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  • 1.
    Haley, Brendan
    et al.
    Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Canada.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Advanced Sustainability Demands from Labour: Re-embedding for Democracy and Ecology2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Hermele, Kenneth
    et al.
    Peace and Development Studies, Växjö university, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Only What Counts, Counts: Sustainability Accounting Innovations as Tools to Open New Fields of Enquiry2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Hermele, Kenneth
    et al.
    Peace and Development Studies, Växjö University.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Taking sustainability into account2008Inngår i: Science for sustainable development: the social challenge with emphasis on the conditions for change : proceedings of the 2nd VHU Conference on Science for Sustainable Development, Linköping, Sweden, 6-7 September 2007 / [ed] B. Frostell, Å. Danielsson, L. Hagberg, B.-O. Linnér, E. Lisberg Jensen, Uppsala: Föreningen Vetenskap för Hållbar Utveckling (VHU) , 2008, s. 221-229Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we argue in favour of transparent accounting for ecological and social sustainability. Such accounting serves as a warning against economism by highlighting the social and ecological costs of economic growth that is accompanied by growing social inequalities, dissolution of trust and reciprocity in society, as well as by ecological destruction.

    We do this in four steps. First we briefly note that many analysts (including us – the two authors) are tempted to choose between two extremes. Either you settle for a one-dimensional measure, or you include so many dimensions that the end result becomes impossible to grasp. Secondly, we present an economic measure of the value of ecological services which we view as useful inter alia in order to establish ecological concerns in a society where economic considerations still dominate. Thirdly, we elaborate a new measure to “green” the Human Development Index, which we call the Sustainable Human Development Index. Fourthly, we discuss two problems with the SHDI: Substitutability and Modernity. We pursue our discussion against the background of the fact that the GDP still commands a unique position of influence over the social discourse of sustainability.

    However, the powerful position of this reductionist concept can be turned around to serve the interest of sustainability, in two ways. Firstly, by using economic measures of sustainability in order to argue for more demanding policies; and secondly, by reminding ourselves that even reductionist measures may serve good purposes, as when GDP calculations were part of the process of estimating available economic resources which in turn contributed to making the welfare state possible after the second world war.

  • 4.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Bretton Woods as a prerequisite for the Swedish Model2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the suggested paper I will discuss my idea that one of the main conditions for the Rehn-Meidner Model – which was first described for a wider audience in 1952 – was the Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944. I actually suggested this to Meidner and other economists at a conference in Stockholm in the 1990s. But none of those present were prepared to discuss the subject. I have, however, not been able to abandon the idea. My inspiration in this mainly comes from Eric Helleiner's, States and the Reemergence of Global Finance (1994) as well as acquaintance with Swedish Model thinking gained during decades of exposure to actors central to the model's further fate. The title of the keynote ch. 2 in Helleiner (1944) is "Bretton Woods and the Endorsement of Capital Controls". Helleiner's high-lighting of 'the double nature of' Bretton Woods was far from main-stream when his book was published. By 'the double nature of' Bretton Woods I refer to the trait that Bretton Woods at the same time provided a framework for liberalising trade in goods and controling movements of capital. When global finance reemerged in the 1970s it led to problems for most of the welfare states built during the early postwar period ( ≈ 1950s - 1960s). The Swedish welfare state was among the most resilient but to my judgement important parts of it have been dismantled. In order to thoroughly study and understand the issues raised above I think that a large research project would be needed. My intention with the suggested paper is to give an impetus to this rather than to seriously initiate the research.

  • 5.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Conscious Use, Collaborative Research and 'Interdisciplinarities'2017Inngår i: Consuming the Environment / [ed] Eva Åsén Ekstrand, Gävle, 2017, s. 29-30Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conscious Use, Collaborative Research and 'Interdisciplinarities'

    The spark for my paper is a Chinese doll coming to a Swedish day care centre. The doll was conceived in a Vinnova research project related to the toxic contamination of our environments.[1] My part dealt with i.a. political economy and methods.

    The proposed paper focuses on how the sustainability research community need to integrate the process of doing the research with what used to be called ‘the communication phase’ of the research.

    A conclusion in my part of the Vinnova research project was that a number of 'interdisciplinarities' must be used, constructed and/or confronted in order to create images for a political economy of the Environment.

    My strategy was and is to confront widely different knowledge interests. One of the many families of knowledge interests which emerge through such exercises can be illustrated by today's quest for 'social union environmentalism'. A precursor was visible in Sweden of the 1970s. We can thus understand the contradictions facing 'social union environmentalism' today and imagine a landscape where new patterns of consumption might be created. Such a vision is needed in spite of the fact that success has as yet been limited.

    In the proposed paper I try to find methods which provide more room for i.a. 'interdisciplinarity, boundary-spanning, and transparent multiple partisanships’.

    Interdisciplinarity is of course an accepted concept. It has been an ideal of the academic wing of the environmental movement ever since the dawn of the new environmental consciousness. But many attempts have failed. Fear that immersion in conceptual problems will delay projects, have made research teams reluctant to devote the time needed for 'translating'.

    Boundary-spanning and the importance of boundary-spanning individuals have been discussed in many disciplines. But the intricacies of bringing boundary-spanning into academia have been poorly understood specifically in the more positivist oriented sciences.

    Transparent multiple partisanships is a worthy aim for practioneers turned academics. Accepting such hybrids might help bringing the academic community into more fruitful dialogues with other actors who want to contribute to a reversal of the global ecological degradation.

    My submission relates to Stream D1 Media and Public Understanding

    [1] Hollander, E. (2011): The Doll, the Globe and the Boomerang – Chemical Risks in the Future Introduced by a Chinese Doll Coming to Sweden - University of Gävle, (Research report 2) Sweden 2011. Many concepts used in this abstract are developed there. Important references are also provided.

  • 6.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Demand shaping and the quadruple challenge for industrial policy2016Inngår i: EAEPE 2016 Proceedings, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Emancipatory Reembedding2016Inngår i: EAEPE 2016 Proceedings, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Enviro-innovative processes initialised by unions and other social actors: with a focus on TCO eco-labels2001Inngår i: Towards a Sustainable Worklife: Building Social Capacity - European Approaches / [ed] Eckart Hildebrandt, Børge Lorentzen, Eberhard Schmidt, Berlin: Edition Sigma, 2001, s. 87-103Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Halting Global Degradation?: Forces which might Reverse the Spread of Toxic Work2012Inngår i: ILPC 2012 Papers, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the suggested paper I want to contribute to making it possible to imagine the reversal of two global trends. In wide circles it is un-controversial to claim that those trends are threatening the very fabric of life. The trends which I have in mind are the degradation of work and the toxification of the biosphere.

    The paper builds on my contribution to a three year research project called INFLOW.

    My main contribution was a research report titled The doll, the globe and the boomerang - chemical hazards futures introduced by a doll travelling from China to Sweden. In the report I inter alia discuss a number of forces which – in the long run – might reverse the trends.

    A product chain that I use as illustration starts in the heart of the new workshop of the world – the Pearl River Delta in the South Chinese province Guandong. Research initiated by a group of ethnic Chinese scholars is a good starting point when discussing internal "Southern" forces for reversal. One important conclusion of their work is that "despite formidable institutional odds, Chinese workers do resist ... the commodification of labor power".

    Important "Northern" support for "internal Southern forces", such as the Chinese forces hinted to above, will be needed. I call some of the non-governmental forces "Castellian" with reference to Manuel Castells' discussion of the multi-pronged movement that has started to act on global warming. INGOs, Unions and progressive academics are among those forces.

    "Gramscian forces" will also be essential in spite of the weakening of state regulatory power which are crucial when interpreting our times.

    Technological and entrepreneurial forces as well as such forces as demand shapers in the North will of course also be important for a possible reversal.

  • 10.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Halting Global Toxification?: Forces which might Detoxify Global Product Chains2012Inngår i: ILPC 2012 Papers, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship in a Circular Economy2016Inngår i: EAEPE 2016 Proceedings, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge for us who look forward to a ‘Dynamic Circular Economy’ is to show that there will be ample room for innovation and entrepreneurship in the future society for which we work. A possible reason why this topic has not been sufficiently addressed is that the concepts innovation and entrepreneurship are strongly associated with ’defences’ for the present socio-economic formation. When the problem of inequalities produced by the system is raised you often hear that those inequalities represent a price that ‘we’ have to pay for the dynamism associated with innovation and entrepreneurship. The paper which I have in mind builds on ideas about a neoliberal-unsustainability nexus (Hollander et.al. 2015). Most of my research and social practice since 40 years have been inspired by such a thought figure. There are partial lessons to be learned from experiences gained under our present socio-economic formation. Such lessons for a future Circular Economy will of course be piecemeal and in need to be combined with visionary thinking. I will present a somewhat defensive way of arguing that regulations checking present modes of accumulation are indeed compatible with dynamism. Some examples come from the experience of the ‘Swedish Model’ during its golden years between the 1950s and the 1970s (henceforth the ‘Golden Age Swedish Model’). The socio-economic climate nurtured by the Model resulted in many very useful innovations and an openness to economic transformations shared by a broad spectrum of social strata. The transformations resulting from a compressed wage structure and wide endorsement of technological change were generally not perceived as threats since welfare state arrangements functioned as safeguards (Hollander 2016). My first examples come from innovations nurtured by demand shaping for sustainability. The ‘Golden Age Swedish Model’ made possible more symmetrical relations between users producers and workers managers. It thus opened up spaces for creative demand shaping (Hollander 2003). The original focus of the demand shaping model was on natural and work environments (related to ecological and social sustainability). Among the examples were enviro friendly seed protectives and non-toxic paints. Demand shaping refers to the complex process from a nascent demand until the demand – in interaction with technology development – has been transformed in such a way as to make it possible to fulfil. Also when it comes to work organisation the strong relative position of labour made sophisticated demand shaping possible. I argue elsewhere that the advanced Swedish production systems which are the envy of so many engineers around the globe can be seen in relation to the solidarity wages policy which was a corner stone of the ‘Golden Age Swedish Model’. This model – associated with what in a Polanyian discourse is called embedded liberalism – is today more or less buried (Ryner i.a. 2004). But legacies remain and Swedish innovations associated with i.a. broad ICT literacy, gender equality and advanced day-care are today admired even by neo-liberal observers (The Economist's Special report 2013).Finally I will speculate about the dynamic potential of societies where there are reasonably good preconditions for symmetric relations and thus reciprocity. Bradley & Pargman (2016 or 2017) suggest that ‘the sharing economy’ can be viewed as ‘the commons of the 21st century’. Those contemporary commons are situated in a globalised, urbanised and digitalised context. Missions of such sustainability-enhancing commons are very diverse but can include to democratise access to low-cost bicycling, to build a culture of trust and generosity, or to democratise access to information. My speculative idea is that societies with reasonable equality etc. are likely to be overrepresented in this kind of entrepreneurship of the future and that the kind of ‘social entrepreneurs’ or “‘intrapreneurs’ in social institutions” who played roles in my first examples will be vital in the transition to a ‘Dynamic Circular Economy’.

  • 12.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Innovation and entrepreneurship in a no-growth society: some Polanyi-inspired concepts and ‘thought figures’2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Introducing demand shaping as a mirror process to the innovation process2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Kravformarmodellen för innovationer: en pusselbit för frigörande arbetslivsforskning2016Inngår i: På jakt efter framtidens arbete: utmaningar i arbetets organisering och forskning / [ed] Åke Sandberg, Stockholm: Tankesmedjan Tiden , 2016, s. 131-135Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av kravformarmodellen kan vi få syn på att jämlika löner och hög standard på arbetsmiljön uppmuntrar avancerade krav. Dessa krav kan i sin tur föda innovationer som har såväl demokratiförstärkande kvaliteter som kommersiell potential. Med mitt bidrag vill jag medverka till en revitaliserad forskning om arbetsorganisation som stödjer en ”regim” där forskare samarbetar med allt ifrån kravformare ”på golvet” till fack, andra civilsamhälleliga organisationer (NGO:s) och företagsledningar som är öppna för dialoger.

  • 15.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Political Economy’s role in understanding and combatting authoritarian nationalisms in a time of mass migration2016Inngår i: EAEPE 2016 Proceedings, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The contemporary relevance of Karl Polanyi – a Swedish case2017Inngår i: Theory and Method of Evolutionary Political Economy: A Cyprus Symposium / [ed] Hardy Hanappi, Savvas Katsikides, Manuel Scholz-Wäckerle, Abingdon: Routledge, 2017, s. 54-72Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The Doll, the Globe and the  Boomerang: Chemical Risks  in the Future : Introduced by a  Chinese Doll Coming to Sweden2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report concerns the role of chemical risk information in attempts to 'detoxify' global product chains. Under what conditions can such information make a difference and how can we combine interdisciplinarities in order to study this hitherto dark terrain?  Seven 'images' are painted in order to discuss these questions. The introductory image pictures a doll made in Southern China who ends up at a day care centre in Malmoe, Sweden. To describe the methodological problems which arise when studying this 'doll chain' I use the image of going into the dark. A set of three images describe much discussed futures for the 'detox' efforts, futures which might lead the Swedish public at large to complacency or despair. My dramatising names for the three futures are: "REACHing a less contaminated EU", "Race to the bottom", and "Submission".   My main aim is, however, to paint an image of global 'detoxification from below' and an image of 'interdisciplinarities in dialogue' in order to study the Herculean task of detoxification of global product chains. Those two images are simultaneously elaborated in chapter II and then summarised in chapter III.   My hope is that I – through this report – will help make global detoxification from below 'possible to imagine'. At the methodological level, I argue for concepts and proto-concepts such as 'interdisciplinarity', 'boundary spanning', 'multiple partisanships' and 'transformative pressure'.   I allow myself a completely unrealistic end (section III.4), in order not to be overwhelmed by the seriousness of the problems discussed in the rest of the report.  The report is my main contribution to the research project INFLOW which i.a. has studied the flow of chemical risk information in global product chains.

  • 18.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The Political Economy of Global Detoxification/Ecological Sustainability2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The relevance of a Polanyi-inspired analysis when interpreting socio-economic developments in the Nordics2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the suggested paper I want to show that Polanyi-inspired models of interpretation and derived concepts can help us finding new ways of understanding Nordic developments. Most of the empiric material will come from Sweden. My frame of analysing as well as central references can be found in Hollander (2017). In this abstract I do two things: First I give some hints as to how I position my own views in relation to what I understand to be the intended main discourse at the conference. Second I illustrate the fruitfulness of analysing Swedish developments when bringing a Polanyian paradigm up to date.

    1) Positioning

    From an admittedly shallow reading of the two keynotes – Andreas Bergh and Erik Bengtsson – I infer that my understanding of Nordic developments differ from both. They of course have divergent views in relation to each other on a number of key issues but my preliminary view is that my position represents yet a third view. 

    For illustrative purposes I can mention that the social capital erosion following from the restructuring of the public sector, the rising inequality etc to my mind will have devastating effects on the long term resilience of the institutions. Other contradictions in types of analysis I believe can be deduced from Polanyian concepts such as Reciprocity and retrograde countermovements (see below). The concept retrograde countermovement rests on an interpretation rather than being Polanyian in a strict sense. So is the conceptembedded liberalism which is useful and can be understood in relation to Polanyi. It is, however, doubtful to me whether Polanyi used the term when discussing post-world war II developments. (This is discussed in an illuminating way by Gareth Dale in Karl Polanyi: A Life on the Left. See also the review of that book by Robert Kuttner in NYRB 21/12/2017).

    In relation to the problematique of Trondheim conference I am convinced that the frame I suggest could be very fruitful also for interpreting other Nordic countries than Sweden. I will, however, not have the time to dive deep into this before June.

     

    2) Emerging Concepts for Understanding Nordic-type Models.

    Useful Polanyian concepts can emerge from sketching the rise and fall of Swedish embedded liberalism.

    My departure in the main part of the paper will be a chapter where I studied ‘The Contemporary Relevance of Karl Polanyi’ with Sweden as a vantage point (Hollander 2017 – <http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23542>). A central aspect was Financialisation.This is a global trend but it has been effected at an extraordinary pace in Sweden. 

    In the 1960s our country was heralded as a paradigm of decommodification. Regulation of financial markets interacted with physical and social capital accumulation, building the Welfare State and (re-) embedding of labour, housing etc.

    Financial regulations were removed and recommodification tried in the 1980s but the processes started in earnest in the early 1990s. Commodification prepared for pervasive financialisation also in such areas as childcare, schooling, eldercare, health etc. The financialisation of Swedish HEW led me to the idea that Polanyi’s list of fictitious commodities might have to be extended with Semi-fictitious Commodities

    The logic behind the creation of Semi-fictitious Commodities can be better understood by studying Swedish developments. And the same applies to other fields of study of Polanyian relevance.

    One example is the importance of focusing a form of economic coordination discussed by Polanyi et.al. (1957)[Polanyi, K., Arensberg, C. M. and Pearson, H. W. (eds.) (1957) Trade and Market in the Early Empires: Economies in History and Theory. Illinois: The Free Press].
I am referring to Reciprocity– the oldest form of human coordination for wellbeing. It has ben largely neglected by economists who have focused instead on two other forms – Market and Redistribution.

    When studying the centuries’ long building of the institutions of embedded liberalismand the contemporary tearing down of them Reciprocity is important. Sweden provides pertinent examples of this and of other aspects of the rise and fall of those institutions. The risks that laissez-faire type disembedding can pave the way for right-wing authoritarianism are also illuminated. Weakened Reciprocity and Redistribution open up for retrograde countermovements.

    Also the dependency on higher-level developments (higher than the national level) are made clear when this small country is looked at. Bretton Woods in 1944 was important for building of the welfare state. Four decades later Sweden was able to withstand the reemergence of global finance longer than most other countries in the global north but when this ended the consequences were thoroughgoing. As Polanyi argued, the forces unleashed by attempts to make ‘money’ into a commodity, must be put at centre stage.

    Important sections of the proposed paper will deal with how the legacies of Swedish embedded liberalism, and some of the lessons from the disembedding, can be used for the future. As examples of the legacies from the golden age of Swedish social democracy I can point to good relative records in areas such as Gender equalityWork-place codeterminationPeer-to-peer-productionand Ecological sustainability. Interpretations of how those traits emerged can provide relevant lessons for the future of work globally.

     

    Hollander (2017) is a chapter in Theory and Method of Evolutionary Political Economy: A Cyprus Symposium/ [ed] Hardy Hanappi, Savvas Katsikides, Manuel Scholz-Wäckerle, Abingdon: Routledge. Full name of chapter is ”The Contemporary Relevance of Karl Polanyi – a Swedish Case” (pp. 54-72)

  • 20.
    Hollander, Ernst E.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The noble art of demand shaping: how the tenacity of sustainable innovation can be explained by it being radical in a new sense2003Inngår i: Proceedings of GIN2003, 2003, artikkel-id 61Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There's an enigmatic tenacity in sustainable innovation processes. I try to explain it by introducing demand shapingas a mirror process to the innovation process. In the literature on innovation it is often noted that it is impossible to plan radical innovation. Studies by economists and business economists alike have, however, mostly analysed those that are radical in a technological or economic sense. I introduce a third type of radicalness - radicalness in the demand shaping. Economists have had a hard time in appreciating this type of radicalness since they are seldom willing to rub shoulders with social anthropologists or sociologists.

    Sustainable innovation processes often involve creative demand shaping since they presuppose dialogues that bridge huge distances of rationalities. Cases in point are when new or old social movements must interact with planners of infrastructure or R&D departments of TNC's in order to find (part) solutions for their sustainability demands. The complexity of the bridge building becomes even greater since the creative path breakers on both sides of the innovative user<->producer relation live very precarious lives in their respective organisations. Creativity is seen as threatening by the establishments of the organisations since new patterns of thought often devalue traditional competencies, networks etc.

    Creative bridge building often takes place at protomarkets where path breakers from users and producers meet. Those producers - such as innovative industrial firms - who, through their "representatives" at proto markets, listen to the "weak signals" from new demand shapers will, however, often be punished for their receptiveness. This occurs if those who look like path breakers on the "user side", in my words new demand shapers, can not develop into representatives of the broader user side. Because the user side must have a rewarding capacity in relation to those producers that dare to venture into sustainable innovation processes. The rewards can take many forms but I summarise them with the term Dominant Demand. Successful demand shapers must thus be both small/flexible and big/resource rich. This is a dilemma for many sustainable innovations.

    If, however, the many challenges are successfully met this will mean a lot for both sustainability and the actors involved.

  • 21.
    Hollander, Ernst
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hermele, Kenneth
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Negru, Ioana
    Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, London, UK.
    Dymski, Gary
    Economics Division, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Using Polanyian concepts to bring together sustainability discourses2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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