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  • 1.
    Andrée, Martin
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Larsson, Karolina
    KLM; Stockholms stad.
    Nordqvist Darell, Fanny
    Stockholms stad.
    Malm, Linus
    Tyréns.
    Tullberg, Odd
    WSP.
    Wallberg, Ann
    JM.
    Norsell, Johan
    NAI Svefa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Slutrapport för projektet Smart planering för byggande: Delprojekt 3 - BIM som informationsstöd för 3D fastighetsbildning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällsbyggnadsprocessen behöver utvecklas och bli smartare, öppnare och mer effektiv för ett ökat bostadsbyggande. En digitalisering av samhällsbyggnadsprocessen kan ge ett effektivare samarbete mellan kommun, fastighetsägare, byggherrar, medborgare, näringsliv och myndigheter.Vid bildande av tredimensionellt avgränsade fastigheter eller fastighetsutrymmen (3D-fastigheter) behöver gränsernas läge redovisas både verbalt och i kartor och ritningar, detsamma gäller berörda rättigheter. Det är idag ofta svårt att korrekt redovisa en 3D-volym med enbart dagens pappersritningar och även svårt att läsa en registerkarta i 2D med fastigheter och rättigheter beslutade i 3D. Beslutsunderlagen i fastighetsbildnings-processen behöver bli mer enhetliga och entydiga samt fastighetsinformationen behöver bli återanvändningsbar i hela samhällsbyggnadsprocessen.I detta projekt har vi studerat informationsbehovet i de olika tidpunkterna under fastighetsbildningsprocessen för 3D-fastigheter med fokus på vem som är ansvarig för att tillhandahålla informationsunderlag för att identifiera krav på utformning av 3D-modeller (t.ex BIM) och 3D-stöd för fastighetsbildning.Internationellt finns det ett stort intresse och många frågeställningar gällande samspelet mellan BIM och Fastighetsinformation; det är däremot ganska få fall som har identifierats där man har arbetat praktiskt med BIM i relation till redovisning av 3D-fastigheter.Projektethar även tittat på behov av visualisering och tillhandahållande av fastighetsinformation i 3D, hur informationen bör utformas för att kunna tolkas korrekt samt nyttjas vidare av andra aktörer i samhällsbyggnadsprocessen.Slutsatsen i projektetär att en framtida arbetsmodell där man i samband med myndighetsutövningen för fastighetsbildning samverkar med stöd av BIM och geografisk information i ärendehandläggningen kan ge stora effekter på både myndighetens effektivitet och i ärendeutövningen och för förståelsen av fastighetbildningsbeslutet hos samtliga intressenter i processen. För att det arbete som genomförts i denna utredning skall få genomslag i den dagliga verksamheten rekommenderar vibland annatatt de statliga och kommunala lantmäterimyndigheterna arbetar vidare med att utveckla arbetsprocessen och rekommendationerna för 3D-fastighetsbildning baserat på resultatet från detta projekt och redan i dagens modell efterfrågar att man i handläggningsprocessen kan arbeta BIM-baserat även om kommande beslutshandlingar under en övergångsperiod fortfarande kommer att vara baserade på ritningsbilagor i 2D.

  • 2.
    Andrée, Martin
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    BIM and 3D property visualisation2018In: FIG Congress 2018: Proceedings, 2018, article id 9367Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of 3D property has only existed a short period of time in Sweden, being introduced in 2004 and expanded in 2009 by the addition of condominium (apartment) ownership. It is therefore a rather new form of land management, and the demand for 3D property formation has not been as high as initially expected. There is however an increased interest in 3D property and ownership apartments today, also as being part of the nation’s geospatial infrastructure together with related 3D information for e.g. buildings, utility networks and other features. An effective management of 3D property is depending on, among other things, visualization, representation and storage of 3D real property data, such as legal boundaries and real property rights. There are at present a number of ongoing 3D development and research projects focusing on visualization and standardization of 3D cadastral boundaries. They are part of the national "Smart Built Environment" development and research program, which includes the use of BIM in the (future) 3D property formation process with focus on visualization of 3D real property and condominiums, and specification of requirements and evaluation of 3D digital real property information created and managed in the processes.

    This paper presents the preliminary results of the working group on visualization of 3D boundaries in the project "Smart planning, construction and management processes throughout the life cycle". The aim is to test the results produced in the project "Information for planning, real property formation and building permission", working group "BIM for 3D property formation." The purpose of this working group is to set the requirements for and evaluate the test bed for 3D property information. The focus is on visualization of 3D property and ownership apartments. The proposed model for digitization and visualization of 3D property formation will be tested in a test bed environment. A pilot case from the Stockholm area is then used in the test bed to see how it could work in practice.

    The expected outcome is recommendations for the exchange of documentation and other digital information in 3D processes, the visualization of legal boundaries for stakeholders, registration of legal 3D objects in the Swedish national real property register and how to communicate 3D models to right holders/stakeholders for 3D property and condominiums and the property market, as well as suggestions for a homogeneous, effective and digital flow of 3D information to be used by actors and other stakeholders in the property formation, planning and building processes.

  • 3.
    Berggren, David
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förnyelselagen - möjlighet eller hot?2018In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 2, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Riksdagen har beslutat att avtalsrättigheter som skrivits in i det statliga Lantmäteriets fastighetsregister före den 1 juli 1968 kommer att tas bort ur registret om inte rättighetshavaren senast den 31 december 2018 anmäler till Lantmäteriet att den ska finnas kvar. Hur arbetar rättighetshavare med förnyelsekravet och vad kan förnyelsekravet väntas få för konsekvenser?

  • 4.
    Çağdaş, Volkan
    et al.
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Stubkjær, Erik
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    de Vries, Walter Timo
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    van der Merwe, Cornelius
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Schwery, Nadja
    University of Freiburg, Switzerland.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    VUUniversity Amsterdam / Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Işıkdağ, Ümit
    Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey.
    Kara, Abdullah
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Co-ownership shares in condominiums – A comparison across jurisdictions and standards: Long version2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condominium is one of the prevalent forms of three-dimensional (3D) property rights (Paulsson, 2007, p. 32). The condominium concept common to a number of jurisdictions consists of three elements: (a) individual ownership of an apartment, (b) co-ownership (joint ownership) of the land and the common parts of the building, and (c) membership of an incorporated or unincorporated owners' association (van der Merwe, 2015, p. 5). The ownership shares of condominium unit owners in the common property are here referred to as co-ownership shares; yet, alternative terms include ownership fraction, condominium share, participation quota, share value, and unit entitlement. The co-ownership share determines the proportional contribution to the common expenses and the share of common profits, as well as the voting power of each condominium unit owner in the administration of the condominium. The most common approaches to the determination of the co-ownership shares are based on equality, relative size or relative value of each condominium unit, or a combination of such (van der Merwe, 1994, p. 57-58). The literature presents detailed descriptions and comparative analysis related to condominium systems in different jurisdictions (e.g. van der Merwe, 2016; 2015; Paulsson, 2007; EUI, 2005; UNECE, 2005); however, the technical and procedural aspects related to the allotment of co-ownership shares still need to be further investigated. This paper aims to compare methods and procedures applied for the allotment of co-ownership shares of condominium systems in the following seven jurisdictions; Denmark, Germany, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Turkey. Also, international geographic information standards (i.e. ISO LADM, OGC LandInfra/InfraGML) are analyzed to assess the extent to which they facilitate allocation of co-ownership shares. The main purpose is to clarify the legal provisions and methodologies related to the determination of co-ownership shares in national condominium systems and bring new insights to countries, which are trying to revise their national provisions for fairer implementations.

  • 5.
    Çağdaş, Volkan
    et al.
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Stubkjær, Erik
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    de Vries, Walter
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    van der Merwe, Cornelius
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Schwery, Nadja
    University of Freiburg, Switzerland.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    VU University Amsterdam/Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Işıkdağ, Ümit
    Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey.
    Kara, Abdullah
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Co-ownership shares in condominiums – A comparison across jurisdictions and standards: Short version2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018, p. 217-242Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condominium is one of the prevalent forms of three- dimensional (3D) property rights (Paulsson, 2007, p. 32). The condominium concept common to a number of jurisdictions consists of three elements: (a) individual ownership of an apartment, (b) co-ownership (joint ownership) of the land and the common parts of the building, and (c) membership of an incorporated or unincorporated owners' association (van der Merwe, 2015, p. 5). The ownership shares of condominium unit owners in the common property are here referred to as co-ownership shares; yet, alternative terms include ownership fraction, condominium share, participation quota, share value, and unit entitlement. The co-ownership share determines the proportional contribution to the common expenses and the share of common profits, as well as the voting power of each condominium unit owner in the administration of the condominium. The most common approaches to the determination of the co-ownership shares are based on equality, relative size or relative value of each condominium unit, or a combination of such (van der Merwe, 1994, p. 57-58). The literature presents detailed descriptions and comparative analysis related to condominium systems in different jurisdictions (e.g. van der Merwe, 2016; 2015; Paulsson, 2007; EUI, 2005; UNECE, 2005); however, the technical and procedural aspects related to the allotment of co-ownership shares still need to be further investigated. This paper aims to compare methods and procedures applied for the allotment of co-ownership shares of condominium systems in the following seven jurisdictions; Denmark, Germany, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Turkey. Also, international geographic information standards are analyzed to assess the extent to which they facilitate allocation of co-ownership shares. The main purpose is to clarify the legal provisions and methodologies related to the determination of co-ownership shares in national condominium systems and bring new insights to countries, which are trying to revise their national provisions for fairer implementations.

  • 6.
    Dimopooulou, Efi
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Australia.
    Miodrag, Roić
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    de Almeida, José-Paulo Duarte
    University of Coimbra Apartado, Portugal.
    Griffith-Charles, Charisse
    The University of the West Indies St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Thompson, Rod
    Delft University of Technology.
    Ying, Shen
    Wuhan University, China.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    3D Cadastres Best Practices, Chapter 2: Initial Registration of 3D Parcels2018In: FIG Congress 2018: Proceedings, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Registering the rights of a 3D parcel should provide certainty of ownership, protection of rights and unambiguous spatial location. While not all cadastral jurisdictions in the world maintain a digital cadastral database, the concepts of such registration hold true regardless of whether it is a paper-based cadastre or a digital one. Similarly, the motivations and purpose for the creation of a 2D cadastre for individual jurisdictions applies to3D cadastre as well. It provides security of ownership for3D parcels, protects the rights of the owners, and provides valuable financial instruments such as mortgage, collateral, valuation and taxation. The current life cycle of the development of a land parcel includes processes startfrom outside the cadastral registration sphere, such as zoning plans and permits, but has a direct impact on how a certain development application is processed. Thus, in considering the changes required to allow a jurisdiction to register 3D, it is important to note the sphere of influence that could have an impact on 3D registration. These include planners, notaries, surveyors, data managers and registrars; however for the purpose of this paper, the research is focused on the core 3D aspects that are institutional, legal and technical. This paper explores approaches and solutions towards the implementation of initial 3D cadastral registration, as derivedby current procedures of registration of 3D parcels in various countries worldwide. To this end, the paper analyses the categorisations and approaches of3D spatial units and examines the validation requirements (constraints) on a cadastral database, at various levels of maturity. In this view, 3D data storage and visualization issues are examined in relation to the level of complexity of various jurisdictions, as provided by the results of the country inventory combined with a worldwide survey in 2010 and updated in 2014 (Van Oosterom, et al., 2014). It appearsthat significant progress has been achieved in providing legal provisions for the registration of 3D cadastres in many countries and several have started to show 3D information on cadastral plans such as isometric views, vertical profiles or text environment to facilitate such data capture and registration. Moreover, as jurisdictions progress towards an implementation of 3D cadastre, much 3D data collected in other areas (BIM, IFC CityGML files, IndoorGML, InfraGML and LandXML) open up the possibility of creating 3D cadastral database and combining with the existing datasets.The usability, compatibility and portability of these datasets is a low cost solution to one of the costliest phases of the implementation of 3D cadastres, which is the initial 3D data capture.

  • 7.
    Dimopooulou, Efi
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, Greece.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Brisbane, Australia.
    Roić, Miodrag
    Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagred, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Duarte de Almeida, José-Paulo
    Geomatic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science & Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Griffith-Charles, Charisse
    epartment of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, Faculty of Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Thompson, Rod
    Department OTB, Section GIS - technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Ying, Shen
    School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Oosterom, Peter van
    Department OTB, GIS Technology Section, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands .
    Chapter 2. Initial Registration of 3D Parcels2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Extended version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 67-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Registering the rights of a 3D parcel should provide certainty of ownership, protection of rights and unambiguous spatial location. While not all cadastral jurisdictions in the world maintain a digital cadastral database, the concepts of such registration hold true regardless of whether it is a paper-based cadastre or a digital one. Similarly, the motivations and purpose for the creation of a 2D cadastre for individual jurisdictions applies to3D cadastre as well. It provides security of ownership for3D parcels, protects the rights of the owners, and provides valuable financial instruments such as mortgage, collateral, valuation and taxation. The current life cycle of the development of a land parcel includes processes startfrom outside the cadastral registration sphere, such as zoning plans and permits, but has a direct impact on how a certain development application is processed. Thus, in considering the changes required to allow a jurisdiction to register 3D, it is important to note the sphere of influence that could have an impact on 3D registration. These include planners, notaries, surveyors, data managers and registrars; however for the purpose of this paper, the research is focused on the core 3D aspects that are institutional, legal and technical. This paper explores approaches and solutions towards the implementation of initial 3D cadastral registration, as derivedby current procedures of registration of 3D parcels in various countries worldwide. To this end, the paper analyses the categorisations and approaches of3D spatial units and examines the validation requirements (constraints) on a cadastral database, at various levels of maturity. In this view, 3D data storage and visualization issues are examined in relation to the level of complexity of various jurisdictions, as provided by the results of the country inventory combined with a worldwide survey in 2010 and updated in 2014 (Van Oosterom, et al., 2014). It appearsthat significant progress has been achieved in providing legal provisions for the registration of 3D cadastres in many countries and several have started to show 3D information on cadastral plans such as isometric views, vertical profiles or text environment to facilitate such data capture and registration. Moreover, as jurisdictions progress towards an implementation of 3D cadastre, much 3D data collected in other areas (BIM, IFC CityGML files, IndoorGML, InfraGML and LandXML) open up the possibility of creating 3D cadastral database and combining with the existing datasets.The usability, compatibility and portability of these datasets is a low cost solution to one of the costliest phases of the implementation of 3D cadastres, which is the initial 3D data capture.

  • 8. El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Integration of 3D Cadastre, 3D Property Formation and BIM in Sweden2014In: Proceedings of the 4th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, 9-11 November 2014, Dubai, UAE, 2014, p. 17-34Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Integration of legal aspects in 3D cadastral systems2016In: 3D Printing: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice / [ed] Management Association, Information Resources, IGI Global, 2016, p. 119-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article continues a research on the feasibility of BIM for 3D cadastre in unified building models, presented in El-Mekawy & Östman (2012). It describes problems and solutions concerning interaction between BIM and the registration and visualisation of legal 3D property information. BIM and legal 3D property are two seemingly different domains, and there is a lack of BIM-3D property research in relation to technical and registration issues. The article therefore focuses on possibilities and difficulties of addressing legal interests (i.e. rights, restrictions and responsibilities) in land. A Swedish case study is used to describe the use of 3D property formation and registration in Sweden, and how it might be possible to achieve a more integrated, standard based registration of legal boundaries and physical buildings. The results emphasize how BIM and 3D property domains can interact to serve the needs for effective information handling by e.g. importing 3D cadastral boundaries into BIM as basis for decision-making or to use BIM as input in the 3D cadastral formation process.

  • 10.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed Sobaih Aly
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integration of Legal Aspects in 3D Cadastral Systems2015In: International Journal of E-Planning Research, ISSN 2160-9918, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 47-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article continues a research on the feasibility of BIM for 3D cadastre in unified building models, presented in . It describes problems and solutions concerning interaction between BIM and the registration and visualisation of legal 3D property information. BIM and legal 3D property are two seemingly different domains, and there is a lack of BIM-3D property research in relation to technical and registration issues. The article therefore focuses on possibilities and difficulties of addressing legal interests (i.e. rights, restrictions and responsibilities) in land. A Swedish case study is used to describe the use of 3D property formation and registration in Sweden, and how it might be possible to achieve a more integrated, standard based registration of legal boundaries and physical buildings. The results emphasize how BIM and 3D property domains can interact to serve the needs for effective information handling by e.g. importing 3D cadastral boundaries into BIM as basis for decision-making or to use BIM as input in the 3D cadastral formation process.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Helen
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet – the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Harrie, Lars
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Lantmäteriet – the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    What is the need for building parts? - A comparison of CityGML, INSPIRE building and a swedish building standard2018In: International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives / [ed] Agugiaro G., Stoter J., Labetski A., Koeva M., and Arroyo Ohori K., International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing , 2018, Vol. 42, p. 27-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for digital building information is increasing, both in the form of 3D city models (as geodata) and of more detailed building information models (BIM). BIM models are mainly used in the architecture, engineering and construction industry, but have recently become interesting also for municipalities. The overall aim of this paper is to study one way of dividing a building, namely the division of a building into building parts in both 3D city models and in BIM models. The study starts by an inventory of how building parts are defined in 3D city model standards (CityGML, the INSPIRE building specification and a Swedish national specification for buildings) and in BIM models (Industry Foundation Classes, IFC). The definition of building parts in these specifications are compared and evaluated. The paper also describes potential applications for the use of building parts, on what grounds a building could be divided into building parts, advantages and disadvantages of having building parts and what consequences it can have on the usage of the building information. One finding is that building parts is defined similar, but not identical in the studied geodata specifications and there are no requirements, only recommendations on how buildings should be divided into building parts. This can complicate the modelling, exchange and reuse of building information, and in a longer perspective, it would be desirable to have recommendations of how to define and use building parts in for example a national context.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Helen
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet; Lunds universitet.
    Harrie, Lars
    Lunds universitet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Lantmäteriet.
    Persson, Andreas
    Lunds universitet.
    Techniques for and consequences of using INSPIRE extensions: a case study with Swedish hydrological data2018In: International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research, ISSN 1725-0463, E-ISSN 1725-0463, Vol. 13, p. 172-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for easily available geographic information is increasing in society. Moreover, knowledge of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) has increased in many European governmental agencies, in large part because of the implementation of the INSPIRE directive. Many countries, thus, recognise the need to provide more detailed geographic information as network services at the national level. One means of realising this goal is to create INSPIRE extensions, i.e., to extend the INSPIRE data specifications with more detailed and specific national information. This paper describes a study where a complex INSPIRE extension has been created to describe the national need of hydrography information in Sweden, based on the Swedish water system standard (SWSS). The study includes the creation of a UML application schema that extends the INSPIRE Hydrography (HY) theme, the transform from UML to an XSD schema, the creation of GML files, and finally, testing and evaluating the approach of using INSPIRE extensions. When evaluating the results, the consequences of replacing existing dataset/download services with one extended INSPIRE HY dataset/download service are evaluated from the perspectives of both users and data providers. The evaluation is carried out as quantitative tests of the resulting GML files, in a user-centric test where a user tests the applicability of the GML files in hydrological analyses, and by telephone interviews with personnel from Lantmäteriet, the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority. Beside these evaluations, the possible effects on the information modelling process when creating an INSPIRE extension are also examined. The study shows that it is possible to create complex INSPIRE extensions that include many object types, attributes and relations. From a user perspective, extended INSPIRE HY files do not differ substantially from SWSS files, and can be used in hydrological analyses. Data providers can relatively simply replace their current download services with one for the extended INSPIRE HY, but the specific economic consequences for this could not be drawn. It could be expected, though, that there can be both economic, administrative and maintenance advantages if today’s separate INSPIRE and national download services are replaced with services exposing datasets based on an extended INSPIRE data model for all adequate themes.

  • 13.
    Hespanha, Joao
    et al.
    Technology and Management Polytechnic School, Águeda, Portugal.
    Jardim, Monica
    Law Faculty, University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Zevenbergen, Jaap
    OTB Research Institute, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Modelling Legal and Administrative Cadastral Domain: Implementing into the Portoguese Legal Framework2009In: Journal of Comparative Law, ISSN 1477-0814, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 140-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research concerning the classification and modelling of rights, restrictions, and responsibilities related to real property based on a systems approach within the domain of land registration and cadastre commenced with the Core Cadastral Domain Model (CCDM) initiative in 2002. That model has been renamed the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), having at its core a conceptual model of the relationship of persons (natural, non-natural or group) to registered objects through rights, restrictions, and responsibilities. This basic relationship is assumed to be applicable to land registration and cadastral systems throughout the world. In fact, LADM has gathered support from such international organizations as OGC, ISO/TC211, UN-Habitat and EU-Inspire.1 It is being discussed within the International Standards Organization (ISO) as Working Draft 19152 with a view to issuing a new international standard.2The research leading to the original CCDM has been published through a series of papers concerning different modelling aspects, cumulating in two articles. One generic3 and one on the proposed implementation of the Portuguese Cadastre.4 This first implementation exercise, as well as a current (operational) implementation to the Icelandic Cadastre,5 both focused specially on the cadastral component (specifically, geometry and spatial topology of surveying and mapping objects, especially parcels).

  • 14.
    Karabin, Marcin
    et al.
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Koeva, Mila
    University of Twente (ITC), The Netherlands.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna, Austria.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Vučić, Nicola
    State Geodetic Administration, Croatia.
    Janečka, Karel
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Lisec, Anka
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Layer approach to ownership in 3D cadastre: a subway case2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, Copenhagen: The International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018, p. 111-136Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses onapproaches to the registration of real property rights in the case of underground or subway tunnels in different EU countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Greece, Poland, Slovenia, and Sweden. The Authors made analysis of the current way of registration of rights to subway tunnels in the chosen countries, including its effectiveness in ensuring appropriate property rights to construct and exploit tunnels. A special attention was given to limitations related to the lack of the possibility to vertically divide the space, i.e. to divide the space into layers, and to refer the ownership right to the layers. Benefits which might be achieved by the introduction of a 3D real property cadastre were pointed out. The analysis of available data concerning the geometry of subway tunnels in particular countries was presented. The authors tried to answer the question whether the accessible data concerning the geometry of subway tunnels allows to generate a 3D geospatial model of a constructed object, and to specify the space which should be determined as a 3D parcel in the 3D real property cadastre, for the purpose of registering property rights for the object (the tunnel).

  • 15.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    State Geodetic Administration, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet.
    Koeva, Mila
    University of Twente (ITC), The Netherlands.
    Janecka, Karel
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Erba, Diego
    National University of Litoral, Argentina.
    Alberdi, Ramiro
    National University of Catamarca, Argentina.
    Kalantari, Mohsen
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Yang, Zhixuan (Jenny)
    Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, China.
    Pouliot, Jacynthe
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Roy, Francis
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Montero, Mónica
    United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), Costa Rica.
    Alvarado, Adrián
    Universities UCEM and University of San José, Costa Rica.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Australia.
    3D Cadastres Best Practices, Chapter 1: Legal foundations2018In: FIG Congress 2018: Proceedings, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s. Literature provides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well as those that are already implementing 3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined. This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in 15 cadastral jurisdictions, based on the authors’ national experience, covering Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East and Australia. Each of the legal system in these cadastral jurisdiction are based on different origins of Civil Law, including German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian Civil Law, which can prove useful to research in other Civil Law jurisdictions interested in introducing 3D cadastral systems. These jurisdictionsare at different stages of introducing and implementing a 3D cadastral system. This contributes to the detection of the 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems, while highlighting challenges that may have not yet surfaced in individual jurisdictions. This paper aims to present the different legal concepts regarding 3D real property in the examined countries, focusing on the characteristic features of cadastral objects described as 3D within each country’s legal and cadastral framework. The analysis of the case studies revealed that the countries are on different stages of 3D Cadastral implementation, starting from countries with operational 3D cadastral systems, to others where there is yet no interest in introducing a 3D cadastral system. This paper presents the nature of 3D cadastral objects in each country, as well as differences in the regulatory framework regarding definition, description and registration. The paper continues the legal workshop discussions of the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres in the above-mentioned countries. The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences in use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The article concludes by presenting a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed which can be used to draft national and international research proposals and form legislative amendments towards introduction of national 3D cadastral systems.

  • 16.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineeriing, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Department for Geodesy and Geoinformation, Technical Unviersity Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    Department for Administrative and Professional Supervision, The State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia, Zagrec, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Department of Cadastre and Land Management, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koeva, Mila
    Department of Urban and Regional Planning, ITC FAcultu, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Janečka, Karel
    Geomatics, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic.
    Erba, Diego
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydric Sciences, National University of Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Alberdi, Ramiro
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydrics Sciences, National University of Catamarca, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Kalantari, Mohsen
    Centre for SDIs and Land Administration (CSDILA), Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Yang, Zhixuan
    School of Investment and Construction Management, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian, Liaoning, China.
    Pouliot, Jacynthe
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Roy, Francis
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Montero, Monica
    Provincia de Heredia, Costa Rica.
    Alvarado, Adrian
    Alajuela, Costa Rica.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Department of Natural Resource and Mines, Queensland Government, Brisbande, Australia.
    Chapter 1 – Legal Foundations2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Extended version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 1-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s.Literature provides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well as those that are alreadyimplementing3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined.This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in 15 cadastral jurisdictions, based on the authors’ national experience, covering Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East and Australia. Each of the legal system in these cadastral jurisdiction arebased on different origins of Civil Law, including German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian Civil Law, which can prove useful to research in other Civil Law jurisdictions interested in introducing 3D cadastral systems. These jurisdictionsare atdifferent stages of introducing and implementing a 3D cadastral system.This contributesto the detection of the 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems,whilehighlighting challenges that may have not yet surfacedin individual jurisdictions. This paper aims to present the different legal concepts regarding 3D real property in the examined countries, focusing on the characteristic features of cadastral objects described as 3D within each country’s legal and cadastral framework. The analysis of the case studies revealed that the countries are on different stages of 3D Cadastralimplementation, starting from countries with operational 3D cadastral systems, to others where there is yet no interest in introducing a 3D cadastral system.This paper presents the nature of 3D cadastral objects in each country, as well as differences in the regulatory framework regarding definition, description and registration. The paper continues the legal workshop discussions of the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres in the above-mentioned countries. The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences in use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The article concludes by presenting a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed which can be used to draft national and international research proposals and form legislative amendments towards introduction of national 3D cadastral systems.

  • 17.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. The Swedish mapping, cadastral an d land registration authority .
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    State Geodetic Administration, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Tenório Carneiro, Andréa Flávia
    Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet.
    3D Real Property Legal Concepts and Cadastre: A Comparative Study of Selected Countries to Propose a Way Forward2016In: 5th International Workshop on 3D Cadatres / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Efi Dimopoulou & Elfriede Fendel, International Federation of Surveyors , 2016, p. 1-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s while literature provides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well as already implementing 3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined. This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in six selected countries: Austria, Brazil, Croatia, Greece, Poland and Sweden, based on the authors’ national experience. Each of these countries’ legal system is based on different origins of Civil Law, including German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian Civil Law, which can prove useful to research in other Civil Law jurisdictions interested in introducing 3D cadastral systems. Selected countries are on different stages of introducing and implementing a 3D cadastral system; this may contribute to the detection of the main 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies and malfunctions that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems, highlighting challenges that may have not yet surfaced. This paper aims to present the different legal concepts regarding 3D real property in the examined countries, focusing on the characteristic features of cadastral objects described as 3D within each country’s legal and cadastral framework. The analysis of the case studies revealed that the countries are on different stages of 3D Cadastre implementation, starting from countries with operational 3D cadastral systems, to others where there is yet no interest in introducing a 3D cadastral system. 3D cadastral objects in each country are presented, as well as differences in the regulatory framework regarding definition, description and registration. The paper continues the legal workshop discussions of the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres in the above mentioned countries. The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences in use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The article concludes by presenting a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed which can be used to draft national and international research proposals and form legislative amendments towards introduction of national 3D cadastral systems.

  • 18.
    Land, Kristin
    et al.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Human Resource Provision and Capacity Development: Recent Initiatives at Lantmäteriet in Sweden2015In: Proceedings of the FIG Working Week 2015, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Securing human resources (HR), building capacity, and implementing the potential of existingstaff are vital for the development of any organisation or company, including the landsurveying, cadastral and land management sectors. This raises questions concerning how tocompete with others and what is the necessary level of capacity among current and futureemployees. Let us ask ourselves: who wants to become a surveyor today, and what makes himor her stay within the business? These issues seem to be familiar to many of the authoritiesand companies in our professional field around the world. There is likely a range of differentanswers depending on country-specific aspects.Lantmäteriet (the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority) alone estimatesa need for a hundred new employees annually over the next years in order to manage theongoing change of generations and the increasing demand for services within certain areas. Inaddition, most municipalities and various regional and national authorities having landsurveyors in their workforce are looking for new staff to their organisations. Besides thisdemand from the public sector, private companies within the property business are also inneed of new staff. A major challenge is hence finding efficient ways to recruit new cadastralsurveyors, geodesists, geodata specialists, lawyers, etc., and to keep them for a significantperiod of time. Lantmäteriet has therefore taken various initiatives during the last few years.Some activities target the whole organisation, while others are tailor-made to fit particularbranches.This paper presents several current and recent initiatives regarding HR provision and capacitydevelopment affecting Lantmäteriet’s personnel. Examples are promotion activities atschools, teaching support to universities, internal training for new staff, continuous learningfor experienced staff, mentorships, talent development programmes, and networking withother authorities. The paper also touches upon impacts so far and what is anticipated for thecoming years.

  • 19.
    Larsson, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholms stad.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Conversion of 2D Analogue Cadastral Boundary Plans into 3D Digital Information: problems and challenges illustrated by a Swedish case2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, 2018, p. 75-94Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of forming 3D property units has not existed for a long time in Sweden. The legislation was introduced in 2004 and in 2009 the addition of apartment ownership (condominium) was added. Even though the demand for 3D property formation has not been as high yet as initially expected, there seems to be an increased interest in and demand for it today. The use of 3D property creates a need for 3D registration and visualization of the property units, which can involve difficulties in e.g. representation and storage of 3D real property data, such as the legal boundaries and real property rights connected to the property.However, even if 3D digital information is used in the real property formation process the 3D properties are still registered using two–dimensional documentation. An ongoing study, which is a part of a project testing 3D data, see Andree et al. (2018a; 2018b) and Tarandi (2017), is focusing on visualization of 3D cadastral boundaries.This paper discusses problems and challenges concerning the conversion of 2D analogue cadastral boundary plans into 3D digital information and is based on experiences being gained in a research project on visualization of 3D property boundaries in Sweden, see Andree et al. (2018a; 2018b). A newly constructed sports– and event arena in Stockholm where 3D properties are involved is used as a case study in the project to illustrate the process and the problems related to it. Focus lies here on legal issues, although other aspects will be mentioned as well.The legal foundations for 3D property formation in Sweden are primarily the Swedish Land Code (SFS, 1970:944) and the Real Property Formation Act (SFS, 1970:988). The rights, restrictions and responsibilities, RRRs, are registered in the national Real Property Register, which also includes registration in the two–dimensional digital cadastral index map.A description of the process of forming 3D property is included in the paper regarding the documents and parties involved. In the present cadastral processes concerning new 3D property formation a CAD drawing containing 3D real property boundaries is often supplied by the developer/entrepreneur. However, the 3D cadastral representation and the documentation in the cadastral dossier is recorded in 2D (El–Mekawy, Paasch and Paulsson, 2014). The CAD file may – or may not - be archived for future use by the Cadastral authority. We therefore sometimes may have to interpret two–dimensional data and convert it to be used in a 3D environment, e.g. BIM. This paper illustrates and exemplifies with some experiences of interpreting the cadastral dossiers for presentation in a 3D digital environment.Current legislation has to be investigated and interpreted to be able to add or transform into using 3D models as part of cadastral decisions in Sweden. New regulations also may have to be introduced and analysed. In this paper some of the legal issues that need to be addressed are mentioned, however more work needs to be done in order to get answers to what changes may be needed regarding legislation on this matter.

  • 20.
    Lemmen, Christiaan
    et al.
    Kadaster.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    TU Delft.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    TU Delft.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Department Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zevenbergen, Jaap
    UT/ITC.
    Legal Refinement of the LADM Standard: More classes or extended code lists with better defined types of Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities?2014In: PLPR 2014 Conference: Book of Abstracts, 2014, p. 91-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide legal security in property rights/land tenure and support efficient land use planning, one needs a well-functioning system of land administration. In other words good land administration is the basis for sustainable land management and a stable and efficient land market.

    Although property rights and procedures vary considerably between jurisdictions, the underlying data model to support land administration was found to be quite similar. Therefore, a decade ago, several of the authors of this paper initiated the process of coming to an international reference standard for land administration, the so-called Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). LADM is a framework for describing interest in land according to internationally agreed concepts and terminology and makes it possible to categorize interests in land (in specific jurisdiction) regardless of the origin in different legal systems. This not only enables the improvement and further development of national systems of land administration, but also supports international communication and exchange of data. In 2012 the LADM became an international standard, ISO 19152.

    The LADM is based on “right”, “restriction” and “responsibility” (RRR) classes, which can apply to land, but also to buildings, network utilities, and 3D volumetric spatial units. Based on a number of earlier publications, such as (Paasch 2012), (Paasch et al 2013) and (Hespanha et al 2013), this paper explores the need and possible approaches to a more detailed classification of property rights, by either adding more subclasses for specific sets of RRRs, clustered after their legal or societal characteristics (e.g. common rights, latent rights, customary rights or informal rights as explored by (Paasch et al 2013)) or by the extension of code list values in LADM for a more refined classifications, or both. Options to ‘define’ code list values are: 1. describe with natural text, or 2. additionally encode an hierarchical structure to code list values, or 3. develop an ontology of the code list values, such as ownership, lease, etc. However, in all options it is non-trivial to define formally basic legal concepts such as ‘ownership’.

    We will further investigate these aspects, including the decision when to add new classes and when to extend the code list values. In case of code list it will be further explored what is good approach to define the values.

  • 21.
    Liedholm Johnson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Classification and Co-ordination of Conflicting Rights for Sustainable Land Use2014In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 61-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate the possibilities to detect the conflicts between national interests and rights for sustainable land use. The analysis is based on a newly developed standardized terminological framework for classification of interests in land, the Legal Cadastral Domain Model. The model is used to classify conflicting rights in two Swedish mining areas, Kiruna and Bunge, in Kiruna the relocation of the city due to mining interests and in Bunge the ongoing conflict between mining interests and national nature preservation interests.

    The study shows that it is relevant to use a standardized approach for getting an overview of and thus comparing the multi-facetted nature of private and public interests in land. For example, land use regulations, such as a zoning plan, often contain prohibitions and obligations for the property owner embedded in the same document and a mining concession may contain instructions for environmental protection activities. They are in the model classified as separate interests beneficial or limiting for the right holder. A detailed classification therefore provides an overview and can assist officials and decision makers in identifying and co-ordinating conflicting interests.

  • 22.
    Liedholm Johnson, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    swedish mapping cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Comparative Studies on Land Use Rights M: Methodological and Standardization Aspects2015In: Journal of Comparative Law, ISSN 1477-0814, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Liedholm Johnson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Sustainable Land Use: Detection and Classification of Conflicting Rights2015In: Book of Abstracts: Planning Law and Property Rights 25-27 February 2015 Volos - Greece, 2015, p. 77-77Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lundsten, Jonas
    et al.
    Malmö universitet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Individual’s Motivation in Standardization of Geographic Information2018In: FIG 2018 Istanbul : Proceedings, The International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018, article id 9364Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic information and standardization has gained increased interest in the last decades due to the increased use and exchange of digital data describing geographicand administrative features. Standards and related documents, such as technical reports, play an important part in this for private and public organizations. However, the role and motivation of the individual participants in the standardization process has been less researched. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study on participants’ personal meaningful goals for participating in formal standardization work at the Swedish Standards Institute, SIS. The study focus on production of national standards and related documents, for example national guidelines and other publications. The research question is how project team members are motivated in the standardization project. One or more participants in each of the technical committees, TCs, working with geographicinformation standardization, have been interviewed in regard to how they perceive their individual involvement in the standardization work and the personal meaningful goals making them to do so. A phenomenological method, Meaning Constitution Analysis (MCA), was used for analyzingthe interviewee’s experiences of the projects. The organizational motive behind the project and the personal meaningful goals for the individuals were focused on in the analysis of each interview. The study concluded that the investigated private companies and public organizations fulfil their obligations concerning financing the TCs work, but that some companies and organizationsdo not allow sufficient time for their employees to engage in standardization work, due to prioritization of other day-to-day tasks to be done. That is, standardization was not the organization's main motive. This may lead, apart from poor work environment for the individual participants and concerns about how to prioritize their daily work, which may result in delayed standardization projects. The interviewed participants were mainly motivated by their individual curiosity for the subject. That is, learning was a main personal meaningful goal. However, participants with frequent contacts with stakeholders had a significant motivation for participating, with the long-term goal to satisfy the stakeholders’ needs.

  • 25.
    Lundsten, Jonas
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Motives for Participation in Formal Standardisation Processes for Geographic Information: An Empirical Study in Sweden2017In: International Journal of Standardization Research (IJSR), ISSN 2470-8542, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 16-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the personal motives for participation in formalstandardization processes for geographic information. The method involved interviewing membersof technical committees at the Swedish Standards Institute, SIS. The results are that the majority ofthe interviewees are very motivated in their work and they think their participation is well-financedby their organizations allocating them to a technical committee. The main motives are to contributeto development of society and be at the forefront of development. However, this article also showsthat several members participating in this study felt that they do not have sufficient time for workingwith tasks related to their technical committees. Their daily work in their respective organizationsoften has higher priority in relation to standardization work. This contrasts with the organizationalgoals of the participating organizations and may slow down the development of standards and otherpublications due to lack of resources.

  • 26.
    Paasch, Jesper
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Standardization of Real Property Rights and Public Regulations: A Terminological Approach2011In: EURAS Yearbook of Standardization, Vol. 6 / [ed] Manfred J. Holler and John Hudson, München: Accedo , 2011, p. 575-595Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastigheter och byggande.
    A Cadastral Domain Model2004In: Geoinformatics 2004: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics : Geospatial Information Research : Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. University of Gävle, Sweden, 7-9 June 2004 / [ed] Brandt, S. A., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2004, p. 820-823Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The National Land Survey of Sweden has developed an information model describing real property information. The model is an object-orientated description of real property information stored in the Swedish cadastre.

    The work has been initiated due to a general need for an object-orientated description of real property information to create an application independent model of cadastral information, not limited to technical storage solutions.

    The project is also a part of a greater task describing all information handled by the National Land Survey in an object-orientated way, not focussing on the technical storage of the information, but the information itself. A non-technical modelling approach is the foundation for more cost-efficient construction and development of new software managing and processing cadastral information in the future.

  • 28.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastigheter och byggande.
    A Legal Cadastral Domain Model2004In: Standardization in the cadastral domain: Proceedings of the Workshop held by “COST Action G9” and “FIG Commission 7” on 9 and 10 December 2004 at Bamberg University, Germany / [ed] Oosterom, Schlieder, Zevenbergen, Hess, Lemmen, Fendel, Frederiksberg: FIG , 2004, p. 145-148Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Bogomtale - Best Practices 3D Cadastres2018In: Fagbladet Landinspektøren, ISSN 1903-5454, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 34-34Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Målet med bogen er att give et overblik samt eksempler på forskellige eksisterende juridiske og tekniske løsninger i forbindelse med tredimensionel ejendomsdannelse, registrering, forvaltning og visualisering, tx ejerlejligheder.

  • 30.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Classification of real property rights: A comparative study of real property rights in Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of my on-going research at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent real property rights registered in national real property information systems - and originating from different legal systems - can be classified according to a theoretical model, the Legal Cadastral Domain Model. A terminological framework for classification of real property rights will further the comparison of real property rights easier and further the cross-border transfer of real property information. The result of the case-studies is that it to a high degree is possible to classify the investigated rights according to the existing model. However, minor modification have to be implemented into the model to make it able to classify all investigated rights. The case-studies also showed that the model could benefit from other minor changes, such as changing parts of the terminology used in the model.

  • 31.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Fokus på 3D2015In: Samhällsbyggaren, no 1, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vem äger lägenheten och var går fastighetsgränserna kring vägtunneln? En förbättrad redovisning av tredimensionell (3D) fastighetsinformation är i fokus i Sverige och internationellt. I november hölls en internationell konferens i Dubai.

  • 32.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sverige.
    GeoSkills+: EU-projekt för kompetens inom geodata2015In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2001-578X, no 6, p. 42-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Fastighetsvetenskap, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Legal Cadastral Domain Model: An Object-orientated Approach2005In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 117-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The different existing definitions of cadastre make a common understanding of the cadastral domain difficult and are a major barrier to effective information interchange and standardisation. A legal approach focussing on the classification of real property rights and restrictions in a legal cadastre model centred on the right of ownership might be a way to improve the common understanding of the cadastral domain and a step towards an improved standardisation of the domain. This article is intended to serve as an introduction to the construction of a model describing a legal cadastral domain.

  • 34.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Modelling Public Regulations - A Theoretical Approach.2012In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the author explores the concepts of public regulations in regard to land use and real property ownership. The results are used to develop a theoretical, conceptual model for public regulations influencing the landowners' use of the real property. The proposed classification aims at being independent of the legal systems they are created in and are intended to be used for classification of public regulations internationally. The purpose is to establish a terminological framework for international exchange of public regulation information. The development of the public regulation model is exemplified with Swedish public regulations influencing the owner's right to use his/her real property.

  • 35.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastigheter och byggande.
    Modelling the Cadastral Domain2004In: ESDI: State of the Art, European Commission Joint Research Centre , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a Swedish approach construction a model of the cadastral domain. The National Land Survey of Sweden (Lantmäteriet) has developed an UML-based, objectorientated information model describing real property information stored in the Swedish Real Property Register. The register is part of the Swedish Land Data Bank System.

    The work has been initiated due to a general need for an object-orientated and application independent description of real property information. The project is part of a greater task describing all information handled by Lantmäteriet in an object-orientated way, not focussing on the technical storage of the information, but the information itself. A non-technical modelling approach is the foundation for more cost-efficient development of new software and routines managing and processing cadastral information in the future.

    The model is the result of co-operation between governmental agencies, describing the Swedish cadastre. The cadastral domain model has been constructed in a project initiated by Lantmäteriet with the purpose to establish a common description of real property information not limited to local, technical solutions. The work has been done in co-operation with national and local agencies handling cadastral information. The model acts as a basis for an increased data and information interchange between governmental and non-governmental agencies and is a part of the Swedish, digital infrastructure. The model is not a Swedish standard, but might be a contribution to a future Swedish standardisation process.

  • 36.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Royal Institue of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Real property transactions: An approach towards standardisation of legal issues2008In: Real Property Transactions: Procedures, Transaction Costs and Models / [ed] Zevenbergen, Jaap; Frank, Andrew; Stubkjær, Erik, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2008, p. 167-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transactions in land and other real property differ between countries throughout Europe. The transaction procedures reflect formal rules, but they are also normalized through conventions and professional codes of conduct. This complex of technical, legal and economic issues was investigated from the point of view of transaction economics through an ESF-COST supported Action G9 Modeling Real Property Transactions. The research was performed between 2001 and 2005 by researchers mainly from university departments related to land surveying, real estate management, geo-information sciences and knowledge engineering. This book represents the final outcome of that study. A modeling approach was elaborated and tested on a number of countries (especially Sweden and Slovenia, for which the models are shown in this book in the Unified Modeling Language (UML)). The modeling approach leads to transparency and allows comparison. Nevertheless, the influence of the national and social contexts, and the different perspectives that can be taken, prevent a simple ranking of the studied procedures. For those planning or comparing transaction procedures or parts thereof, the book supplies a tested approach and methodology. But the book eventually warns of simplification in this field full of complex national institutional arrangements.

  • 37.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Lantmäteriet.
    Standarder för geodata - till vilken nytta?2016In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 4, p. 48-49Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Standardisering är viktig för att samhället ska fungera, men vad är en standard, hur används de och till vilken nytta? Vad betyder ISO, CEN, SIS, OGC, ICF och CityGML? Om det känns rörigt bör du läsa vidare!

  • 38.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Standardization of Real Property Rights and Public Regulations: The Legal Cadastral Domain Model2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a conceptual model for classification of real property rights and public regulations. The model is called the Legal Cadastral Domain Model.

    The model is intended to be a terminological framework for cross-border exchange of cadastral information. Parties exchanging cadastral information via the model do not require detailed knowledge of the legal system in which the right or regulation is created.

    The model is based on the principle that real property rights and public regulations influence real property ownership by being either beneficial or encumbering for the real property owner.

    The theoretical departure of the research presented in this thesis is in comparative legal theory and terminology. Real property rights and public regulations are important parts of real property legislation as they describe and secure the use and other exploitation of land, water and air.

    The research is conducted through studies in real property legislation and associated literature. The model has been developed through case studies on real property rights in Portugal, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden and public regulations in Portugal and Sweden.

    The generated results show that it seems possible to describe real property rights and public regulations regardless of their legal origin, at least in Western legal systems.

    The thesis also includes a discussion of terminological aspects concerning definitions of three-dimensional (3D) real property.

    The thesis consists of a summary and 6 papers.

  • 39.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    National La nd Survey of Sweden, Gävle, Sweden; KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Standardization of Real Property Rights and Restrictions: A Fools Task?2006In: Proccedings of the XXIII International FIG Congress, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The different existing definitions of real property rights and restrictions make an understanding of this part of the cadastral domain difficult. Such lack of understanding is a major barrier to effective information interchange and standardisation. A terminological and legal approach focusing on the classification of real property rights and restrictions in a legal cadastre model centred on the right of ownership might be a way to gain a better understanding and be a step towards an improved standardisation of the domain. This paper is intended to serve as an introduction to a recently published hypothesis stating that it is possible to create a general model describing formal real property rights and restrictions. The model is a step towards a standardized approach towards the cadastral domain in general and the modeling of real property rights and restrictions and placing them in an ontological framework.

  • 40.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Vergleich und internationale klassifizierung von liegenschaftsrechten und öffentlich-rechtlichen festlegungen2012In: Zeitschrift für Geodäsie, Geoinformation und Landmanagement, ISSN 1618-8950, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 32-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real property rights and public regulations are vital for effective land management They are part of a nation's legal system. The applied national terminology and descriptions may therefore not be used as basis for an international information interchange. A neutral and legal system independent model describing real property rights and public regulations would further an international use of information based on standardized descriptions. The Legal Cadastral Domain Model (LCDM) is an attempt to facilitate such descriptions.

  • 41.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Larsson, Karin
    Lunds universitet.
    Utbildningsverksamhet inom geodataområdet2018In: Sveriges Kartläggning: Tillägg 2008-2017 / [ed] Lars Ottoson, Mats Halling, Gävle: Kartografiska Sällskapet , 2018, p. 132-137Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I förra upplagan av tillägget till Sveriges Kartläggning, 2008, redovisade Anders Brandt och Stig-Göran Mårtensson hur utbildningen inom ämnesområdet Kart- och mätningsteknik utvecklats. Kapitlet gav en sammanfattning av åren 1978-1997 samt enmer detaljerad beskrivning av tiden 1998-2007. Redan i 2008 års upplaga sågs stora förändringarinom ämnesområdet och därmed också inom utbildningen. Denna utvecklinghar fortsatt vilket bl.a. kan ses i de kapitel som ingår i denna upplaga som exemplifierar hur Sveriges kartläggning, eller tillämpande resultat av denna, sker inom en allt bredaresektor av samhället. Branschens breddning har därmed lett till en mer diversifierad uppfattning av vad som kan förknippas med kart- och mätningsteknik och vi kan idag konstatera att de traditionella kart- och mätningsområdena har fortsatt att utvecklas och nya områden har kommit till. Ett stort antal andra områden har de senaste 10 åren börjat att använda “kartor” och annan rumslig information i vid bemärkelse. Därför har vi valt att i årets upplaga använda titeln Utbildningsverksamhet inom geodataområdet. Fokus har flyttats från kart- och mätningsteknik till geodata. Geodata definieras enligt Swedish Standards Institute (SIS) som data som beskriver företeelser inklusive deras geografiskaläge. Kapitlet avser inte att ge detaljerade beskrivningar av utbildningar inom området, men att ge en översikt och diskussion om utbildningarna inom de senaste 10 åren.

  • 42.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet, the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Real Estate Planning and Land Law Division, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Classification of Land Use: Further development of the ISO standard for Land Administration, ISO 191522015In: Homo Oeconomicus, ISSN 0943-0180, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 53-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses a proposed development of the ISO standard for land administration, the Land Administration Domain Model, LADM, ISO 19152. The extension focuses on expanding the standards terminology for classifying interests in land use. The proposed extension is based on the concept for classifying private and public rights, restrictions and responsibilities in the newly developed Legal Cadastral Domain Model, LCDM.

  • 43.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Real Estate Planning and Land Law, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Standards for land use and planning: Only for specialists?2016In: Der öffentliche Sektor - The Public Sector, ISSN 1563-4604, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 8-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    tandards have become vital instruments for describing and structuring e.g. real property rights and planning information,such as the international Land Administration Domain Model and the national Swedish standard for detailed developmentplans. However, the publication of a standard does not automatically ensure that it is used or understood. Standards areprimarily technical documents and not easily accessible by non-specialists. This article discusses the problems of using standards;such as the use of terminology and to access specific target group(s) when implementing standards in the geoformationsector in general and standards on property rights and planning in the public sector in particular. Conclusions are thata standard in itself may be of rather little value if not assisted by additional, non-expert documents for a broader group(s) ofdecision makers and other non-experts within the organization, aiming at different organizational levels.

  • 44.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Terminological Aspects Concerning Three-Dimensional Real Property2011In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 81-97Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses terminological aspects concerning definitions of three-dimensional (3D) real property.

    The authors have noticed that researchers from different countries, and even within the same country, use different terminology when describing 3D property. Neither have any general international definition of 3D property been encountered which is possible to use internationally to differentiate forms of 3D property. The aim of this article is to discuss terminological aspects of 3D property, resulting in a working definition of 3D property. The definition is tested and validated against other 3D property definitions encountered internationally.

    The basic aspects of terminology in general and legal terminology in particular are studied as a foundation for discussions on forms of 3D property rights and 3D property terminology. Examples of various terms used internationally, in different countries and legal families, are presented, showing the variety and difficulties with standardising the terminology. The problem of existing inconsistent terminology used today is addressed by applying methods from the field of terminology within the 3D real property domain. An overview of 3D property and property rights and what characterizes each of them is also presented. Thereafter the terminological principles are applied on a survey of 3D property rights to create a working definition for 3D property.

    Based on the validation, it can be concluded that the studied definitions all have shortcomings from a legal perspective, such as being too narrow or too wide, focusing on use rather than on object, or describing the physical object instead of the legally defined 3D object. This shows that it is difficult finding an accurate and internationally valid definition of 3D property. The authors believe that using unified terms and definitions will act towards a common understanding and thus further the establishment of a domain specific ontology within the field of 3D property.

  • 45.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    State Geodetic Administration, Zagred, Croatia.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    National Technical University of Athens School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Zographos, Greece.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Warsaw University of Technology Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV), Stockholm University, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Building a Modern Cadastre: Legal Issues in Describing Real Property in 3D2016In: Geodetski vestnik, ISSN 0351-0271, E-ISSN 1581-1328, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 256-268Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3D) real property has been the subject of increased research activity during the last decade. This article continues the discussions of the legal framework sessions at the 4th international workshop on 3D cadastres in Dubai 2014 in order to further develop and analyse the legal concepts of 3D real property, and presents an overview of experiences from 3D property use and registration. The outcome is intended to initiate discussions on the legal framework of 3D cadastres and aims at identifying the main topics concerning the legal aspects of 3D property and cadastre.

  • 46.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet, the Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Department OTB, GIS Technology Section, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Lemmen, Christiaan
    Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands; University of Twente, Faculty ITC, Enschede, the Netherlands.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Further modelling of LADM's Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities (RRRs)2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 49, p. 680-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a more detailed classification of the legal part of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), ISO 19152 (i.e. interests in land), than described in the current standard by further developing the LADM's 'right', 'restriction' and 'responsibility' (RRR) class and associated code lists. Besides the more obvious formal right descriptions, this paper also deals with informal rights' descriptions as introduced in the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) as a foundation for further LADM development. The authors base their research on the Legal Cadastral Domain Model, as developed by and described in the Ph.D. thesis of Paasch, which is used as a conceptual basis for adding an additional level to the LADM. Interests in land can be classified in this model as limiting or beneficial to real property ownership. The extended classification is further based on the paradigm that there are two major types of interest in land, privately agreed interests and regulations imposed by a public agency. The incorporation of a specialized classification of RRRs in the LADM is of value for more inclusion of social tenure in (inter-)national land administration registers. The LADM allows national profiles to be added to the standard, however, such profiles are relevant within a country. These profiles are needed in cases where detailed data of interests in land have to be exchanged internationally. International data exchange requires maintenance of code tables representing the different RRRs in use within countries. OICRF has announced an initiative in support to this.

  • 47.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Walfridsson, Märit
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Eriksson, Anna
    Lantmäteriet.
    Hedlund, Emmy
    Lantmäteriet.
    Juric, Marija
    Lantmäteriet.
    Abandoned Swedish joint facilities and utility easements: a case of “legal pollution”2017In: FIG Working Week 2017, Köpenhamn: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2017, article id 8528Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint facilities and utility easements are important legal instruments regulating land use in the Swedish society. Joint facilities are created when two or more real properties have the need to use a facility, such as a parking space, in common. Utility easements are rights to construct and maintain e.g. a pipeline or cable located on a real property. Sometimes the installations cease to be of use for the right holders. This article investigates the legislation used to liquidate these rights legally as well as physically. The study has identified insufficient procedures regulating the demolition of the physical installations, which may result in a situation where physical installations remain on the property after the legal right has been liquidated. This may cause an inconvenience for the landowner due to own costs for removing the installation(s) or becoming responsible for the right holders´ removal of the installation. Furthermore, increased costs affecting the landowner may arise in future cadastral procedures if the right still encumbers the property. The existence of installations no longer in use may even constitute a risk for human health and security, and the environment. The conclusion is that there is a need for better instructions and processes for removing the legal right and for who is responsible for the removal of the physical installation(s).

  • 48. Paasch, Jesper
    et al.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Legal Framework 3D Cadastres: Position Paper 12014In: Proceedings of the 4th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, 9-11 November 2014, Dubai, UAE, 2014, p. 411-416Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper serves as the basis for discussions for the working session Legal framework 3D Cadastres, being one of the four working sessions at the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres. The paper is intended to initiate discussions on the legal framework of 3D cadastres and aims at identifying the main topics concerning the legal aspects of 3D cadastre and further future research.

  • 49.
    Paasch, Jesper
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    Lemmen, Christiaan
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Specialization of the LADM: Modelling of Non-formal RRR2013In: LADM2013: 5th FIG International Land Administration Domain Model Workshop / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Christiaan Lemmen, Elfriede Fendel, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) , 2013, p. 153-172Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a more detailed classification of the legal part of the LADM, ISO 19152, (i.e. interests in land) than possible in the current standard (ISO, 2012) today and is an attempt to raise awareness of the possibilities to further develop the LADMs rightt, restrictionn and responsibilityy classes (RRR). The term landd is here used for land, water and air. The LADM does, in principle, already facilitate the modelling of e.g. informal and customary rights. However, there has, to the authorss knowledge, not yet been any approach that incorporates non-formal social tenure relationships, such as informal occupation, tenancy based on non-formal and informal rights and customary rights into the LADM. This paper uses the non-formal rights descriptions in the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) as an input to further develop the LADM.

  • 50. Paasch, Jesper
    et al.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Lemmen, Christiaan
    Specialization of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM): An Option for Expanding the Legal Profiles2013In: FIG Working Week 2013 – Environment for Sustainability: Proceedings, 2013, article id 6533Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Land Administration Domain Model, LADM, passed on the 1st of November 2012 unanimously the final vote towards becoming an international standard, ISO 19152. Based on the standard this paper is a proposal for a more detailed classification of interests in land as modelled within LADM and an attempt to raise the awareness of the possibilities to further develop the LADM‟s rightt, restrictionn and responsibilityy (RRR) classes. The current standardised classification of RRRs in the LADM is restricted to a top-level classification of RRRs. In this paper the authors use the classification of interests in land described in the newly developed Legal Cadastral Domain Model, LCDM, to further develop the LADM. The LDM is based on comparative international legal investigations, including case studies from Portugal, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland and Sweden.

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