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  • 1.
    Ahrne, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm universitet.
    How Is ‘Organized Crime’ Organized?2019In: Organization Outside Organizations: The Abundance of Partial Organization in Social Life / [ed] Göran Ahrne; Nils Brunsson, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2019, p. 253-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we explore the usefulness of applying the idea of partial organization as one way of mitigating the confusion surrounding the notion of organized crime. We examine three types of collectivities that are usually seen as examples of organized crime: outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCs), street gangs, and mafias. When we examine the occurrence of organizational elements, we find substantial differences among these three cases not only in the amount of their organization, but also in the ways in which they are organized. A few multinational outlaw motorcycle gangs have gradually been able to form strong formal organizations containing all organizational elements. For a mafia, the situation is quite the opposite. Because its embeddedness in kinship relationships provides cohesion and protection, it needs little organization. Through its strong kinship ties, a mafia has access to several functional equivalents to the organizational elements one can find in OMCs. In street gangs the appearance of organizational elements varies among the gangs, and they rarely have more than a few elements at any one time. One obstacle for the organization of street gangs is their local embeddedness and limited duration, which loosen the boundaries of the gang.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Christoffer
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sturup, Joakim
    Karolinska institutet.
    Sarnecki, Jerzy
    Stockholms universitet.
    Edling, Christofer
    Lunds universitet.
    A Life-Course Analysis of Engagement in Violent Extremist Groups2020In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 74-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study, individuals’ processes of engagement in violent extremist groups are analysed by drawing from criminological life-course theory and narrative-based understandings of crime. Based on interviews with individuals who have participated in violent extremism, it is suggested that the process of engagement consists of three steps: (1) a weakening of informal social controls, followed by (2) an interaction with individuals in proximity to the group and (3) a stage of meaning-making in relation to the group and one’s identity, resulting in an individual’s willingness and capacity to engaging in the group’s activities, including violence. In future theorizing about processes of engagement in violent extremism, the meanings of age, and the life-course stages of late adolescence and emerging adulthood in particular, should be given analytic attention.

  • 3.
    Edling, Christopher
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Rostami, AmirUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Stockholm universitet.
    Våldets sociala dimensioner: Individ, relation, organisation2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Edling, Christopher
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Rostami, AmirUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Stockholms universitet.
    Våldsbejakande extremism: En forskarantologi2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Forkby, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet .
    Alstam, Kristina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    FOI.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Sarnecki, Jerzy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Wahlgren, Paula
    Linnéuniversitetet .
    Problemlösningarnas eviga nu: Om trygghetsfrämjande och brottspreventiva partnerskap2023Book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö University; Swedish Police Authority.
    Sturup, Joakim
    Region Stockholm; Institute for Futures Studies.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    Malmö University; Region Stockholm.
    Nilvall, Kim
    Swedish Police Authority.
    Khoshnood, Ardavan
    Lund University.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Region Stockholm; Institute for Future Studies.
    Open drug markets, vulnerable neighbourhoods and gun violence in two Swedish cities2021In: Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, ISSN 1833-5330, E-ISSN 2159-5364, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 233-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gun violence is a serious issue in many countries across the globe. It has been shown that there is an elevated risk for a further shooting nearby within a short time span of a shooting incident, so-called near-repeat patterning. The present study presents new evidence on near-repeat patterning in Sweden, with a focus on neighbourhoods which the police have labelled as ‘vulnerable’–deprived neighbourhoods where criminal networks have a large impact on local communities. Such neighbourhoods tend to have open drug markets, and to have high levels of gun violence. The present paper analyses the association of open drug markets and vulnerable neighbourhoods with gun violence and near-repeat patterning of gun violence in two Swedish cities. Our findings suggest that gun violence is strongly concentrated on open drug markets in vulnerable neighbourhoods, and that those locations in addition exhibit high risks for repeat shootings after an initial shooting event. We propose that the police can use this knowledge to improve practices to prevent or disrupt gun violence.

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  • 7.
    Gunnarson, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm universitet .
    Sweden: Organised crime, politics and civil society2019In: Handbook of Organised Crime and Politics / [ed] Felia Alum & Stan Gilmour, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2019, p. 35-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden represents an unlikely case for the development of mafia-like organisations: the state is strong with a relatively well-functioning legal system; the political institutions are stable, trust in government is widespread, bureaucratic ethics are strong, and associational life is vibrant. Yet, in a relatively short time, starting in the early 1980s, organised crime has established its power structure in Södertälje, a medium-sized city near Stockholm. In September 2014, the Svea Court of Appeal in Stockholm confirmed the existence of a criminal organisation that had an extensive power structure with ramifications into politics and the welfare sector. This chapter analyses the so-called ‘Syriac mafia’ and its relationship with the welfare state and politics at the local level in the city of Södertälje.

  • 8.
    Günther, Mattias
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Dahlberg, Martin
    Karolinska institutet.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm.
    Azadali, Ali
    Uppsala universitet.
    Arborelius, Ulf P.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Linder, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rostami, Elham
    Karolinska institutet; Uppsala universitet.
    Incidence, demographics, and outcomes of penetrating trauma in Sweden during the past decade2021In: Frontiers in Neurology, E-ISSN 1664-2295, Vol. 12, article id 730405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trauma injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide, and interpersonal violence is one of the major contributors in particular regarding injuries to the head and neck. The incidence, demographics, and outcomes of penetrating trauma reaching hospitals in Sweden are not known. We report the largest, nationwide epidemiological study of penetrating injuries in Sweden, using the Swedish Trauma Registry (SweTrau). A multi-center retrospective descriptive study of 4,776 patients was conducted with penetrating injuries in Sweden, between 2012 and 2018. Due to the increase in coverage of the SweTrau registry during the same period, we chose to analyze the average number of cases for the time intervals 2013–2015 and 2016–2018 and compare those trends to the reports of the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) as well. A total of 663 patients had Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 15 at admission and were included in the study. Three hundred and sixty-eight (55.5%) were stab wounds (SW), 245 (37.0%) gunshot wounds (GSW), and 50 (7.5%) other traumas. A majority of the cases involved injuries to the head, neck, and face. SW increased from 145 during 2013–2015 to 184 during the second period of 2016–2018. The increase was greater for GSW from 92 to 141 during the same respective periods. This trend of increase over time was also seen in head, neck, and face injuries. The 30-day mortality was unaffected (48–47%) in GSW and trended toward lower in SW (24–21%) when comparing 2013–2015 with 2016–2018. Patients with head trauma had 45% mortality compared to 18% for non-head trauma patients. Head trauma also resulted in worse outcomes, only 13% had Glasgow outcome score (GOS) 5 compared to 27% in non-head trauma. The increasing number of cases of both SW and GSW corresponded well with reports from Brå although further studies also are needed to address deaths outside of hospitals and not registered at the SweTrau. The majority of cases had injuries to the head, neck, and face and were associated with higher mortality and poor outcomes. Further studies are needed to understand the contributing factors to these worse outcomes in Sweden and whether more targeted trauma care of these patients can improve outcomes.

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  • 9.
    Irwin-Rogers, Keir
    et al.
    The Open University.
    Decker, Scott
    Arizona State University.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm universitet.
    Stephenson, Svetlana
    London Metropolitan University.
    Hellemont, Elke Van
    University of Kent.
    European street gangs and urban violence2019In: Handbook of Global Urban Health, Routledge , 2019, p. 484-508Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide readers with an insight into gang-related violence, and responses to gang-related violence, across a number of European cities. To this end, it brings together city-specific sections written by subject experts who have resided and conducted research in four European countries: the UK, Belgium, Russia and Sweden. Each sub-section of the chapter follows a similar structure: first, we provide contextual information about gangs in each city; second, we discuss data on gang member demographics; third, we consider the nature and scale of gang-related urban violence; and fourth, we outline some of the main policy responses aimed at tackling gang violence, including any references to public health approaches to violence reduction.

  • 10.
    Jarynowski, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet; Jagiellonian University, Poland; CIOP National Research Institute, Poland.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholms universitet.
    Reading Stockholm Riots 2013 in social media by text-mining2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The riots in Stockholm in May 2013 were an event that reverberated in the world media for its dimension of violence that had spreadthrough the Swedish capital. In this study we have investigated the role of social media in creating media phenomena via text miningand natural language processing. We have focused on two channels of communication for our analysis: Twitter and Poloniainfo.se(Forum of Polish community in Sweden). Our preliminary results show some hot topics driving discussion related mostly to SwedishPolice and Swedish Politics by counting word usage. Typical features for media intervention are presented. We have built networks ofmost popular phrases, clustered by categories (geography, media institution, etc.). Sentiment analysis shows negative connotation withPolice. The aim of this preliminary exploratory quantitative study was to generate questions and hypotheses, which we could carefullyfollow by deeper more qualitative methods. 

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  • 11.
    Kaakinen, Markus
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet .
    Mork Lomell, Heidi
    University of Oslo.
    Valdimarsdóttir, Margrét
    University of Iceland.
    Westfelt, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work, Criminology and Public Health Sciences, Criminology.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work, Criminology and Public Health Sciences, Criminology.
    Street gang involvement among nordic youth: A comparative study on prevalence and riskfactors in Nordic countries2024Other (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Leinfelt, Fredrik
    et al.
    Polismyndigheten i Stockholms län.
    Rostami, Amir
    Polismyndigheten i Stockholms län; Stockholms universitet.
    The PANTHER gang model: Preventive analysis about network targets for a holistic enforcement response2012In: The Stockholm Gang Model PANTHER: Stockholm Gang Intervention & Prevention Project, 2009-2012 / [ed] Fredrik Leinfelt; Amir Rostami, Stockholm: Polismyndigheten i Stockholms län , 2012, p. 110-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13. Leinfelt, Fredrik
    et al.
    Rostami, AmirStockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    The Stockholm Gang Model: PANTHER: Stockholm Gang Intervention & Prevention Project, 2009-20122012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Lilford, Robert D
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hossain, Iftakher
    Karolinska institutet; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Neurosurgery Unit, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Uppsala universitet; .
    Dahlberg, Martin
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wahlgren, Carl-Magnus
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bellander, Bo-Michael
    Department of Neurosurgery and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Uni. Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work, Criminology and Public Health Sciences, Criminology. Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Günther, Mattias
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Department of Clinical Science and Education Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Sweden; .
    Bartek, Jiri
    Department of Neurosurgery and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Uni. Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Rostami, Elham
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Department of medical sciences, section for Neurosurgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, Sweden; .
    Increased incidence and mortality of civilian penetrating traumatic brain injury in Sweden: a single centre registry-based study.2024In: World Neurosurgery, ISSN 1878-8750, E-ISSN 1878-8769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Penetrating trauma to the head and neck (HN) has increased during the past decade in Sweden. This aim of this study was to characterize these injuries and to evaluate the outcome in patients treated at a tertiary trauma centre.

    METHODS: Swedish trauma registry (SweTrau) data was extracted on patients with HN injuries admitted to Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, between 2011 and 2019. Outcome information was extracted from hospital records, with primary endpoints focusing of physiological outcome measures and secondary endpoints on surgical and radiological outcomes.

    RESULTS: Of 1436 penetrating trauma patients, 329 patients with penetrating HN injuries were identified. 20% (n=66) suffered a gunshot wound (GSW), 73% (n=240) a stab wound (SW), and 7% (n=23) other trauma mechanisms (OTM). The median age for GSW, SW and OTM were 25, 33, and 21, respectively. Assault was primary intent, GSW (81.8%, n=54) and SW (65.8%, n=158). Patients suffering GSWs had severer injuries, worse admission GCS-M and higher intubation rate at the injury site. Most GSW patients underwent major surgery (59.1%) as an initial procedure and more likely had intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) (21.2%). The 30-day mortality: 45.5% (n=30) for GSWs, 5.4% (n=13) for SWs and 0% (n=0) for OTMs. There was a yearly increase in incidence and mortality for GSW and SW.

    CONCLUSION: Between 2011 and 2019, there was an increasing yearly trend of incidence and mortality from penetrating HN trauma in Stockholm, Sweden. GSW patients suffered more severe injuries, ICHs, and underwent more surgical interventions compared to SW and OTM.

  • 15.
    Lundqvist, Bo
    et al.
    Polismyndigheten .
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sandbolm, Anders
    Polismyndigheten .
    Sturup, Joakim
    Karolinska institutet.
    von Vogelsang, Eva
    Polismyndigeheten .
    ”En nationell mobilisering mot det grova våldet krävs”2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1458-0578, no 13-novArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Mondani, Hernan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Askanius, Tina
    Malmö universitet .
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Country Chapter: Sweden2023In: Transnational linkages between violent right-wing extremism, terrorism and organized crime / [ed] Alexander Ritzmann, Berlin: The Counter Extremism Project (CEP) , 2023, , p. 134p. 80-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Mondani, Hernan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm; Stockholm University; Umeå University .
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm.
    Criminal nomads: The role of multiple memberships in the criminal collaboration network between Hells Angels MC and Bandidos MC2022In: Global crime, ISSN 1744-0572, E-ISSN 1744-0580, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 193-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) have received increased attention from both law enforcement agencies and the research community. This study investigates the criminal collaboration patterns of two OMGs with a long history of hostilities. We use government data on individuals registered as belonging to Hells Angels MC, Bandidos MC and individuals with multiple OMG memberships, and suspicion data from 2011 to 2016 to build co-offending networks. Our results show that members of multiple OMGs tend to have higher centrality and clustering. These members also have the highest levels of suspicions per capita, and most of the co-offending is related to nexus links involving multiple membership individuals. They can be described as ‘criminal nomads’, collaborating with individuals from different organisations. Our results suggest that core members tend to engage in white-collar crime to a greater extent than those on the periphery, which tend to engage more in violence and drug crime.

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  • 18.
    Mondani, Hernan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work. Stockholms universitet.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Stockholms universitet.
    Criminal nomads: The role of multiple memberships in the criminal collaboration network between Hells Angels MC and Bandidos MC2023In: The Criminology of Carlo Morselli - Part II / [ed] David Décary-Hétu, Rémi Boivin, Routledge, 2023, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Mondani, Hernan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet .
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Kriminella på kartan: En ESO-rapport om den organiserade brottslighetens geografi2023Report (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Mondani, Hernan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm; Stockholm University.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm; Rutgers University, USA.
    Uncovering the degree of criminal organization: Swedish street gangs and the role of mobility and co-offending networks2022In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 103, article id 102657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate organized crime by studying the degree of criminal organization. We use population-level register data on criminal suspicions between 2011 and 2016 to analyze the territoriality of Swedish street gangs in terms of geographical mobility, their collaboration in crime through their co-offending network's clustering and community structure, and their crime versatility. Although Swedish street gangs exhibit varying degrees of geographical mobility and criminal collaboration, overall, they have limited reach along these dimensions, characterized by low clustering and limited crime specialization. Violence seems to become a necessary tool only when a gang reaches a certain degree of organization. By unbraiding criminal mobility and its association with other organizational elements such as criminal collaboration in different settings, we provide insights into the structure and dynamics of criminal organizations and contribute to a richer understanding and conceptualization of how crime is organized.

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  • 21.
    Mondani, Hernan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Stockholms universitet.
    Askanius, Tina
    Sarnecki, Jerzy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Edling, Christopher
    Lunds universitet.
    Women in violent extremism in Sweden2021Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Renberg, Mattias
    et al.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Martin
    Department of Surgery, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gellerfors, Mikael
    Department of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Rapid Response Car, Capio, Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish Air Ambulance (SLA), Mora, Sweden.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Günther, Mattias
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; Experimental Traumatology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science and Education, Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet.
    Rostami, Elham
    Experimental Traumatology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Neurosurgery, Uppsala University Hospital , Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prehospital transportation of severe penetrating trauma victims in Sweden during the past decade: a police business?2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 31, no 1, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Sweden is facing a surge of gun violence that mandates optimized prehospital transport approaches, and a survey of current practice is fundamental for such optimization. Management of severe, penetrating trauma is time sensitive, and there may be a survival benefit in limiting prehospital interventions. An important aspect is unregulated transportation by police or private vehicles to the hospital, which may decrease time but may also be associated with adverse outcomes. It is not known whether transport of patients with penetrating trauma occurs outside the emergency medical services (EMS) in Sweden and whether it affects outcome.

    Method

    This was a retrospective, descriptive nationwide study of all patients with penetrating trauma and injury severity scores (ISSs) ≥ 15 registered in the Swedish national trauma registry (SweTrau) between June 13, 2011, and December 31, 2019. We hypothesized that transport by police and private vehicles occurred and that it affected mortality.

    Result

    A total of 657 patients were included. EMS transported 612 patients (93.2%), police 10 patients (1.5%), and private vehicles 27 patients (4.1%). Gunshot wounds (GSWs) were more common in police transport, 80% (n = 8), compared with private vehicles, 59% (n = 16), and EMS, 32% (n = 198). The Glasgow coma scale score (GCS) in the emergency department (ED) was lower for patients transported by police, 11.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 3, 15), in relation to EMS, 15 (IQR 14, 15) and private vehicles 15 (IQR 12.5, 15). The 30-day mortality for EMS was 30% (n = 184), 50% (n = 5) for police transport, and 22% (n = 6) for private vehicles. Transport by private vehicle, odds ratio (OR) 0.65, (confidence interval [CI] 0.24, 1.55, p = 0.4) and police OR 2.28 (CI 0.63, 8.3, p = 0.2) were not associated with increased mortality in relation to EMS.

    Conclusion

    Non-EMS transports did occur, however with a low incidence and did not affect mortality. GSWs were more common in police transport, and victims had lower GCS scorescores when arriving at the ED, which warrants further investigations of the operational management of shooting victims in Sweden.

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  • 23.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Bidragsspärr bör kunna användas mot dömda2023In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 06-sepArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholms universitet.
    Criminal Organizing: Studies in the sociology of organized crime2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What organized crime is and how it can be prevented are two of the key questions in both organized crime research and criminal policy. However, despite many attempts, organized crime research, the criminal justice system and criminal policy have failed to provide a shared and recognized conceptual definition of organized crime, which has opened the door to political interpretations. Organized crime is presented as an objective reality—mostly based on anecdotal empirical evidence and generic descriptions—and has been understood, as being intrinsically different from social organization, and this has been a justification for treating organized crime conceptually separately.

    In this dissertation, the concept of organized crime is deconstructed and analyzed. Based on five studies and an introductory chapter, I argue that organized crime is an overarching concept based on an abstraction of different underlying concepts, such as gang, mafia, and network, which are in turn semi-overarching and overlapping abstractions of different crime phenomena, such as syndicates, street-gangs, and drug networks. This combination of a generic concept based on underlying concepts, which are themselves subject to similar conceptual difficulties, has given rise to a conceptual confusion surrounding the term and the concept of organized crime. The consequences of this conceptual confusion are not only an issue of semantics, but have implications for our understanding of the nature of criminal collaboration as well as both legal and policy consequences. By combining different observers, methods and empirical materials relating to dimensions of criminal collaboration, I illustrate the strong analogies that exist between forms of criminal collaboration and the theory of social organization.

    I argue in this dissertation that criminal organizing is not intrinsically different from social organizing. In fact, the dissertation illustrates the existence of strong analogies between patterns of criminal organizing and the elements of social organizations. But depending on time and context, some actions and forms of organizing are defined as criminal, and are then, intentionally or unintentionally, presumed to be intrinsically different from social organizing. Since the basis of my argument is that criminal organizing is not intrinsically different from social organizing, I advocate that the study of organized crime needs to return to the basic principles of social organization in order to understand the emergence of, and the underlying mechanism that gives rise to, the forms of criminal collaboration that we seek to explain. To this end, a new general analytical framework, “criminal organizing”, that brings the different forms of criminal organizations and their dimensions together under a single analytical tool, is proposed as an example of how organizational sociology can advance organized crime research and clarify the chaotic concept of organized crime. 

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  • 25.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm universitet.
    De överlappande hoten: Organiserad brottslighet, våldsbejakande extremism och dess konsekvenser för det polisiära arbetet2020In: Religion, migration och polisiärt arbete / [ed] G. Larsson; S. Sorgenfrei; T. Viklund, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2020Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Den svenska brottsparadoxen2022Report (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Ett stärkt och samlat skydd av välfärdssystemen: SOU 2023:522023Report (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm universitet.
    EXIT - Att lämna en destruktiv organisation: Förslag till nationell avhopparstrategi2014Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholms universitet.
    ”Gatugäng är inget framtidsscenario, utan en realitet”2011In: Svenska Dagbladet, E-ISSN 2001-3868, no 25-sepArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Stockholms universitet.
    "Gör vi inte rätt nu så kommer alla att förlora"2018In: Göteborgs-Posten, E-ISSN 1103-9345, no 8-febArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Kriminalpolitik: Berättelsen om det svenska tillståndet2022In: Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2022 av ledande forskare / [ed] Niklas Bolin, Kajsa Falasca, Marie Grusell, Lars Nord, Sundsvall: Demicom, Mittuniversitetet , 2022, p. 25-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Stockholms universitet.
    ”Kriminella dränerar våra välfärds­system”2022In: Svenska Dagbladet, E-ISSN 2001-3868, no 15-junArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholms universitet.
    ”Nu krävs en nationell strategi mot våldet"2015In: Svenska Dagbladet, E-ISSN 2001-3868, no 13-augArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholms universitet.
    Organiserad antagonism: Jihadism och organiserad brottslighet som sociala risker2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utmaningarna från våldsbejakande extremism och organiseradbrottslighet utgör ett hot mot demokratin och står därför högt på denpolitiska dagordningen. Genom sitt våldskapital och ambitionen attskapa parallellsamhällen och underminera det demokratiskasystemet utmanar dessa antagonistiska krafter direkt samhälletsinstitutioner, som statens legitima våldsmonopol ochtrygghetssystem. Att studera överlappningen mellan organiseradbrottslighet och våldsbejakande extremism är ett viktigt område,eftersom en symbios av dessa destruktiva krafter kan genereraallvarliga säkerhetsutmaningar, inte minst på grund av detvåldskapital som den organiserade brottsligheten besitter i Sverigeoch den övertygelse som exempelvis konfliktresenärer kan bära.Med utgångspunkt i dessa utmaningar har projektet undersökt omdet finns en överlappning mellan organiserad brottslighet ochvåldsbejakande islamistisk extremism i Sverige. Den samladeempirin i det här projektet visar att organiserad brottslighet ochvåldsbejakande extremism i allmänhet och våldsbejakandeislamistisk extremism i synnerhet är överlappande och delvis“sammanflätade” fenomen. Den våldsbejakande islamismen i Sverigeär som miljö fragmenterad, men det finns kluster av individer somhar hög grad av inbördes samarbete. Det innebär att det till skillnadfrån högerextremism inte finns en tydlig hierarkisk organisation somsamlar de mest aktiva extremisterna. Det är snarare en plattorganisering som består av olika noder av extremister som har enlokal förankring och är sammanlänkade genom digitala och analogainteraktioner.Våldsbejakande islamistisk extremism och organiserad brottslighetär vidare sammanlänkade genom rekrytering och samarbeten. Dessaföreteelser, oavsett om de är drivna utifrån ideologiska ellersocioekonomiska motiv, är både organiserade och många gångerrumsliga klustrade till socioekonomiskt svaga områden. Det gäller 6även kriminella konflikter där skjutvapen och handgranater används.Det finns samarbetskluster där individer ur den våldsbejakandeislamismen har samarbetslänkar till olika grupperingar inom denorganiserade brottsligheten. Det kan handla om brottsligasamarbeten såsom att organiserad brottslighet är en avsättningsytaför extremister att sälja stulen gods. Det kan också handla om attman som gängmedlem gör en karriär från gäng till extremism ochvidare tillbaka till gäng men bibehållen extremistisk identitet. Idenna process rekryteras likasinnade.För att förhindra och förebygga dessa företeelser behöver (blandmånga andra åtgärder) sammanhållna, riktade insatser, baserade pågemensamma framtagna problem- och lägesbilder, initieras. Varjeaktör, som nationella myndigheter, måste inventera på vilket sättman kan effektivisera sin verksamhet mot aktuella problembilder.Det är inte handlar inte främst om resurstillskott. Utan hur resurseranvänds. Det är bra att nya lagförslag mot antagonistiska företeelsersåsom gäng förs fram av riksdag och regering. Men vi behöver blieffektivare med de verktyg som redan finns på plats. Det behövsdärför fler utvärderingssatsningar på förebyggande åtgärder för attidentifiera vilka åtgärder som lämpliga och vilka åtgärder kan varakontraproduktiva. Det finns annars en risk att samhället tillför nyaresurser och initierar brottsförebyggandeåtgärder som i själva verketkan vara verkningslösa och i värsta fall rent kontraproduktiva. 

  • 35.
    Rostami, Amir
    Institutet för framtidsstudier, Sverige.
    Organiserad brottslighet och våldsbejakande extremism som antagonistisk hot2019In: Antagonistiska hot och dess påverkan på lokalsamhället: En antologi / [ed] Henrik Häggström & Hans Brun, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS) , 2019, 1, p. 32-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Organiserad brottslighet, våldbejakande extremism och polisiärt arbete2023In: Religion, migration och polisiärt arbete / [ed] Göran Larsson, Simon Sorgenfrei, Tanja Viklund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2023, 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    På några decennier har Sverige gått från att vara etniskt och religiöst relativt homogent till att bli ett av Europas mest mångreligiösa länder. Religion, migration och polisiärt arbete beskriver några av de utmaningar och möjligheter polisen kan ställas inför i ett pluralistiskt samhälle. I boken varvas teoretiska perspektiv med konkreta exempel på polisiärt arbete relaterat till religion och migration.

    Bokens kapitel är skrivna av forskare och praktiker verksamma inom olika områden, och behandlar en lång rad ämnen: religions frihetslagstiftning, segregation, hatbrott, globala konflikter med lokala konsekvenser, klanstrukturer, hedersvåld, våldsbejakande extremism, bemötandestrategier, arbete med fördomar inom poliskåren samt utmaningar som konspirationsteorier och miljö relaterade hot som kan beröra polisens arbete.

  • 37.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholms universitet.
    Policing Gangs and Organized Crime: Reflections on Conceptual Confusion and Its Consequences from Two Swedish Case Studies2016In: Gang Transitions and Transformations in an International Context / [ed] Cheryl L. Maxson, Finn-Aage Esbensen, Springer , 2016, p. 279-289Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptual confusion is a recurring problem in society’s effort to control and eradicate gangs and organized crime. Government agencies, law enforcement, and other practitioners tend to apply the label “organized crime” to all forms of criminal organizing without any consideration of ecological and organizational differences. However, all forms of organized criminal collaborations exist on a continuum and vary in time and space. This conceptual confusion can have negative implications and consequences on criminal policy and crime prevention strategies. In this chapter, I discuss the results of two Swedish case studies and advocate for the value of identifying the type and level of organizing in the policing of gangs and organized crime. Finally, I discuss the need to distinguish between type of gangs and other forms of criminal organizations, and its relevance for social responses and policing.

  • 38.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Stockholm 2040: En sammanhållen region mot organiserad brottslighet och utan utsatta områden2022In: Stockholm 2040: 11 berättelser om liv, arbete, kultur och ekonomi i framtidens stad, Stockholm: Volante , 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Street-gang violence in Sweden is a growing concern2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, E-ISSN 2002-066X, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 365-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past 30 years, Sweden has witnessed a growth in criminal gangs. Gun violence among young males is also on the rise and have only recently gained wide political attention. Street gangs and gun violence are two prevalent, partially overlapping phenomena that constitute social challenges. Empirically supported legal, policy and practical frameworks are needed in order to reduce the prevalence of gangs and gang violence in Sweden. The first step is to recognize that gangs and gang violence are an emerging societal problem and to identify its root causes, organizational dimensions, and operational patterns. In this note, Swedish street gangs and gang violence are briefly discussed.

  • 40.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Stärkt arbete med att bekämpa bidragsbrott: Administrativt sanktionssystem och effektivare hantering av misstänkta brott2022Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De svenska välfärdssystemen är omfattande och en av grundbultarna i det svenska samhället som värnar den sociala tryggheten. Brott mot välfärdsystemen, oavsett om det rör sig om organiserad brottslighet eller brott utförda av enskilda individer, riskerar att urholka tilliten till systemen och hota förtroendet för välfärdssamhället. För att upprätthålla legitimiteten krävs att rätt ersättning kommer rätt person och rätt företag till del. Bidragsbrott behöver förebyggas, upptäckas och beivras

  • 41.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm .
    The Swedish crime paradox: A brief on challenges posed by organised crime in Sweden2021Report (Refereed)
  • 42. Rostami, Amir
    Tusen fiender: En studie om de svenska gatugängen och dess ledare2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Stockholm universitet.
    Våldets betydelse för organisering av kriminella gäng2016In: Våldets sociala dimensioner: Individ, relation, organisation / [ed] Christopher Edling; Amir Rostami, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 167-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Appelgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet .
    Caset Södertälje2021In: Polisärt arbete i utsatta områden: Utmaningar och möjligheter / [ed] Ghazinour, M., & Eriksson, M, Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, p. 41-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Arrhenius, Gustaf
    Institutet för framtidsstudier .
    Tersman, Folke
    Institutet för framtidsstudier .
    ”Missvisande om brist på forskning”2023In: Svenska Dagbladet, E-ISSN 2001-3868, no 11-novArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Situationen när det gäller forskning om systemhoten är inte så dålig som det framställts. Men bristen på flexibilitet försvårar för tvärvetenskaplig forskning. 

  • 46.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Institutes for Futures Studies.
    Askanius, Tina
    Institutes for Futures Studies, Malmö university.
    State Surveillance of Violent Extremism and Threats of White Supremacist Violence in Sweden2021In: Surveillance & Society, E-ISSN 1477-7487, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 369-373Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 47.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Brun, Hans
    De dödliga bedrägerierna: En rapport om bedrägeribrottslighet och skjutvapenvåldet2022Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Brun, Hans
    De organiserade bedrägerierna: En rapport om bedrägerier kopplade till organiserade kriminella miljöer2021Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Stockholms universitet.
    Erfelt, Fredrik
    Stockholms Handelskammare .
    ”Ta hjälp av företagen i kampen mot brott”2023In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 05-novArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Näringslivet behöver involveras i en mobilisering mot kriminaliteten. Inrätta därför ett nationellt näringslivsråd mot organiserad brottslighet, skriver Amir Rostami och Fredrik Erfelt

  • 50.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Rutgers University, USA.
    Fuentes, Rick
    Rutgers University, USA.
    What’s Happening in the Land of Pippi Longstocking? Gangs, Bombs, and Transatlantic Police-to-Police Cooperation.2021In: Police Chief Magazine, no Nov, p. 40-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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