological Science.
    Kearney, Mary J.
    Institute of European Food Studies, Trinity College, Dublin.
    Influences on food choice perceived to be important by nationally-representative samples of adults in the European Union1997In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 51, no Suppl. 2, p. S8-S15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this baseline survey was to obtain comparable data on perceived influences on food choice from EU member countries as the starting point for EU healthy eating promotion campaigns and programmes. Design: A cross-sectional study in which quota-controlled, nationally-representative samples of approximately 1000 adults from each country completed a face-to-face interview-assisted questionnaire. Setting: The survey was conducted between October 1995 and February 1996 in the 15 member states of the European Union. Subjects: 14,331 subjects (aged 15 y upwards) completed the questionnaire. Data were weighted by population size for each country and by sex, age and regional distribution within each member state. Results: The five most important factors influencing consumers food choice were 'quality or freshness' (74%), 'price' (43%), 'taste' (38%), 'trying to eat healthy' (32%) and 'family preferences' (29%). Subjects in different categories (age, sex, education and employment status) selected different factors as having major influence on their food choice. Demographic factors seemed to have greater effects on perceived influences than culture (country): 'quality/freshness', 'price', 'trying to eat healthy', 'family preferences' seemed to be most important in women, 'taste' and 'habit' in males. Females and older and more educated subjects were more likely than other subjects to select 'trying to eat healthy' as having a major influence. 'Price' seemed most important in unemployed and retired subjects.

  • 49.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Nutritionella aspekter på skiftarbete: arbetstidens påverkan på individens näringsintag och måltidsordning : slutrapportering av projekt1993Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Nutrient intake in day workers and shift workers1994In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 332-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 24-h dietary intake, nutritional status parameters and psychosomatic factors of two-shift, three-shift and day workers were compared. Estimations of the dietary intake (across a work cycle) were made by use of a nutrient database. No significant differences were found between the groups for a large number of nutritional variables: intake of energy; intake and percentage of energy from protein, fat, total carbohydrates and sucrose; intake of coffee; and intake and density of vitamins and minerals. Only minor differences were found between the groups with regard to the quantitative intake of alcohol and calcium, and with regard to the quality of the diet (percentage of energy from alcohol, density of calcium). The groups differed significantly with respect to attitude towards work hours (three-shift workers being most negative in their attitude) and sleep disturbances (shift workers being most negative). The three-shift workers were more evening-oriented and they had higher concentrations of glucose in their blood. It was concluded that work hours not related to nutritional intake-at least not when total amounts across time are considered. It was also concluded that work hours were not related to Body Mass Index or blood lipids: triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol

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