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  • 1. Havenith, George
    et al.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Correction of clothing insulation for movement and wind effects, a meta-analysis2004In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 636-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A meta-analysis of the effect of body and air movement on the insulation provided by workwear and cold-weather clothing [1.22 clo (0.189 m 2 °C W –1) <I T<4.14 clo (0.642 m 2 °C W –1)] using data from different sources was performed. For the effect of walking, datasets could be merged and a single prediction equation produced (r 2=0.91). For the effect of wind, and interaction of movement and wind, separate equations were required for regular workwear (r 2=0.93) and cold-weather clothing (r 2=0.97). Differences were mainly due to the different amounts of nude surface area. An interaction between wind and walking effects was present (the size of the combined effects is less than the sum of the separate effects), and for cold-weather clothing an effect of clothing air permeability (p) was present (high pbigger effect). The resulting prediction equations will be proposed for inclusion in European and ISO standards on protective clothing to assist the user in determining the real-life clothing insulation value.

  • 2.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Landström, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Exponering och upplevelser av trafikbuller på arbetsplatser2006Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Evaluation and visualisation of perceived thermal conditions2004In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 714-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations have been made on ways to evaluate and visualise the perceived thermal climate. Thermal interaction with windows, heating, ventilation and seating influence the occupant's thermal situation. When this information on the physical thermal climate is linked together with human thermal sensation in "comfort-zone diagrams", valuable knowledge about the thermal situation can be visualised. Thermal manikin measurements of local climate disturbances with two different thermal manikins are found to be well correlated with the thermal sensation experienced by panels of subjects exposed to the same conditions. Differences both in manikin shape and construction, as well as testing conditions and panel members, make limit lines differ at some points. Comfort diagrams can be defined by equivalent temperature (t(eq)) limit lines; however, a consequence of individual and experimental variations is that it is not an optimal solution to have diagrams with absolute limit lines, rather a range of t(eq) values, forming new "comfort-zone diagrams". This improvement provides a more appropriate base for assessment of a complex local thermal climate, and opens up the possibility of a general profile that can be used with different manikins, possibly also different methods, in a variety of environments. However, more data from validation experiments with subjects and different methods will contribute to the development of a more general evaluation concept.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Heta ämnen - mitt i vintern: rapport från Ashraes vintermöte 2006 i Chicago2006In: Energi & Miljö, ISSN 1101-0568, no 3, p. 48-49Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    How to Build and Use a Virtual Thermal Manikin Based on Real Manikin Methods2006In: Proceedings of the 6th International Thermal Manikin and Modeling Meeting, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     It has always been valuable to be able to make early decisions in thermal climate investigations. The development of virtual thermal manikins (VTM) and computer simulated persons (CSP) has become an important complement to traditional evaluation of the thermal environment. This paper describes how to build a VTM within a commercial computational fluid dynamics code (CFD). The methods are based on human experiments and real thermal manikin measurements.

    Unfortunately, too few of the theories behind thermal manikin simulations are available in the public domain. Many researchers and companies still use several in-house codes for all or essential parts of their calculations. This paper provides information on how to build the geometry of the manikin in three different commercial CFD codes (CFX (R), Star-CD (R) and Fluent (R)). More information and descriptions are also given on how to connect the VTM to the CFD calculations and make the system interact in real time throughout the full iteration process.

  • 6.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Improved evaluation of the local thermal environment with clothing independent comfort zone diagrams2005In: Environmental ergonomics XI: proceedings of the 11th International Conference, 22-26 May, 2005, Ystad, Sweden, Lund: Lunds universitet , 2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö. European and International Standardisation, Sweden.
    Local evaluation of thermal comfort2006In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 42, no 1-2, p. 8-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing demand for a comfortable cabin environment makes it necessary, as early as the construction phase, to estimate what effect different factors will have on the driver and passenger. Full-scale measurements and numerical simulations have been carried out in order to investigate how well computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and thermal manikins are able to predict the perceived thermal climate. The heat loss from real or virtual manikins interacts with the environment around the body, as well as thermal interaction with windows; ventilation and seat are influencing the manikins. When manikin heat loss is linked to human thermal sensations in new comfort zone diagrams, the local as well as total thermal situation can be clearly presented. Simulations of this type will enable engineers to make better decisions and early predictions in the design and construction process, improving the thermal comfort in the vehicle environment.

  • 8.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Lokal bedömning av klimatpåverkan innebär förbättringar och förenklingar2005In: Energi & Miljö, ISSN 1101-0568, no 12, p. 57-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Med människan som kontrollpunkt2005In: VVS-Forum, ISSN 0346-4644, no Oktober 05, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Teknisk beskrivning av termiska manikiner: mät- och simuleringsmetoder som utgår från människors klimatupplevelser2006In: Energi & Miljö, ISSN 1101-0568, no 3, p. 56-58Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är nu aktuellt att göra simuleringar av energiförbrukning och inomhusmiljö för att snabbt ge de effektivaste förslagen på energisparåtgärder. Med verkliga och virtuella termiska manikiner kan man undersöka hur människor kommer att uppleva de olika klimatsituationerna redan innan de uppstår.

    Termiska manikiner är formade som människokroppen. De registrerar värmeförluster över hela sin yta i alla riktningar samtidigt, exakt som människor. Genom att bestämma storleken på värmeavgivningen kan en klimatbedömning göras för såväl enskilda kroppsdelar som för hela kroppen. Precis som för människor påverkar kläderna resultatet av mätningen. Med mindre och tunnare kläder blir mätdockan mer känslig för termisk påverkan från omgivningen. Det är därför viktigt att beskriva vilka kläder man använder och att använda komfortzondiagram vid utvärderingen av resultaten.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Thermal comfort evaluation with virtual manikin methods2007In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 4000-4005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational fluid dynamics has become an important tool in the prediction of thermal comfort in occupied spaces. Despite its ability to predict temperature and velocity fields, it is more difficult to evaluate the degree of thermal comfort experienced by an occupant. This article describes the construction of a new numerical thermal manikin, with new comfort evaluation methods based on data from thermal manikin measurements as well as subjective results from several hundred experiments. The level of thermal comfort is highly dependent on the local environment. Human beings respond differently to local heat transfer in different parts of their bodies. It is suggested for that reason that local results from manikins should be presented in new clothing independent comfort zone diagrams. The research presented in here is intended to be used to evaluate system solutions that provide improved thermal climate in many different everyday situations, e.g. all types of buildings and vehicles.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Thermal manikin simulation using experimental correlations and clothing independent comfort zone diagrams2006In: ASHRAE Winter Meeting 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Virtual mannequins make comfort a reality2004In: CD adapco Dynamics, no Fall 04, p. 31-32Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 13 of 13
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