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  • 1.
    Andrée, Martin
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Larsson, Karolina
    KLM; Stockholms stad.
    Nordqvist Darell, Fanny
    Stockholms stad.
    Malm, Linus
    Tyréns.
    Tullberg, Odd
    WSP.
    Wallberg, Ann
    JM.
    Norsell, Johan
    NAI Svefa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Slutrapport för projektet Smart planering för byggande: Delprojekt 3 - BIM som informationsstöd för 3D fastighetsbildning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällsbyggnadsprocessen behöver utvecklas och bli smartare, öppnare och mer effektiv för ett ökat bostadsbyggande. En digitalisering av samhällsbyggnadsprocessen kan ge ett effektivare samarbete mellan kommun, fastighetsägare, byggherrar, medborgare, näringsliv och myndigheter.Vid bildande av tredimensionellt avgränsade fastigheter eller fastighetsutrymmen (3D-fastigheter) behöver gränsernas läge redovisas både verbalt och i kartor och ritningar, detsamma gäller berörda rättigheter. Det är idag ofta svårt att korrekt redovisa en 3D-volym med enbart dagens pappersritningar och även svårt att läsa en registerkarta i 2D med fastigheter och rättigheter beslutade i 3D. Beslutsunderlagen i fastighetsbildnings-processen behöver bli mer enhetliga och entydiga samt fastighetsinformationen behöver bli återanvändningsbar i hela samhällsbyggnadsprocessen.I detta projekt har vi studerat informationsbehovet i de olika tidpunkterna under fastighetsbildningsprocessen för 3D-fastigheter med fokus på vem som är ansvarig för att tillhandahålla informationsunderlag för att identifiera krav på utformning av 3D-modeller (t.ex BIM) och 3D-stöd för fastighetsbildning.Internationellt finns det ett stort intresse och många frågeställningar gällande samspelet mellan BIM och Fastighetsinformation; det är däremot ganska få fall som har identifierats där man har arbetat praktiskt med BIM i relation till redovisning av 3D-fastigheter.Projektethar även tittat på behov av visualisering och tillhandahållande av fastighetsinformation i 3D, hur informationen bör utformas för att kunna tolkas korrekt samt nyttjas vidare av andra aktörer i samhällsbyggnadsprocessen.Slutsatsen i projektetär att en framtida arbetsmodell där man i samband med myndighetsutövningen för fastighetsbildning samverkar med stöd av BIM och geografisk information i ärendehandläggningen kan ge stora effekter på både myndighetens effektivitet och i ärendeutövningen och för förståelsen av fastighetbildningsbeslutet hos samtliga intressenter i processen. För att det arbete som genomförts i denna utredning skall få genomslag i den dagliga verksamheten rekommenderar vibland annatatt de statliga och kommunala lantmäterimyndigheterna arbetar vidare med att utveckla arbetsprocessen och rekommendationerna för 3D-fastighetsbildning baserat på resultatet från detta projekt och redan i dagens modell efterfrågar att man i handläggningsprocessen kan arbeta BIM-baserat även om kommande beslutshandlingar under en övergångsperiod fortfarande kommer att vara baserade på ritningsbilagor i 2D.

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  • 2.
    Andrée, Martin
    et al.
    Sandviken kommun.
    Larsson, Karolina
    Stockholms stad.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH).
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Computer Science.
    Smarta plan-, bygg- och förvaltningsprocesser över hela livscykeln: AP3 Visualisering av 3D-fastigheter2020Report (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Andrée, Martin
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    BIM and 3D property visualisation2018In: FIG Congress 2018: Proceedings, 2018, article id 9367Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of 3D property has only existed a short period of time in Sweden, being introduced in 2004 and expanded in 2009 by the addition of condominium (apartment) ownership. It is therefore a rather new form of land management, and the demand for 3D property formation has not been as high as initially expected. There is however an increased interest in 3D property and ownership apartments today, also as being part of the nation’s geospatial infrastructure together with related 3D information for e.g. buildings, utility networks and other features. An effective management of 3D property is depending on, among other things, visualization, representation and storage of 3D real property data, such as legal boundaries and real property rights. There are at present a number of ongoing 3D development and research projects focusing on visualization and standardization of 3D cadastral boundaries. They are part of the national "Smart Built Environment" development and research program, which includes the use of BIM in the (future) 3D property formation process with focus on visualization of 3D real property and condominiums, and specification of requirements and evaluation of 3D digital real property information created and managed in the processes.

    This paper presents the preliminary results of the working group on visualization of 3D boundaries in the project "Smart planning, construction and management processes throughout the life cycle". The aim is to test the results produced in the project "Information for planning, real property formation and building permission", working group "BIM for 3D property formation." The purpose of this working group is to set the requirements for and evaluate the test bed for 3D property information. The focus is on visualization of 3D property and ownership apartments. The proposed model for digitization and visualization of 3D property formation will be tested in a test bed environment. A pilot case from the Stockholm area is then used in the test bed to see how it could work in practice.

    The expected outcome is recommendations for the exchange of documentation and other digital information in 3D processes, the visualization of legal boundaries for stakeholders, registration of legal 3D objects in the Swedish national real property register and how to communicate 3D models to right holders/stakeholders for 3D property and condominiums and the property market, as well as suggestions for a homogeneous, effective and digital flow of 3D information to be used by actors and other stakeholders in the property formation, planning and building processes.

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  • 4.
    Berggren, David
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förnyelselagen - möjlighet eller hot?2018In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, Vol. 27 maj, no 2, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Riksdagen har beslutat att avtalsrättigheter som skrivits in i det statliga Lantmäteriets fastighetsregister före den 1 juli 1968 kommer att tas bort ur registret om inte rättighetshavaren senast den 31 december 2018 anmäler till Lantmäteriet att den ska finnas kvar. Hur arbetar rättighetshavare med förnyelsekravet och vad kan förnyelsekravet väntas få för konsekvenser?

  • 5.
    Çağdaş, Volkan
    et al.
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Stubkjær, Erik
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    de Vries, Walter Timo
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    van der Merwe, Cornelius
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Schwery, Nadja
    University of Freiburg, Switzerland.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    VUUniversity Amsterdam / Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Işıkdağ, Ümit
    Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey.
    Kara, Abdullah
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Co-ownership shares in condominiums – A comparison across jurisdictions and standards: Long version2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condominium is one of the prevalent forms of three-dimensional (3D) property rights (Paulsson, 2007, p. 32). The condominium concept common to a number of jurisdictions consists of three elements: (a) individual ownership of an apartment, (b) co-ownership (joint ownership) of the land and the common parts of the building, and (c) membership of an incorporated or unincorporated owners' association (van der Merwe, 2015, p. 5). The ownership shares of condominium unit owners in the common property are here referred to as co-ownership shares; yet, alternative terms include ownership fraction, condominium share, participation quota, share value, and unit entitlement. The co-ownership share determines the proportional contribution to the common expenses and the share of common profits, as well as the voting power of each condominium unit owner in the administration of the condominium. The most common approaches to the determination of the co-ownership shares are based on equality, relative size or relative value of each condominium unit, or a combination of such (van der Merwe, 1994, p. 57-58). The literature presents detailed descriptions and comparative analysis related to condominium systems in different jurisdictions (e.g. van der Merwe, 2016; 2015; Paulsson, 2007; EUI, 2005; UNECE, 2005); however, the technical and procedural aspects related to the allotment of co-ownership shares still need to be further investigated. This paper aims to compare methods and procedures applied for the allotment of co-ownership shares of condominium systems in the following seven jurisdictions; Denmark, Germany, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Turkey. Also, international geographic information standards (i.e. ISO LADM, OGC LandInfra/InfraGML) are analyzed to assess the extent to which they facilitate allocation of co-ownership shares. The main purpose is to clarify the legal provisions and methodologies related to the determination of co-ownership shares in national condominium systems and bring new insights to countries, which are trying to revise their national provisions for fairer implementations.

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  • 6.
    Çağdaş, Volkan
    et al.
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Stubkjær, Erik
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    de Vries, Walter
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    van der Merwe, Cornelius
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Schwery, Nadja
    University of Freiburg, Switzerland.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    VU University Amsterdam/Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Işıkdağ, Ümit
    Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey.
    Kara, Abdullah
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Co-ownership shares in condominiums – A comparison across jurisdictions and standards: Short version2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018, p. 217-242Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condominium is one of the prevalent forms of three- dimensional (3D) property rights (Paulsson, 2007, p. 32). The condominium concept common to a number of jurisdictions consists of three elements: (a) individual ownership of an apartment, (b) co-ownership (joint ownership) of the land and the common parts of the building, and (c) membership of an incorporated or unincorporated owners' association (van der Merwe, 2015, p. 5). The ownership shares of condominium unit owners in the common property are here referred to as co-ownership shares; yet, alternative terms include ownership fraction, condominium share, participation quota, share value, and unit entitlement. The co-ownership share determines the proportional contribution to the common expenses and the share of common profits, as well as the voting power of each condominium unit owner in the administration of the condominium. The most common approaches to the determination of the co-ownership shares are based on equality, relative size or relative value of each condominium unit, or a combination of such (van der Merwe, 1994, p. 57-58). The literature presents detailed descriptions and comparative analysis related to condominium systems in different jurisdictions (e.g. van der Merwe, 2016; 2015; Paulsson, 2007; EUI, 2005; UNECE, 2005); however, the technical and procedural aspects related to the allotment of co-ownership shares still need to be further investigated. This paper aims to compare methods and procedures applied for the allotment of co-ownership shares of condominium systems in the following seven jurisdictions; Denmark, Germany, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Turkey. Also, international geographic information standards are analyzed to assess the extent to which they facilitate allocation of co-ownership shares. The main purpose is to clarify the legal provisions and methodologies related to the determination of co-ownership shares in national condominium systems and bring new insights to countries, which are trying to revise their national provisions for fairer implementations.

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  • 7.
    Dimopooulou, Efi
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Australia.
    Miodrag, Roić
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    de Almeida, José-Paulo Duarte
    University of Coimbra Apartado, Portugal.
    Griffith-Charles, Charisse
    The University of the West Indies St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Thompson, Rod
    Delft University of Technology.
    Ying, Shen
    Wuhan University, China.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    3D Cadastres Best Practices, Chapter 2: Initial Registration of 3D Parcels2018In: FIG Congress 2018: Proceedings, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Registering the rights of a 3D parcel should provide certainty of ownership, protection of rights and unambiguous spatial location. While not all cadastral jurisdictions in the world maintain a digital cadastral database, the concepts of such registration hold true regardless of whether it is a paper-based cadastre or a digital one. Similarly, the motivations and purpose for the creation of a 2D cadastre for individual jurisdictions applies to3D cadastre as well. It provides security of ownership for3D parcels, protects the rights of the owners, and provides valuable financial instruments such as mortgage, collateral, valuation and taxation. The current life cycle of the development of a land parcel includes processes startfrom outside the cadastral registration sphere, such as zoning plans and permits, but has a direct impact on how a certain development application is processed. Thus, in considering the changes required to allow a jurisdiction to register 3D, it is important to note the sphere of influence that could have an impact on 3D registration. These include planners, notaries, surveyors, data managers and registrars; however for the purpose of this paper, the research is focused on the core 3D aspects that are institutional, legal and technical. This paper explores approaches and solutions towards the implementation of initial 3D cadastral registration, as derivedby current procedures of registration of 3D parcels in various countries worldwide. To this end, the paper analyses the categorisations and approaches of3D spatial units and examines the validation requirements (constraints) on a cadastral database, at various levels of maturity. In this view, 3D data storage and visualization issues are examined in relation to the level of complexity of various jurisdictions, as provided by the results of the country inventory combined with a worldwide survey in 2010 and updated in 2014 (Van Oosterom, et al., 2014). It appearsthat significant progress has been achieved in providing legal provisions for the registration of 3D cadastres in many countries and several have started to show 3D information on cadastral plans such as isometric views, vertical profiles or text environment to facilitate such data capture and registration. Moreover, as jurisdictions progress towards an implementation of 3D cadastre, much 3D data collected in other areas (BIM, IFC CityGML files, IndoorGML, InfraGML and LandXML) open up the possibility of creating 3D cadastral database and combining with the existing datasets.The usability, compatibility and portability of these datasets is a low cost solution to one of the costliest phases of the implementation of 3D cadastres, which is the initial 3D data capture.

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  • 8.
    Dimopooulou, Efi
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, Greece.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Brisbane, Australia.
    Roić, Miodrag
    Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagred, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Duarte de Almeida, José-Paulo
    Geomatic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science & Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Griffith-Charles, Charisse
    epartment of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, Faculty of Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Thompson, Rod
    Department OTB, Section GIS - technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Ying, Shen
    School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Oosterom, Peter van
    Department OTB, GIS Technology Section, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands .
    Chapter 2. Initial Registration of 3D Parcels2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Extended version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 67-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Registering the rights of a 3D parcel should provide certainty of ownership, protection of rights and unambiguous spatial location. While not all cadastral jurisdictions in the world maintain a digital cadastral database, the concepts of such registration hold true regardless of whether it is a paper-based cadastre or a digital one. Similarly, the motivations and purpose for the creation of a 2D cadastre for individual jurisdictions applies to3D cadastre as well. It provides security of ownership for3D parcels, protects the rights of the owners, and provides valuable financial instruments such as mortgage, collateral, valuation and taxation. The current life cycle of the development of a land parcel includes processes startfrom outside the cadastral registration sphere, such as zoning plans and permits, but has a direct impact on how a certain development application is processed. Thus, in considering the changes required to allow a jurisdiction to register 3D, it is important to note the sphere of influence that could have an impact on 3D registration. These include planners, notaries, surveyors, data managers and registrars; however for the purpose of this paper, the research is focused on the core 3D aspects that are institutional, legal and technical. This paper explores approaches and solutions towards the implementation of initial 3D cadastral registration, as derivedby current procedures of registration of 3D parcels in various countries worldwide. To this end, the paper analyses the categorisations and approaches of3D spatial units and examines the validation requirements (constraints) on a cadastral database, at various levels of maturity. In this view, 3D data storage and visualization issues are examined in relation to the level of complexity of various jurisdictions, as provided by the results of the country inventory combined with a worldwide survey in 2010 and updated in 2014 (Van Oosterom, et al., 2014). It appearsthat significant progress has been achieved in providing legal provisions for the registration of 3D cadastres in many countries and several have started to show 3D information on cadastral plans such as isometric views, vertical profiles or text environment to facilitate such data capture and registration. Moreover, as jurisdictions progress towards an implementation of 3D cadastre, much 3D data collected in other areas (BIM, IFC CityGML files, IndoorGML, InfraGML and LandXML) open up the possibility of creating 3D cadastral database and combining with the existing datasets.The usability, compatibility and portability of these datasets is a low cost solution to one of the costliest phases of the implementation of 3D cadastres, which is the initial 3D data capture.

  • 9.
    Dimopooulou, Efi
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, Greece.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Brisbane, Australia.
    Roić, Miodrag
    Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagred, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Duarte de Almeida, José-Paulo
    Geomatic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science & Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Griffith-Charles, Charisse
    Department of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, Faculty of Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Thompson, Rod
    Department OTB, Section GIS - technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Ying, Shen
    School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Oosterom, Peter van
    Department OTB, GIS Technology Section, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands .
    Chapter 2. Initial Registration of 3D Parcels2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Printed version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 19-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    3D geoinformation is becoming increasingly important towards decision-making, land management and land development. Research has demonstrated the actual added value of 3D information over 2D in the cases of an overall more efficient integration of urban vs. regional planning and management, especially when dealing with 3D under- ground/aboveground infrastructures. Despite the fact that there has been consistent research within geoinformation science (GISc) on the concept of 3D for more than a decade now, several potentially involved parties are still reluctant to invest in 3D data, 3D techniques and applications. As a consequence, large administration processes re- lating to urban/ rural planning often run up financial losses simply because generic geoinformation is not part of the process (Stoter, 2011; Stoter et al, 2012).

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  • 10. El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Integration of 3D Cadastre, 3D Property Formation and BIM in Sweden2014In: Proceedings of the 4th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, 9-11 November 2014, Dubai, UAE, 2014, p. 17-34Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 11.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Integration of legal aspects in 3D cadastral systems2016In: 3D Printing: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice / [ed] Management Association, Information Resources, IGI Global, 2016, p. 119-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article continues a research on the feasibility of BIM for 3D cadastre in unified building models, presented in El-Mekawy & Östman (2012). It describes problems and solutions concerning interaction between BIM and the registration and visualisation of legal 3D property information. BIM and legal 3D property are two seemingly different domains, and there is a lack of BIM-3D property research in relation to technical and registration issues. The article therefore focuses on possibilities and difficulties of addressing legal interests (i.e. rights, restrictions and responsibilities) in land. A Swedish case study is used to describe the use of 3D property formation and registration in Sweden, and how it might be possible to achieve a more integrated, standard based registration of legal boundaries and physical buildings. The results emphasize how BIM and 3D property domains can interact to serve the needs for effective information handling by e.g. importing 3D cadastral boundaries into BIM as basis for decision-making or to use BIM as input in the 3D cadastral formation process.

  • 12.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed Sobaih Aly
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integration of Legal Aspects in 3D Cadastral Systems2015In: International Journal of E-Planning Research, ISSN 2160-9918, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 47-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article continues a research on the feasibility of BIM for 3D cadastre in unified building models, presented in . It describes problems and solutions concerning interaction between BIM and the registration and visualisation of legal 3D property information. BIM and legal 3D property are two seemingly different domains, and there is a lack of BIM-3D property research in relation to technical and registration issues. The article therefore focuses on possibilities and difficulties of addressing legal interests (i.e. rights, restrictions and responsibilities) in land. A Swedish case study is used to describe the use of 3D property formation and registration in Sweden, and how it might be possible to achieve a more integrated, standard based registration of legal boundaries and physical buildings. The results emphasize how BIM and 3D property domains can interact to serve the needs for effective information handling by e.g. importing 3D cadastral boundaries into BIM as basis for decision-making or to use BIM as input in the 3D cadastral formation process.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Helen
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet – the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Harrie, Lars
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Lantmäteriet – the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    What is the need for building parts? - A comparison of CityGML, INSPIRE building and a Swedish building standard2018In: International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives / [ed] Agugiaro G., Stoter J., Labetski A., Koeva M., and Arroyo Ohori K., International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing , 2018, Vol. 42, p. 27-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for digital building information is increasing, both in the form of 3D city models (as geodata) and of more detailed building information models (BIM). BIM models are mainly used in the architecture, engineering and construction industry, but have recently become interesting also for municipalities. The overall aim of this paper is to study one way of dividing a building, namely the division of a building into building parts in both 3D city models and in BIM models. The study starts by an inventory of how building parts are defined in 3D city model standards (CityGML, the INSPIRE building specification and a Swedish national specification for buildings) and in BIM models (Industry Foundation Classes, IFC). The definition of building parts in these specifications are compared and evaluated. The paper also describes potential applications for the use of building parts, on what grounds a building could be divided into building parts, advantages and disadvantages of having building parts and what consequences it can have on the usage of the building information. One finding is that building parts is defined similar, but not identical in the studied geodata specifications and there are no requirements, only recommendations on how buildings should be divided into building parts. This can complicate the modelling, exchange and reuse of building information, and in a longer perspective, it would be desirable to have recommendations of how to define and use building parts in for example a national context.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Helen
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet; Lunds universitet.
    Harrie, Lars
    Lunds universitet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Lantmäteriet.
    Persson, Andreas
    Lunds universitet.
    Techniques for and consequences of using INSPIRE extensions: a case study with Swedish hydrological data2018In: International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research, E-ISSN 1725-0463, Vol. 13, p. 172-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for easily available geographic information is increasing in society. Moreover, knowledge of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) has increased in many European governmental agencies, in large part because of the implementation of the INSPIRE directive. Many countries, thus, recognise the need to provide more detailed geographic information as network services at the national level. One means of realising this goal is to create INSPIRE extensions, i.e., to extend the INSPIRE data specifications with more detailed and specific national information. This paper describes a study where a complex INSPIRE extension has been created to describe the national need of hydrography information in Sweden, based on the Swedish water system standard (SWSS). The study includes the creation of a UML application schema that extends the INSPIRE Hydrography (HY) theme, the transform from UML to an XSD schema, the creation of GML files, and finally, testing and evaluating the approach of using INSPIRE extensions. When evaluating the results, the consequences of replacing existing dataset/download services with one extended INSPIRE HY dataset/download service are evaluated from the perspectives of both users and data providers. The evaluation is carried out as quantitative tests of the resulting GML files, in a user-centric test where a user tests the applicability of the GML files in hydrological analyses, and by telephone interviews with personnel from Lantmäteriet, the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority. Beside these evaluations, the possible effects on the information modelling process when creating an INSPIRE extension are also examined. The study shows that it is possible to create complex INSPIRE extensions that include many object types, attributes and relations. From a user perspective, extended INSPIRE HY files do not differ substantially from SWSS files, and can be used in hydrological analyses. Data providers can relatively simply replace their current download services with one for the extended INSPIRE HY, but the specific economic consequences for this could not be drawn. It could be expected, though, that there can be both economic, administrative and maintenance advantages if today’s separate INSPIRE and national download services are replaced with services exposing datasets based on an extended INSPIRE data model for all adequate themes.

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  • 15.
    Forsberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Sabel, Linda
    Lantmäteriet.
    Ericsson, Maria Nässert
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Steffen, Holger
    Lantmäteriet.
    Olsson, Håkan
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Harrie, Lars
    Lunds universitet.
    Horemuz, Milan
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan (KTH) .
    Ågren, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    RAPPORT GEODATARÅDETS HANDLINGSPLAN 2020: Aktivitet – 4i, Långsiktig kompetensförsörjning inom geodataområdet2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den nationella geodatastrategin som gäller för åren 2016–2020 återfinns målet ”Samverkan är välutvecklad” (mål nummer 4). Inom ramen för detta mål ingår en aktivitet (4i) som syftar till att säkerställa den långsiktiga kompetensförsörjningen inom geodataområdet. För att arbeta med frågan tillsattes en arbetsgrupp med representanter från Lantmäteriet och ett antal lärosäten. I denna rapport redovisas resultatet av den tillsatta arbetsgruppens undersökningar. Arbetet är i första hand inriktat på att hitta en väg framåt som kan leda till att kompetensen inom geodataområdet långsiktigt kan säkerställas och utvecklas. I uppdraget ingår även en internationell utblick. Denna har avgränsats till att avse våra nordiska grannländer, dvs. Norge, Finland, Danmark samt Nederländerna och Österrike. Geodataområdet har avgränsats till att omfatta följande områden:

    • Geodesi 
    • Tekniska aspekter av geografiska informationssystem (GIS) och geografisk informationsteknologi (GIT)
    • Fjärranalys
    • Fotogrammetri inklusive laserskanning
    • Tekniskt lantmäteri

    Många av slutsatserna från äldre rapporter och utredningar gäller fortfarande. Flera initiativ har genomförts för att komma till rätta med de identifierade problemen: samarbeten i olika forum, kostnadsfri tillgång till geodata för universitet och högskolor (via FUK-avtal), en förbättrad infrastruktur för geodata (genom forskning och regeringsuppdrag) samt utbildningssatsningar i tidig ålder (Geoskolan). Geodatarådets tidigare initiativ för att driva kompetensfrågorna i enlighet med 2012 års geodatastrategi har inte följts upp med motsvarande nya satsningar mellan åren 2016 till 2019.Det finns ett stort utbud av utbildningar inom geodataområdet utspridda på olika platser i Sverige. Kompetensförsörjningen inom geodataområdet är beroende av tillgången på välfungerande forskningsmiljöer. Goda forskningsmiljöer knyter till sig värdefulla resurser, exempelvis professorer, forskare, postdocs och doktorander. Förutom att bidra med kunskap och allokera ekonomiska resurser till forskning, förbättras lärosätenas möjligheter att kunna bedriva en attraktiv utbildning. Många gånger är en professur en nödvändighet för att åstadkomma den önskvärda forsknings- och utbildningsmiljön. Trots att flertalet utbildningsvarianter finns valbara vid ett antal lärosäten tycks tillgången på kompetens inte motsvara marknadens behov. Särskilt kritiskt tycks situationen vara för kompetenstillgången inom ämnesområdet fotogrammetri, där det idag inte finns någon profe-ssur i Sverige.Vid de tekniska högskolorna i Stockholm och Lund är söktrycket för de granskade utbildningarna gott, men få studenter väljer en inriktning mot geodata längre fram. Ämnesområdet geodata är relativt litet i förhållande till andra teknikområden och det finns en konkurrens mellan lärosätena. Detta har gjort ämnesområdet fragmentiserat med följden att inget lärosäte för närvarande tillhandahåller en komplett utbildnings- och forskningsmiljö. Det finns ett nationellt behov av en högkvalitativ masterutbildning som omfattar kärnämnena geodesi, fotogrammetri och geoinformatik. Om Sverige lyckas med att skapa en komplett masterutbildning som stöds av vitala forskargrupper bör det locka fler studenter till fortsätt utbildning, både på master- och forskarnivå. Forskningsverksamheten har flera viktiga funktioner i samhället. God forskning bidrar till att värna om Sveriges ställning som kunskapsnation och ger förutsättningar för vilken industri som etableras och stannar i landet. Aktiva forskargrupper bidrar till att skapa kompetensnätverk och får en särskild betydelse vid utbildningen av doktorander, lärare och studenter som sedan kan förse samhället med nödvändig expertkompetens. De ansträngningar som har gjorts för att försöka påverka forskningsfinansiärerna att prioritera geodataområdet har hittills varit fruktlösa. Medel får sökas inom ramen för andra forskningsprojekt. En långsiktig finansiell försörjning är en förutsättning för att forskning ska kunna bedrivas uthålligt och hålla en hög kvalitet. I Sverige finns det ingen utsedd huvudfinansiär för forskning inom geodataområdet, något som uppmärksammades redan i Geodatarådets utredning från 2008. Situationen ser likadan ut i dag, tillgången på forskningsmedel är bristfällig och det saknas en långsiktig forskningsförsörjning. I denna rapport presenteras en handlingsplan för att säkerställa den fram-tida kompetensuppbyggnaden inom geodataområdet. Arbetet bör initieras och följas upp av Geodatarådet samt utgöra en grund för inspel till kommande forskningsproposition (närmast år 2025) och dialog med berörda departement. Tre av de föreslagna aktiviteterna återges nedan:

    • Arbeta för att skapa minst en komplett utbildnings- och forskningsmiljö som kan fungera som kompetenscentrum, och som inkluderar ämnesområdena geodesi, fotogrammetri (inklusive laserskanning) samt geoinformatik.
    • Bilda en marknadsföringsgrupp med representanter från Geodatarådets medlemmar samt lärosäten och branschföretag som tillsammans arbetar fram en gemensam handlingsplan med aktivi-teter och kampanjer för att öka söktrycket till utbildningar med inriktning mot geodata.
    • Ge Lantmäteriet ett forskningsfinansierande uppdrag. Formerna för ett sådant uppdrag behöver utredas närmare med andra forsknings-finansierande myndigheter som förebild. Denna lösning kräver ändringar i Lantmäteriets instruktion samt ett höjt ramanslag vilket måste tas med i beräkning vid ärendets beredning.
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  • 16.
    Hespanha, Joao
    et al.
    Technology and Management Polytechnic School, Águeda, Portugal.
    Jardim, Monica
    Law Faculty, University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Zevenbergen, Jaap
    OTB Research Institute, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Modelling Legal and Administrative Cadastral Domain: Implementing into the Portoguese Legal Framework2009In: Journal of Comparative Law, ISSN 1477-0814, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 140-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research concerning the classification and modelling of rights, restrictions, and responsibilities related to real property based on a systems approach within the domain of land registration and cadastre commenced with the Core Cadastral Domain Model (CCDM) initiative in 2002. That model has been renamed the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), having at its core a conceptual model of the relationship of persons (natural, non-natural or group) to registered objects through rights, restrictions, and responsibilities. This basic relationship is assumed to be applicable to land registration and cadastral systems throughout the world. In fact, LADM has gathered support from such international organizations as OGC, ISO/TC211, UN-Habitat and EU-Inspire.1 It is being discussed within the International Standards Organization (ISO) as Working Draft 19152 with a view to issuing a new international standard.2The research leading to the original CCDM has been published through a series of papers concerning different modelling aspects, cumulating in two articles. One generic3 and one on the proposed implementation of the Portuguese Cadastre.4 This first implementation exercise, as well as a current (operational) implementation to the Icelandic Cadastre,5 both focused specially on the cadastral component (specifically, geometry and spatial topology of surveying and mapping objects, especially parcels).

  • 17.
    Hjelmblom, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Edlund, Marina
    The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority.
    Bökman, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Towards Automation of the Swedish Property Formation Process: A Structural and Logical Analysis of Property Subdivision2019In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 29-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing digitalization of public administration and increasedautomation of legal decision-making bears promise to benefit citizens,businesses and other stakeholders through simpler and more efficient civilprocesses, and thus has great impact on the urban planning and buildingprocess. However, automation of decision-making that is directed orconstrained by normative systems such as laws, regulations and policies,requires a detailed and accurate representation of these concepts andtheir constituent parts, and the domain to which they are applied. Thispaper combines two perspectives on formalisation and classification oflegal relations within the urban planning and building domain. In a crossdisciplinaryfashion, the paper analyses and describes a small part of thisdomain at a higher level of abstraction and formalization using two differentanalysis instruments. Using these tools, we perform structural and conceptualas well as logical analyses of two specific snapshots of a fictitious propertysubdivision case in Sweden, focusing on the legal relations between differententities and parties involved in the specific situations. The structural analysisuses the Land Administration Domain Model ISO 19152:2012 standardformalism, and the logical analysis is based on the notion of atomic types oflegal relations. The paper discusses some of the strengths and weaknesses ofthe two tools regarding the formal representation of rights, restrictions andresponsibilities of different parties in the land administration domain, as wellas how the tools relate to each other and how they can be aligned. This papertakes one step towards a deeper understanding of the domain, and identifyareas for future research that may provide better conditions for efficient andtransparent use of geospatial information, and automation of the propertysubdivision process and other related civil processes.

  • 18.
    Kalogianni, Eftychia
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Kara, Abdullah
    Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Beck, Anthny
    Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Zevenbergen, Jaap
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Dimopoulou, Efi
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Oosterom, Peter van
    Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Lemmen, Christiaan
    Dutch Cadaster, the Netherlands.
    Refining the Legal Land Administration-related Aspects in LADM2022In: 10th International FIG workshop on the Land Administration Domain Model in LADM, 2022, p. 255-276Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the topics that are introduced and/ or being refined in the context of the revision of the LADM 19152:2012, the legal Land Administration-related aspects are being investigated. With the knowledge and the experience from the developments of the LADM so far, and the ongoing discussion between the parties involved in the standardisation process, the need to clarify certain legal land-related aspects and to examine the alternatives for further refinement is highlighted.Therefore, this paper presents prior work on LADM-related legal aspects since the vote of LADM as ISO standard (2012), till the time of the preparation of this paper (2021) to report the necessary background for this research. This concerns the developments related to the various legal refinements that have been proposed during this time period and specifically the refinement of the legal profiles, the LADM functional support to representation of both statutory and customary tenure and the work regarding the explicit definition of restrictions that arise from Public Law.Moreover, this paper focuses on documenting the proposals on a refined legal model for the LADM Edition II. These include the following: (a) more detailed classification of RRRs, based on the two major types of interests in land: privately agreed interests as well as regulations imposed by a public agency and Public Law restrictions. The paper also includes (b) a discussion on the extent that LADM Edition I provides efficient support for the title and deed registration systems (as others e.g. in socialist environment), as well as (c) a discussion on how restrictions and responsibilities can be modelled as rights’ relationships between an owning and a benefitting Party.

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  • 19.
    Karabin, Marcin
    et al.
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Koeva, Mila
    University of Twente (ITC), The Netherlands.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna, Austria.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Vučić, Nicola
    State Geodetic Administration, Croatia.
    Janečka, Karel
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Lisec, Anka
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Layer approach to ownership in 3D cadastre: a subway case2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, Copenhagen: The International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018, p. 111-136Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses onapproaches to the registration of real property rights in the case of underground or subway tunnels in different EU countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Greece, Poland, Slovenia, and Sweden. The Authors made analysis of the current way of registration of rights to subway tunnels in the chosen countries, including its effectiveness in ensuring appropriate property rights to construct and exploit tunnels. A special attention was given to limitations related to the lack of the possibility to vertically divide the space, i.e. to divide the space into layers, and to refer the ownership right to the layers. Benefits which might be achieved by the introduction of a 3D real property cadastre were pointed out. The analysis of available data concerning the geometry of subway tunnels in particular countries was presented. The authors tried to answer the question whether the accessible data concerning the geometry of subway tunnels allows to generate a 3D geospatial model of a constructed object, and to specify the space which should be determined as a 3D parcel in the 3D real property cadastre, for the purpose of registering property rights for the object (the tunnel).

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  • 20.
    Karabin, Marcin
    et al.
    Warsaw University of Technology.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Koeva, Mila
    University of Twente.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Aalborg University.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH.
    Vučić, Nikola
    State Geodetic Administration, Gruška 20, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Janečka, Karel
    University of West Bohemia.
    Lisec, Anka
    University of Ljubljana.
    Layer approach to ownership in 3D cadastre in the case of underground tunnels2020In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 98, article id 104464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on approaches to the registration of real property rights in the case of underground or subway tunnels in different EU countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Greece, Poland, Slovenia, and Sweden. The authors conducted analysis on the registration of rights to subway tunnels in the chosen countries, including its effectiveness in ensuring appropriate property rights to construct and exploit tunnels. Special attention was given to limitations related to the lack of legal provisions vertically dividing space, i.e. into layers, and referring to the ownership right to the layers. Benefits which might be achieved by the introduction of a 3D real property subdivision were pointed out. The analysis of the available data concerning the geometry of subway tunnels in particular countries was presented. The authors tried to answer the question whether the accessible data concerning the geometry of subway tunnels allows to generate a 3D geospatial model of a constructed object, and to specify the space which should be determined as a 3D parcel in the 3D real property cadastre, for the purpose of registering property rights for the object (the tunnel).

  • 21. Karolina, Larsson
    et al.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Visualisation of 3D Property Units - experiences from a case study in Stockholm, Sweden2023In: Proceedings 11th International FIG Land Administration Domain Model / 3D Land Administration Workshop, Köpenhamn, 2023, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on experiences concerning a project aiming at visualisation of three dimensional (3D) property units in Stockholm, Sweden. The Swedish national registration system, the national real property register, includes a textual description as well as a two dimensional map, normally consisting of a scan of the legal map document produced during the property formation process. Today, a 3D-pdf or a BIM model cannot be part of the formal property formation decision and documentation. It can thus be difficult to illustrate 3D real property on just a two-dimensional map.The paper describes a project carried out by Stockholm municipality to visualise 3D property unit volumes within the municipality by combining them with existing 3D city models (including building- and terrain models). The aim is to show and analyse the problems and challenges identified in the project by illustrating what has been done and how the use of 3D real property information can be further developed in the future.The method used in this research is a document study of the project focusing on representation in the digital cadastral index map for 3D real property units as part of the national real property register, as well as associated documentation from other agencies, and by interviewing key persons involved in the project.The project created a local 3D model which is stored in the municipality´s own internal database. Some information was retrieved from the national real property register, such as information on height (lowest and highest) and the horizontal expansion of the real property. Data was then processed and analysed using Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) to create 3D property volumes. The project used in-house software and data as much as possible. The volumes were stored in the municipal database. The 3D volumes could be used as a supplement to the information stored in the national real property register and the cadastral dossiers. The results can be used as a component for the development of a national three-dimensional cadastral index map as well as for enabling 3Dmodels as part of the formal cadastral property formation procedure.

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  • 22.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    State Geodetic Administration, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet.
    Koeva, Mila
    University of Twente (ITC), The Netherlands.
    Janecka, Karel
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Erba, Diego
    National University of Litoral, Argentina.
    Alberdi, Ramiro
    National University of Catamarca, Argentina.
    Kalantari, Mohsen
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Yang, Zhixuan (Jenny)
    Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, China.
    Pouliot, Jacynthe
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Roy, Francis
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Montero, Mónica
    United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), Costa Rica.
    Alvarado, Adrián
    Universities UCEM and University of San José, Costa Rica.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Australia.
    3D Cadastres Best Practices, Chapter 1: Legal foundations2018In: FIG Congress 2018: Proceedings, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s. Literature provides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well as those that are already implementing 3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined. This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in 15 cadastral jurisdictions, based on the authors’ national experience, covering Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East and Australia. Each of the legal system in these cadastral jurisdiction are based on different origins of Civil Law, including German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian Civil Law, which can prove useful to research in other Civil Law jurisdictions interested in introducing 3D cadastral systems. These jurisdictionsare at different stages of introducing and implementing a 3D cadastral system. This contributes to the detection of the 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems, while highlighting challenges that may have not yet surfaced in individual jurisdictions. This paper aims to present the different legal concepts regarding 3D real property in the examined countries, focusing on the characteristic features of cadastral objects described as 3D within each country’s legal and cadastral framework. The analysis of the case studies revealed that the countries are on different stages of 3D Cadastral implementation, starting from countries with operational 3D cadastral systems, to others where there is yet no interest in introducing a 3D cadastral system. This paper presents the nature of 3D cadastral objects in each country, as well as differences in the regulatory framework regarding definition, description and registration. The paper continues the legal workshop discussions of the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres in the above-mentioned countries. The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences in use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The article concludes by presenting a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed which can be used to draft national and international research proposals and form legislative amendments towards introduction of national 3D cadastral systems.

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  • 23.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineeriing, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Department for Geodesy and Geoinformation, Technical Unviersity Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    Department for Administrative and Professional Supervision, The State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia, Zagrec, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Department of Cadastre and Land Management, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koeva, Mila
    Department of Urban and Regional Planning, ITC FAcultu, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Janečka, Karel
    Geomatics, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic.
    Erba, Diego
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydric Sciences, National University of Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Alberdi, Ramiro
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydrics Sciences, National University of Catamarca, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Kalantari, Mohsen
    Centre for SDIs and Land Administration (CSDILA), Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Yang, Zhixuan
    School of Investment and Construction Management, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian, Liaoning, China.
    Pouliot, Jacynthe
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Roy, Francis
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Montero, Monica
    Provincia de Heredia, Costa Rica.
    Alvarado, Adrian
    Alajuela, Costa Rica.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Department of Natural Resource and Mines, Queensland Government, Brisbande, Australia.
    Chapter 1. Legal Foundations2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Extended version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 1-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s.Literature provides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well as those that are alreadyimplementing3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined.This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in 15 cadastral jurisdictions, based on the authors’ national experience, covering Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East and Australia. Each of the legal system in these cadastral jurisdiction arebased on different origins of Civil Law, including German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian Civil Law, which can prove useful to research in other Civil Law jurisdictions interested in introducing 3D cadastral systems. These jurisdictionsare atdifferent stages of introducing and implementing a 3D cadastral system.This contributesto the detection of the 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems,whilehighlighting challenges that may have not yet surfacedin individual jurisdictions. This paper aims to present the different legal concepts regarding 3D real property in the examined countries, focusing on the characteristic features of cadastral objects described as 3D within each country’s legal and cadastral framework. The analysis of the case studies revealed that the countries are on different stages of 3D Cadastralimplementation, starting from countries with operational 3D cadastral systems, to others where there is yet no interest in introducing a 3D cadastral system.This paper presents the nature of 3D cadastral objects in each country, as well as differences in the regulatory framework regarding definition, description and registration. The paper continues the legal workshop discussions of the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres in the above-mentioned countries. The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences in use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The article concludes by presenting a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed which can be used to draft national and international research proposals and form legislative amendments towards introduction of national 3D cadastral systems.

  • 24.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineeriing, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Department for Geodesy and Geoinformation, Technical Unviersity Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    Department for Administrative and Professional Supervision, The State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia, Zagrec, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Department of Cadastre and Land Management, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koeva, Mila
    Department of Urban and Regional Planning, ITC FAcultu, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Janečka, Karel
    Geomatics, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic.
    Erba, Diego
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydric Sciences, National University of Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Alberdi, Ramiro
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydrics Sciences, National University of Catamarca, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Kalantari, Mohsen
    Centre for SDIs and Land Administration (CSDILA), Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Yang, Zhixuan
    School of Investment and Construction Management, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian, Liaoning, China.
    Pouliot, Jacynthe
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Roy, Francis
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Montero, Monica
    Provincia de Heredia, Costa Rica.
    Alvarado, Adrian
    Alajuela, Costa Rica.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Department of Natural Resource and Mines, Queensland Government, Brisbande, Australia.
    Chapter 1. Legal Foundations2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Printed version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increasedinterest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s while literatureprovides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well asalready implementing 3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspectsof 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not beenso rigorously examined.This chapter compares and discusses 3D property concepts in fifteen selected countries,based on the authors’ national experience, covering Europe, North and LatinAmerica, Middle East and Australia.

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  • 25.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna.
    Vučić,, Nikola
    State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Warsaw University of Technology.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholm University.
    Koeva, Mila
    University of Twente, ITC.
    Janečka, Karel
    University of West Bohemia.
    Erba, Diego
    National University of Litoral, Argentina..
    Alberdi, Ramiro
    National University of Catamarca, Argentina.
    Kalantari, Mohsen
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Yang, Zhixuan
    Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, China.
    Pouliot, Jacynthe
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Roy, Francis
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Montero, Monica
    United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), Costa Rica.
    Alvarado, Adrian
    Universities UCEM and University of San José in Costa Rica.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Australia.
    Бүлэг 1 Эрх зүйн үндэслэл (Chapter 1: Legal foundations)2024In: 3DКАДАСТРЫН ШИЛДЭГ ТУРШЛАГУУД (Best Practices 3D Cadastres) / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) , 2024, p. 1-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [mn]

    Гурван хэмжээст (3 D үл хөдлөх хөрөнгийн талаарх ойлголт, үзэл баримтлалууд 90 ээд онысүүл үеэс эхлэн газар зохион байгуулалтын баримт бичиг болон судалгааны бүтээлүүдэдтусах болсон билээ. Өнөө цагт бид 3 D кадастрын талаар хийгдсэн судалгаа, өргөн цархүрээтэй ойлголт, шилд эг туршлагуудыг олон ном, судалгааны бүтээлүүдээс харж болно.Хэдий тийм боловч ихэнх улс орнуудад 3 D үл хөдлөх хөрөнгийн эрх зүйн зохицуулалтуудыгнарийвчлан тодорхойлж 3 D кадастрын системийг эрхлэх асуудал одоо хүртэл нарийншийдэгдэ эгүй, судлагдаагүй хэвээр байна.Энэ бүлэгт Европ, Хойд болон Латин Америк, Ойрх Дорнод, Австралийн нийт 15 өөр эрхзүйн орчин дахь 3 D үл хөдлөх хөрөнгийн үзэл баримтлалыг зохиогчдын өөрсдийнх ньүндэсний туршлагад тулгуурлан харьцуулан авч үзсэн болно. Түүнчлэн Герман, Франц,Скандинав з эрэг өөр өөр ялгаатай иргэний эрх зүйн орчин дэх 3 D кадастрын системийнжишээг авч үзсэн нь эдгээр улстай ижил төрлийн эрх зүйн систем хөгжсөн бусад орнуудад3D кадастрын системийг нэвтрүүлэхэд тус нэмэр болох буй заа. Гэхдээ эдгээр жишээ, сайнтуршлагууд нь 3 D кадастрын системийг нэвтрүүлэх, хэрэгжүүлэх гэх мэт өөр өөр үе шатандявж байгааг анхаарна биз ээ. Энэ нь 3 D үл хөдлөх хөрөнгийн үзэл баримтлал, 3 D кадастрынсистемийг нэвтрүүлэхэд тулгамдаж буй асуудлуудыг тодорхойлоход хувь нэмэр оруулахынзэрэгцээ тухайн эрх зүйн орчинд хараахан бий болоогүй байгаа бэрхшээл, асуудлуудыгурьдчилж харахад илүү дөхөм болгож байна.Түүнчлэн та бүхэнд хүргэхийг зорьсон дараагийн асуудал бол тухайн улс бүрийн эрх зүйнорчин болон кадастрын систем дэх 3 D гэж тодорхойлсон кадастрын объектуудын онцлог,шинж чанаруудыг илүү тодотгон тайлбарлах юм. Мөн 3 D кадастрын системтэй улсорнуудаас э хлээд 3 D кадастрын системийг нэвтрүүлэх сонирхолгүй байгаа улс орнуудынжишээ, туршлагад дүн шинжилгээ хийж 3 D кадастрын объектын мөн чанар, үзэл баримтлал,бүртгэлийн зохицуулалтын тогтолцооны ялгааг харуулжээ. Тус бүтээлд дээр дурдсан улсорнуудын 3 D кад астрын эрх зүйн үзэл баримтлалд дүн шинжилгээ хийх замаар 2014 ондДубайд болсон 3 D кадастрын олон улсын 4 р хурлын эрх зүйн салбар хуралдааныхэлэлцүүлэгт хөндөгдсөн асуудлуудыг үргэлжлүүлсэн болно. Үүний үр дүнд 3 D үл хөдлөххөрөнгийн тухай одоо байгаа эрх зүйн тогтолцоо, үзэл баримтлал, ойлголтуудыг тоймложхөрөнгийн тухай одоо байгаа эрх зүйн тогтолцоо, үзэл баримтлал, ойлголтуудыг тоймлож тэдгээрийн ижил төстэй болон ялгаатай байдлыг тайлбарласан байна. Төгсгөлд нь цаашид тэдгээрийн ижил төстэй болон ялгаатай байдлыг тайлбарласан байна. Төгсгөлд нь цаашид хэрхэх арга замыг танилцуулж, тухайн улсын болон олон улсын хэмжээнд 3хэрхэх арга замыг танилцуулж, тухайн улсын болон олон улсын хэмжээнд 3D D кадастрын кадастрын систсистемийг нэвтрүүлэхэд хууль тогтоомжид нь ямар нэмэлт өөрчлөлт оруулах шаардлагатай емийг нэвтрүүлэхэд хууль тогтоомжид нь ямар нэмэлт өөрчлөлт оруулах шаардлагатай талаар судалгааны үндэслэл боловсруулах шаардлагыг тодорхойлжээ.талаар судалгааны үндэслэл боловсруулах шаардлагыг тодорхойлжээ.

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  • 26.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. The Swedish mapping, cadastral an d land registration authority .
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    State Geodetic Administration, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Tenório Carneiro, Andréa Flávia
    Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet.
    3D Real Property Legal Concepts and Cadastre: A Comparative Study of Selected Countries to Propose a Way Forward2016In: 5th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Efi Dimopoulou & Elfriede Fendel, International Federation of Surveyors , 2016, p. 1-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s while literature provides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well as already implementing 3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined. This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in six selected countries: Austria, Brazil, Croatia, Greece, Poland and Sweden, based on the authors’ national experience. Each of these countries’ legal system is based on different origins of Civil Law, including German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian Civil Law, which can prove useful to research in other Civil Law jurisdictions interested in introducing 3D cadastral systems. Selected countries are on different stages of introducing and implementing a 3D cadastral system; this may contribute to the detection of the main 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies and malfunctions that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems, highlighting challenges that may have not yet surfaced. This paper aims to present the different legal concepts regarding 3D real property in the examined countries, focusing on the characteristic features of cadastral objects described as 3D within each country’s legal and cadastral framework. The analysis of the case studies revealed that the countries are on different stages of 3D Cadastre implementation, starting from countries with operational 3D cadastral systems, to others where there is yet no interest in introducing a 3D cadastral system. 3D cadastral objects in each country are presented, as well as differences in the regulatory framework regarding definition, description and registration. The paper continues the legal workshop discussions of the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres in the above mentioned countries. The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences in use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The article concludes by presenting a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed which can be used to draft national and international research proposals and form legislative amendments towards introduction of national 3D cadastral systems.

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  • 27.
    Land, Kristin
    et al.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Human Resource Provision and Capacity Development: Recent Initiatives at Lantmäteriet in Sweden2015In: Proceedings of the FIG Working Week 2015, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Securing human resources (HR), building capacity, and implementing the potential of existingstaff are vital for the development of any organisation or company, including the landsurveying, cadastral and land management sectors. This raises questions concerning how tocompete with others and what is the necessary level of capacity among current and futureemployees. Let us ask ourselves: who wants to become a surveyor today, and what makes himor her stay within the business? These issues seem to be familiar to many of the authoritiesand companies in our professional field around the world. There is likely a range of differentanswers depending on country-specific aspects.Lantmäteriet (the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority) alone estimatesa need for a hundred new employees annually over the next years in order to manage theongoing change of generations and the increasing demand for services within certain areas. Inaddition, most municipalities and various regional and national authorities having landsurveyors in their workforce are looking for new staff to their organisations. Besides thisdemand from the public sector, private companies within the property business are also inneed of new staff. A major challenge is hence finding efficient ways to recruit new cadastralsurveyors, geodesists, geodata specialists, lawyers, etc., and to keep them for a significantperiod of time. Lantmäteriet has therefore taken various initiatives during the last few years.Some activities target the whole organisation, while others are tailor-made to fit particularbranches.This paper presents several current and recent initiatives regarding HR provision and capacitydevelopment affecting Lantmäteriet’s personnel. Examples are promotion activities atschools, teaching support to universities, internal training for new staff, continuous learningfor experienced staff, mentorships, talent development programmes, and networking withother authorities. The paper also touches upon impacts so far and what is anticipated for thecoming years.

  • 28.
    Larsson, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholms Stad.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    3D property formation in complex infrastructure- and building projects - Exemplified by the Slussen project in Stockholm2023In: Proceedings 11th International FIG Land Administration Domain Model / 3D Land Administration Workshop, Köpenhamn, 2023, p. 195-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the use of 3D real property formation at a major construction site in Stockholm, Sweden, project Slussen. Real property formation with complex 3D volumes and numerous real properties and associated rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) has to be shown with the real properties and RRRs in relation to each other. The present legal solutions and documentation thereof are based on analogue documentation (digitalised to pdf) and cannot be attached as e.g. dwg files. Architects and other professionals do not normally have access to the 3D real property boundaries in their 3D building models from the beginning of a project and the exact locations of boundaries are agreed upon during the formation process to achieve as usable solutions as possible.The aim of this paper is to describe the 3D property formation process when involving complex solutions securing RRRs to solve legal and planning challenges on different levels of detail. The paper focuses on the cadastral real property formation procedures using 3D property formation for constructions above and underground, as well as how they are registered in the national real property register. The paper illustrates a complex 3D property solution and adds to the understanding of the challenges of registration and visualisation of Swedish 3D real property in Stockholm, focusing on legal as well as technical experiences. This research is a document study based on an analysis of the property formation and planning documentation and processes of a cadastral procedure conducted in the Slussen project, as well as associated documentation from other agencies, and by interviewing key persons involved in the project. The paper illustrates the need for a national cadastral index map in three dimensions to be used in the formal real property formation procedures, to achieve a comprehensible and correct representation and visualisation of 3D real properties and RRRs in Sweden. The results can be used as input in coming property formations of a similar kind, as well as a component for the development of a national three-dimensional cadastral index map. Furthermore, the results can be an input to capacity building for the future use of 3D models as part of the formal cadastral property formation procedure.

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  • 29.
    Larsson, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholms stad.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Conversion of 2D Analogue Cadastral Boundary Plans into 3D Digital Information: problems and challenges illustrated by a Swedish case2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, 2018, p. 75-94Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of forming 3D property units has not existed for a long time in Sweden. The legislation was introduced in 2004 and in 2009 the addition of apartment ownership (condominium) was added. Even though the demand for 3D property formation has not been as high yet as initially expected, there seems to be an increased interest in and demand for it today. The use of 3D property creates a need for 3D registration and visualization of the property units, which can involve difficulties in e.g. representation and storage of 3D real property data, such as the legal boundaries and real property rights connected to the property.However, even if 3D digital information is used in the real property formation process the 3D properties are still registered using two–dimensional documentation. An ongoing study, which is a part of a project testing 3D data, see Andree et al. (2018a; 2018b) and Tarandi (2017), is focusing on visualization of 3D cadastral boundaries.This paper discusses problems and challenges concerning the conversion of 2D analogue cadastral boundary plans into 3D digital information and is based on experiences being gained in a research project on visualization of 3D property boundaries in Sweden, see Andree et al. (2018a; 2018b). A newly constructed sports– and event arena in Stockholm where 3D properties are involved is used as a case study in the project to illustrate the process and the problems related to it. Focus lies here on legal issues, although other aspects will be mentioned as well.The legal foundations for 3D property formation in Sweden are primarily the Swedish Land Code (SFS, 1970:944) and the Real Property Formation Act (SFS, 1970:988). The rights, restrictions and responsibilities, RRRs, are registered in the national Real Property Register, which also includes registration in the two–dimensional digital cadastral index map.A description of the process of forming 3D property is included in the paper regarding the documents and parties involved. In the present cadastral processes concerning new 3D property formation a CAD drawing containing 3D real property boundaries is often supplied by the developer/entrepreneur. However, the 3D cadastral representation and the documentation in the cadastral dossier is recorded in 2D (El–Mekawy, Paasch and Paulsson, 2014). The CAD file may – or may not - be archived for future use by the Cadastral authority. We therefore sometimes may have to interpret two–dimensional data and convert it to be used in a 3D environment, e.g. BIM. This paper illustrates and exemplifies with some experiences of interpreting the cadastral dossiers for presentation in a 3D digital environment.Current legislation has to be investigated and interpreted to be able to add or transform into using 3D models as part of cadastral decisions in Sweden. New regulations also may have to be introduced and analysed. In this paper some of the legal issues that need to be addressed are mentioned, however more work needs to be done in order to get answers to what changes may be needed regarding legislation on this matter.

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  • 30.
    Larsson, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholms Stad; Lantmäteriet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Aalborg University.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH.
    Representation of 3D cadastral boundaries: From analogue to digital2020In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 98, article id 104178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses problems and challenges concerning the process of conversion of 2D analogue cadastral boundary plans into 3D digital information and is based on experiences from a research project on visualization of 3D property boundaries in Sweden. An area next to a newly constructed sports– and event arena in Stockholm, where 3D properties are formed, is used as a case study in the project to illustrate the process and the problems related to it. Focus lies on legal issues, although other aspects are mentioned as well. The rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) are registered in the national Real Property Register, which also includes registration in the two–dimensional Digital Cadastral Index Map. 

    A description of the process of forming 3D property is included in the paper regarding the documents and parties involved. The result of the study is that it is necessary to interpret two–dimensional cadastral data and textual descriptions in order for it to be used in a digital 3D environment, e.g. BIM.

    The study shows that current legislation has to be investigated and interpreted in detail to be able to add or transform into using 3D models as part of cadastral decisions in Sweden. The current cadastral process is also analysed and suggestions for further development are provided.

  • 31.
    Lemmen, Christiaan
    et al.
    Kadaster.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    TU Delft.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    TU Delft.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Department Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zevenbergen, Jaap
    UT/ITC.
    Legal Refinement of the LADM Standard: More classes or extended code lists with better defined types of Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities?2014In: PLPR 2014 Conference: Book of Abstracts, 2014, p. 91-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide legal security in property rights/land tenure and support efficient land use planning, one needs a well-functioning system of land administration. In other words good land administration is the basis for sustainable land management and a stable and efficient land market.

    Although property rights and procedures vary considerably between jurisdictions, the underlying data model to support land administration was found to be quite similar. Therefore, a decade ago, several of the authors of this paper initiated the process of coming to an international reference standard for land administration, the so-called Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). LADM is a framework for describing interest in land according to internationally agreed concepts and terminology and makes it possible to categorize interests in land (in specific jurisdiction) regardless of the origin in different legal systems. This not only enables the improvement and further development of national systems of land administration, but also supports international communication and exchange of data. In 2012 the LADM became an international standard, ISO 19152.

    The LADM is based on “right”, “restriction” and “responsibility” (RRR) classes, which can apply to land, but also to buildings, network utilities, and 3D volumetric spatial units. Based on a number of earlier publications, such as (Paasch 2012), (Paasch et al 2013) and (Hespanha et al 2013), this paper explores the need and possible approaches to a more detailed classification of property rights, by either adding more subclasses for specific sets of RRRs, clustered after their legal or societal characteristics (e.g. common rights, latent rights, customary rights or informal rights as explored by (Paasch et al 2013)) or by the extension of code list values in LADM for a more refined classifications, or both. Options to ‘define’ code list values are: 1. describe with natural text, or 2. additionally encode an hierarchical structure to code list values, or 3. develop an ontology of the code list values, such as ownership, lease, etc. However, in all options it is non-trivial to define formally basic legal concepts such as ‘ownership’.

    We will further investigate these aspects, including the decision when to add new classes and when to extend the code list values. In case of code list it will be further explored what is good approach to define the values.

  • 32.
    Liedholm Johnson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Classification and Co-ordination of Conflicting Rights for Sustainable Land Use2014In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 61-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate the possibilities to detect the conflicts between national interests and rights for sustainable land use. The analysis is based on a newly developed standardized terminological framework for classification of interests in land, the Legal Cadastral Domain Model. The model is used to classify conflicting rights in two Swedish mining areas, Kiruna and Bunge, in Kiruna the relocation of the city due to mining interests and in Bunge the ongoing conflict between mining interests and national nature preservation interests.

    The study shows that it is relevant to use a standardized approach for getting an overview of and thus comparing the multi-facetted nature of private and public interests in land. For example, land use regulations, such as a zoning plan, often contain prohibitions and obligations for the property owner embedded in the same document and a mining concession may contain instructions for environmental protection activities. They are in the model classified as separate interests beneficial or limiting for the right holder. A detailed classification therefore provides an overview and can assist officials and decision makers in identifying and co-ordinating conflicting interests.

  • 33.
    Liedholm Johnson, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    swedish mapping cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Comparative Studies on Land Use Rights M: Methodological and Standardization Aspects2015In: Journal of Comparative Law, ISSN 1477-0814, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Liedholm Johnson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Sustainable Land Use: Detection and Classification of Conflicting Rights2015In: Book of Abstracts: Planning Law and Property Rights 25-27 February 2015 Volos - Greece, 2015, p. 77-77Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 35.
    Lundsten, Jonas
    et al.
    Malmö universitet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Individual’s Motivation in Standardization of Geographic Information2018In: FIG 2018 Istanbul : Proceedings, The International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018, article id 9364Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic information and standardization has gained increased interest in the last decades due to the increased use and exchange of digital data describing geographicand administrative features. Standards and related documents, such as technical reports, play an important part in this for private and public organizations. However, the role and motivation of the individual participants in the standardization process has been less researched. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study on participants’ personal meaningful goals for participating in formal standardization work at the Swedish Standards Institute, SIS. The study focus on production of national standards and related documents, for example national guidelines and other publications. The research question is how project team members are motivated in the standardization project. One or more participants in each of the technical committees, TCs, working with geographicinformation standardization, have been interviewed in regard to how they perceive their individual involvement in the standardization work and the personal meaningful goals making them to do so. A phenomenological method, Meaning Constitution Analysis (MCA), was used for analyzingthe interviewee’s experiences of the projects. The organizational motive behind the project and the personal meaningful goals for the individuals were focused on in the analysis of each interview. The study concluded that the investigated private companies and public organizations fulfil their obligations concerning financing the TCs work, but that some companies and organizationsdo not allow sufficient time for their employees to engage in standardization work, due to prioritization of other day-to-day tasks to be done. That is, standardization was not the organization's main motive. This may lead, apart from poor work environment for the individual participants and concerns about how to prioritize their daily work, which may result in delayed standardization projects. The interviewed participants were mainly motivated by their individual curiosity for the subject. That is, learning was a main personal meaningful goal. However, participants with frequent contacts with stakeholders had a significant motivation for participating, with the long-term goal to satisfy the stakeholders’ needs.

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  • 36.
    Lundsten, Jonas
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Motives for Participation in Formal Standardisation Processes for Geographic Information: An Empirical Study in Sweden2017In: International Journal of Standardization Research (IJSR), ISSN 2470-8542, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 16-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the personal motives for participation in formalstandardization processes for geographic information. The method involved interviewing membersof technical committees at the Swedish Standards Institute, SIS. The results are that the majority ofthe interviewees are very motivated in their work and they think their participation is well-financedby their organizations allocating them to a technical committee. The main motives are to contributeto development of society and be at the forefront of development. However, this article also showsthat several members participating in this study felt that they do not have sufficient time for workingwith tasks related to their technical committees. Their daily work in their respective organizationsoften has higher priority in relation to standardization work. This contrasts with the organizationalgoals of the participating organizations and may slow down the development of standards and otherpublications due to lack of resources.

  • 37.
    Lundsten, Jonas
    et al.
    Malmö universitet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    The individuals’ participation in standards setting: role, influence, and motivation2019In: Shaping the Future Through Standardization / [ed] Kai Jacobs, IGI Global, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since standardization is essential and additionally have organizational effects, studying motivation for participating in standardization processes is important. A phenomenological study of descriptions made by individual participants in project teams for geographical information at the Swedish Standards Institute, SIS, was conducted 2016-2017. The study indicated that participants were motivated, but there were different motivators depending on the participants’ differing contexts. For most participants the main personal meaningful goal was  to be at the forefront of development. For participants employed by organizations with frequent interactions with stakeholders, the main personal meaningful goal was to satisfy the stakeholders’ needs. This study also showed that several members felt that they do not have sufficient time for working with standardization asks, due to that their daily work in their organizations often has higher priority in relation to standardization work. This may slow down the development of standards and other publications due to lack of resources.

  • 38.
    Madsen, Morten D.
    et al.
    Aalborg Universitet, Danmark.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Aalborg Universitet, Danmark.
    Sørensen, Esben M.
    Aalborg Universitet, Danmark.
    The many faces of condominiums and various management structures − The Danish case2022In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 120, article id 106273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of condominium in Denmark is traditionally associated with owner apartments used for residential purposes (individually owned by the resident). The condominium law translated from Danish: “Law of owner apartments” was primarily intended to support the housing market and was mainly introduced to allow renters to become owners of a rental apartment in a high-rise building, i.e., making it possible forthem to enter the housing market without having to invest in an (often more expensive) traditional house on a real property. However, the law also applies on other nonresidential rooms in a building, thus the expression, many faces, is appropriate. The ownership right to a condominium unit includes a share in all components of the common property. This share also includes the responsibility to pay for common expenses regarding the common components. In traditional high-rise (single-use) buildings the common components of the condominium property include e.g., the outer walls, roof, cellar and a staircase or an elevator. Because of the nature of (single-use) buildings it is often fair to say that all condominium units have an equal benefit of the common components. Thus, it is regarded as being fair that all condominium units contribute to expenses to maintain and renew those common components. Therefore, the condominium law is partly designed to support this benefit-all principle, and the allocation of rights and responsibilities is done mainly by using a co-ownership share, where each condominium unit’s share is calculated using the relative value and size of each condominium unit. The benefit-all principle does not consider the actual benefit of each condominium unit. However, the rise of mixed-use developments in Danish urban planning has made it necessary to further develop and customize the allocation of ownership rights in such mixed-use condominium schemes in order to specify the allocation of ownership rights and responsibilities of common components, mainly because it is not fair to accept that all units have the same benefit of the common components. Based on four case studies all representing mixed-use condominium developments we analyse various management structures used in Danish practice. In our conclusion we propose that condominiums are used broader than original intended for various non-residential purposes and in mixed-use developments. The effect of this, is more complicated condominium schemes that require a customized management structure and allocation of rights and restrictions of common components. 

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  • 39.
    Oosterom, Peter van
    et al.
    TU Delft, Nederländarna.
    Paasch, Jesper M.University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    11th International Workshop on the Land Administration Domain Model and 3D Land Administration2023Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings reflect on the content of FIG’s (International Federation of Surveyors) 11th International FIG Workshop on the Land Administration Domain Model & 3D Land Administration (LADM & 3D LA), 11-13 October 2023, Gävle, Sweden.

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  • 40.
    Paasch, Jesper
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Standardization of Real Property Rights and Public Regulations: A Terminological Approach2011In: EURAS Yearbook of Standardization, Vol. 6 / [ed] Manfred J. Holler and John Hudson, München: Accedo , 2011, p. 575-595Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastigheter och byggande.
    A Cadastral Domain Model2004In: Geoinformatics 2004: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics : Geospatial Information Research : Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. University of Gävle, Sweden, 7-9 June 2004 / [ed] Brandt, S. A., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2004, p. 820-823Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The National Land Survey of Sweden has developed an information model describing real property information. The model is an object-orientated description of real property information stored in the Swedish cadastre.

    The work has been initiated due to a general need for an object-orientated description of real property information to create an application independent model of cadastral information, not limited to technical storage solutions.

    The project is also a part of a greater task describing all information handled by the National Land Survey in an object-orientated way, not focussing on the technical storage of the information, but the information itself. A non-technical modelling approach is the foundation for more cost-efficient construction and development of new software managing and processing cadastral information in the future.

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  • 42.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastigheter och byggande.
    A Legal Cadastral Domain Model2004In: Standardization in the cadastral domain: Proceedings of the Workshop held by “COST Action G9” and “FIG Commission 7” on 9 and 10 December 2004 at Bamberg University, Germany / [ed] Oosterom, Schlieder, Zevenbergen, Hess, Lemmen, Fendel, Frederiksberg: FIG , 2004, p. 145-148Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 43.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Best Practices 3D Cadastres2018In: Landinspektøren, ISSN 1903-5454, Vol. 3, p. 34-34Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    FIG, den internationale landinspekt0rorganisation, publicerede i marts en bog om forskellige aspekter ved tredimensionel ejendomsdannelse. Bogens engelske titel er "Best Practices 30 Cadastres". Cadastre kan her oversffittes med matrikelkort/matrikelregister.

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  • 44.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Bogomtale - Best Practices 3D Cadastres2018In: Fagbladet Landinspektøren, ISSN 1903-5454, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 34-34Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Målet med bogen er att give et overblik samt eksempler på forskellige eksisterende juridiske og tekniske løsninger i forbindelse med tredimensionel ejendomsdannelse, registrering, forvaltning og visualisering, tx ejerlejligheder.

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  • 45.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Classification of real property rights: A comparative study of real property rights in Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of my on-going research at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent real property rights registered in national real property information systems - and originating from different legal systems - can be classified according to a theoretical model, the Legal Cadastral Domain Model. A terminological framework for classification of real property rights will further the comparison of real property rights easier and further the cross-border transfer of real property information. The result of the case-studies is that it to a high degree is possible to classify the investigated rights according to the existing model. However, minor modification have to be implemented into the model to make it able to classify all investigated rights. The case-studies also showed that the model could benefit from other minor changes, such as changing parts of the terminology used in the model.

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  • 46.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Fokus på 3D2015In: Samhällsbyggaren, no 1, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vem äger lägenheten och var går fastighetsgränserna kring vägtunneln? En förbättrad redovisning av tredimensionell (3D) fastighetsinformation är i fokus i Sverige och internationellt. I november hölls en internationell konferens i Dubai.

  • 47.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sverige.
    GeoSkills+: EU-projekt för kompetens inom geodata2015In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2001-578X, no 6, p. 42-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Fastighetsvetenskap, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Legal Cadastral Domain Model: An Object-orientated Approach2005In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 117-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The different existing definitions of cadastre make a common understanding of the cadastral domain difficult and are a major barrier to effective information interchange and standardisation. A legal approach focussing on the classification of real property rights and restrictions in a legal cadastre model centred on the right of ownership might be a way to improve the common understanding of the cadastral domain and a step towards an improved standardisation of the domain. This article is intended to serve as an introduction to the construction of a model describing a legal cadastral domain.

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  • 49.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Aalborg Universitet, Danmark.
    Metadata in e-government: a study on Metadata for geographic information2020In: SIIT 2020 / [ed] Kai Jacobs, European Academy for Standardisation , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Terminology is important in order to achieve an effective e-government. This paper describes an initiative by the Swedish Institute for Standards, SIS, aiming to achieve a homogeneous national terminology for metadata in the Swedish Spatial Data Infrastructure, SDI. The initiative consists of two parts; First, establishing a translation of the English language metadata elements in the international and Swedish standard for metadata for geographic information. Second, to create a national application, i.e. profile, of the standard which even is in accordance with the requirements of metadata for geographic data listed in the European Union´s INSPIRE directive and additional national needs. The translation of metadata terms from English to Swedish together with the publication of a national metadata guideline for the Swedish SDI is an example showing the importance of a national domain specific terminology, such a for metadata describing geographic information to be used in a spatial data infrastructure as part of the development of e-government and electronic information interchange

  • 50.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Modelling Public Regulations - A Theoretical Approach.2012In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the author explores the concepts of public regulations in regard to land use and real property ownership. The results are used to develop a theoretical, conceptual model for public regulations influencing the landowners' use of the real property. The proposed classification aims at being independent of the legal systems they are created in and are intended to be used for classification of public regulations internationally. The purpose is to establish a terminological framework for international exchange of public regulation information. The development of the public regulation model is exemplified with Swedish public regulations influencing the owner's right to use his/her real property.

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