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  • 1.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science, Public Health Science. Department of Medicine and Public Health, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Doctoral theses as a source of knowledge production for IPV prevention: A literature review of doctoral theses at a swedish university2019In: Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 145-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a pervasive form of Violence Against Women (VAW). IPV has been acknowledged as a human rights violation and a public health problem. Years of research and advocacy have led to a better understanding of the problem including the development of the ecological model for explaining IPV. Although diverse international policies and global advances in women’s rights have contributed to addressing IPV, the problem still persists. IPV is associated with adverse health outcomes, therefore, its prevention is an important aspect of population health promotion. Objective: Considering that doctoral research and theses form an integral aspect of knowledge production, the present study aims to provide a review of doctoral theses on IPV at a Swedish university in order to identify areas of unmet need for future IPV prevention studies. Methods: A search was conducted to identify IPV related thesis stored in the Karolinska Institutet (KI), which is a database where all publications produced at KI are stored. A total of thirteen PhD theses (the earliest published in 2004 and the latest in 2017) met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Results: Through their wide range of contexts and contents, these theses provide a global insight into IPV. Findings show that prevalence estimates and risk factors at the individual and relationship levels are well researched. Potential areas of unmet needs include the under-researched nature of risk factors and interventions at the community and societal level as well as underlying issues preventing the healthcare sector from actively playing its role in addressing IPV. Conclusion: Capacity building for the health sector and addressing community and societal level risk factors of IPV are modifiable factors to address IPV and improve population health. 

  • 2.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Lawoko, Stephen
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jansson, Bjarne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Attitudes Toward Physical Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Nigeria2016In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 2158244016667993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian demographic and health surveys were analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regressions. Results show that although larger proportions of women justified physical IPV, certain categories of men such as poor, illiterate men, and men with secondary education justified abuse more than women. Contrary to expectations, access to radio/TV increased the odds of justifying abuse among women thus casting doubts on program content. The gender differences observed for predictors of attitudes to physical IPV suggest a need for gender-tailored interventions to change attitudes toward partner violence in Nigeria.

  • 3.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Saboonchi, F.
    Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tinghög, P.
    Swedish RedCross University; Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Depression and Low Labour Market and Social Expectations among Resettled Syrian Refugees in Sweden2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3, p. 377-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Large numbers of refugees have come to Europe in search of safety. For non-refugee migrants, expectations and the extent to which they are met are shown to be integral components of adaptation and wellbeing. This study aims to explore the prevalence of low expectations for labour market, economic and social integration among Syrian refugees recently resettled in Sweden and whether depression is associated with these expectations.

    Methods

    Arandomsampleof1215Syrianrefugesofworkingage recently resettled in Sweden responded to a questionnaire in Arabic. Expectations were asse ssed by three items developed for this study. Average item score of >1.80 on the depressive symptoms  in  Hopkins  Symptom  Checklist  indicated depression. Logistic regressions adjusted for demographic factors and social support were conducted. Weighted data was used to produce socio-demographically representative prevalence rates and odds ratios (ORs). Robust standard errors were used to obtain 95% confidence intervals for all estimates.

    Results

    Prevalence  of  low  economic,  social  and  labour  market expectations were 14.1% (95% CI 12.0-16.1), 13.4% (11.3- 15.4) and 10.9% (9.1-12.6) respectively. Approximately 40.2% (36.9-43.3) of the participants had depression. Those with depression were about four times more likely to have low economic expectations (OR 3.89, 95% CI 2.66-5.92), three times more likely to have low social (OR 3.1, 2.30-5.24), and labour market (OR 2.83, 1.90-4.47) expectations.

    Conclusions

    Low expectations, while not widespread, exist among Syrian refugees in Sweden. Notable proportions had depression which was also significantly associated with low expectations. The association between depression and low expectations in keys areas necessary for adaptation and wellbeing in a new land, indicates the need to address mental health issues in current societal  level  efforts  aimed  at  boosting  labour  market participation and social inclusion.

    Key messages:

    • Notable proportions of Syrian refugees in Sweden have low expectations in domains vital for adaptation and wellbeing in a new land. Depression is significantly associated with low expectations.
    • Low expectation among Syrian refugees in domains vital for adaptation and wellbeing and the association with depres- sion indicate need to address mental health in social and labour market interventions.
  • 4.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science, Public Health Science. Department of Medicine and Public Health, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Department of Medicine and Public Health, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden, Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tinghög, Petter
    Department of Medicine and Public Health, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden, Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prevalence and predictors of low future expectations among Syrian refugees resettled in Sweden2019In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 5, no 10, article id e02554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Future Expectation is important for motivation and wellbeing, however drastic life events such as in refugee situations may result in low expectations. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and determinants of low future expectations among Syrian refugees resettled in Sweden.

    Methods

    A random sample of 1215 Syrian refugees resettled in Sweden responded to questionnaire. Weighted analyses and adjusted relative risks were conducted to determine the prevalences and predictors of low future expectations. Synergy index was calculated for low social support and depression in relation to low expectations.

    Results

    The prevalences of low future expectations for labour market, social and economic intergration were 10.9%, 13.4% and 14.1% respectively. Longer stay in Sweden, being older, low social support and depression were associated with low future expectations. The simultaneous presence of depression and low social support had a synergistic effect on low social expectation.

    Discussions

    Understanding and addressing factors related to low future expectations among refugees may be useful for facilitating their labour market, social and economic integration.

  • 5.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. epartment of Health Sciences, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Strauss, Eva
    Department of Health Sciences, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Higher education as a platform for capacity building to address violence against women and promote gender equality: the Swedish example2018In: Public Health Reviews, ISSN 0301-0422, E-ISSN 2107-6952, Vol. 39, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Violence against women is an acknowledged public and global health problem which has adverse consequences for women's health. Education, especially higher education, has long been identified as an important arena for addressing the problem and promoting gender equality. Two measures recently put in place in the Swedish higher education have brought the role of the sector into focus. The first is the inclusion of gender equality as a measurable outcome in quality assurance in higher education. The second measure is the amendment of the Swedish Higher Education Ordinance to include mandatory knowledge of VAW in the degree programme of seven selected relevant professional groups. The potentials of both measures to positively contribute to the gender equality discourse, as well as improving capacity building for the public health workforce who encounter VAW, are discussed.

  • 6.
    Salima, N.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Sciences, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stephen, L.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Victoria University, Kampala, Uganda .
    HIV testing among women of reproductive age exposed to intimate partner violence in Uganda2018In: Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 275-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) occur as dual epidemics with gender dimensions. IPV sometimes result in lack of decision making autonomy over one’s own health and this may negatively affect uptake HIV testing services. Objective: The study aimed to examine the association between exposure to IPV and HIV testing among women of reproductive age in Uganda. Method: The study is based on cross-sectional data from 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS). A sub-sample of 1705 ever-partnered women aged 15-49 who responded to the domestic violence module was examined in the study. Bivariate and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses were used to determine the association between exposure to IPV and HIV testing. Results: Up to 82.3% and 61.5% of the respondents were tested for HIV ever and in the past year, respectively. The prevalence of physical IPV and IPV of any form in the past year was 25.6% and 44% respectively. Exposure to physical IPV and emotional IPV in the past year was associated with HIV testing within the past year. In the multivariate analysis, exposure to physical IPV remained significantly associated with HIV testing within the past year (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.03-1.73). Frequent access to newspapers remained a significant predictor of HIV testing uptake. Conclusion: HIV testing in the past year is associated with exposure to IPV among women of reproductive age in Uganda. There is a need to include IPV as a part of global strategy to address HIV/AIDS. © 2018 Salima et al.

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