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  • 1.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi. The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi. The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Revenues as a proxy for profits: a cautionary note2009Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 16, nr 7, s. 679-681, artikel-id PII 785052957Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the entry literature, researchers sometimes use revenues as a proxy for profits because this is the only data available. Doing so could seriously bias the results.

  • 2.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi. The Swedish Research Institute of Trade (HUI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi. The Swedish Research Institute of Trade (HUI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    The Swedish Research Institute of Trade (HUI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Entry into Swedish retail and wholesale trade markets2006Ingår i: Review of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0889-938X, E-ISSN 1573-7160, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 213-225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines, using a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model, what determined entry into the Swedish retail and wholesale trade markets between 1990 and 1996. According to the results, high returns on equity and low sunk costs seemed to attract more entry into retail trade industries, while recent entry and higher total industry sales were associated with more entry into both retail and wholesale trade local markets.

  • 3. Granlund, David
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Fixed budgets as a cost containment measure for pharmaceuticals2006Ingår i: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 37-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Västerbotten County, Sweden, there are two health centers which (in contrast to all other health centers in the region) bear strict responsibility over their pharmaceutical budget. This study examined whether the prices and quantities of pharmaceuticals prescribed by physicians working at these health centers differ significantly from those prescribed by physicians at health centers with open-ended budgets. Estimation results using matching methods, which allows us to compare similar patients at the different health centers, show that the introduction of fixed pharmaceutical budgets did not affect physicians' prescription behavior, indicating that fixed budgets may not be an efficient measure to reduce costs. Another explanation is that the health centers under study already had taken measures to contain costs, making it hard to further reduce costs.

  • 4.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    A comparison of population versus individual based cardiovascular disease prevention programs in Västerbotten, Sweden2006Ingår i: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 78, nr 1, s. 70-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to determine if differences in health outcomes of two cardiovascular disease prevention programs can be attributed to the inclusion of population based efforts in one of the programs. Propensity score matching has been used to eliminate possible selection bias. The results indicate that the intervention including population-based measures was not more effective than the intervention directed toward the individual.

  • 5.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Approval Times and the Safety of New Pharmaceuticals2004Ingår i: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 5, s. 345-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the relationship between the approval times for new pharmaceuticals and the number of adverse drug reactions reported to the Swedish Medical Products Agency. Yearly time-series data concerning the number of adverse drug reactions, as well as data concerning prices and quantities sold for 25 pharmaceutical substances during the period 1972-1996 were used. The results show that shorter approval times are associated with more adverse drug reactions, but also that the effects are quite small.

  • 6.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi. The Swedish Retail Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Entry of new pharmacies in the deregulated Norwegian pharmaceuticals market - Consequences for costs and availability2008Ingår i: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 87, nr 2, s. 258-263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the new regulation concerning entry of pharmacies into the Norwegian pharmaceuticals market in 2001 on cost and availability of pharmaceutical products. Methods: In order to study costs, a translog cost function is estimated using data from the annual reports of a sample of Norwegian pharmacies before and after the deregulation of the market. Linear regression models for the number of pharmacies in each region in Norway are also estimated. Results: The results show that the costs of the individual pharmacies have not decreased as a consequence of the deregulation of the Norwegian pharmaceuticals market. The deregulation of the market did, however, increase the availability to pharmacy services substantially. Conclusions: Increased availability of pharmacy services can be achieved by deregulating pharmaceutical markets as in Norway, but at the expense of increased costs for the pharmacies. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Mergers and économies of scale: Volkswagen AG 1976-20002007Ingår i: ICFAI Journal of Mergers and Acquisitions, ISSN 0972-9232, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 79-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Pharmaceutical Insurance and the Demand for Prescription Pharmaceuticals in Västerbotten, Sweden.2005Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 50-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of pharmaceutical insurance on the demand for prescription pharmaceuticals in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. As the patients do not bear the full marginal costs of the pharmaceuticals they consume when pharmaceutical insurance systems are present, this could induce patients to over-consume pharmaceutical treatments.

    METHODS: Data covering all prescription pharmaceuticals sold in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden during the year 2001 have been provided by the local county council. Data include information concerning the gender and age of the patient, the number of defined daily doses, total cost, and the patient's co-payment for the prescription. The hypothesis that patients will consume more (or perhaps more expensive) pharmaceuticals when there is pharmaceutical insurance is tested by means of regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The results show that both the quantities dispensed and the price of the pharmaceuticals consumed increase when the pharmaceutical insurance system pays part of the total cost of the pharmaceuticals consumed.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that introducing a small patient co-payment for all prescriptions should be an effective measure to decrease pharmaceutical consumption.

  • 9.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Side Effects of Generic Competition?2004Ingår i: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 203-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that increased generic market share increases the number of reported side effects for all estimated models. When studying the relationship at the substance level, increasing generic market shares increases the number of side effects for 7 of the 15 substances. Generic substitution laws and measures to increase generic competition may thus have unintended consequences since these results show a positive relationship between generic market shares and reported side effects.

  • 10. Thanh, Nguyen Xuan
    et al.
    Hang, Hoang Minh
    Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Emmelin, Anders
    Lindholm, Lars
    Does “the Injury Poverty Trap” exist?: a longitudinal study in Bavi, Vietnam2006Ingår i: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 78, nr 2-3, s. 249-257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we concentrate on injuries and affected households’ capacities to earn incomes. A longitudinal study was performed in Bavi district, Vietnam, with the specific objectives to investigate: (1) the affects of injuries on incomes by comparing income changes in injured and non-injured individuals; (2) the affect of injuries on social mobility by estimating households’ relative risk of dropping into poverty for households with and without injuries and estimating the relative risk of escaping from poverty for households without and with injuries. The propensity score matching method using a logit model was used for data analysis. The results show that on average, the loss per household is estimated at VND 1,084,000 (USD 72) for poor and VND 2,598,000 (USD 173) for non-poor, equivalent to 11 (9) and 15 (13) working months of an average person in the poor and non-poor group, respectively, during 1999 (2001). The relative risk of dropping into poverty for non-poor households with and without injuries equal to 1.21 (p = 0.08) and the relative risk of escaping from poverty between poor households without and with injuries equal to 0.96 (p = 0.39). In conclusion, it has been argued that the introduction of user fees created a poverty trap and thus their removal may be a solution. However, user fees are only a part of the burden on households. Loss of income during the illness period is likely to be a problem of the same magnitude. A successful solution must thus follow two tracks: prepayment of health care and some insurance based compensation of income losses during the illness period. Both reforms, if they are persistent, must be done within the resource limits of the local society. If the risk of catastrophic illness is more evenly spread across the society, it would increase the general welfare even if no more resources are provided.

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