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  • 1.
    Andersen, Niklas
    et al.
    Energi Funktion Komfort Skandinavien AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Wind turbines’ end-of-life: Quantification and characterisation of future waste materials on a national level2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, wind power is growing fast and in Sweden alone more than 3000 turbines have been installed since the mid-1990s. Although the number of decommissioned turbines so far is few, the high installation rate suggests that a similarly high decommissioning rate can be expected at some point in the future. If the waste material from these turbines is not handled sustainably the whole concept of wind power as a clean energy alternative is challenged. This study presents a generally applicable method and quantification based on statistics of the waste amounts from wind turbines in Sweden. The expected annual mean growth is 12% until 2026, followed by a mean increase of 41% until 2034. By then, annual waste amounts are estimated to 240,000 tonnes steel and iron (16% of currently recycled materials), 2300 tonnes aluminium (4%), 3300 tonnes copper (5%), 340 tonnes electronics (<1%) and 28,000 tonnes blade materials (barely recycled today). Three studied scenarios suggest that a well-functioning market for re-use may postpone the effects of these waste amounts until improved recycling systems are in place.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden .
    The Effects of Environmental Management Systems on Source Separation in the Work and Home Settings2012In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 1292-1308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures that challenge the generation of waste are needed to address the global problem of the increasing volumes of waste that are generated in both private homes and workplaces. Source separation at the workplace is commonly implemented by environmental management systems (EMS). In the present study, the relationship between source separation at work and at home was investigated. A questionnaire that maps psychological and behavioural predictors of source separation was distributed to employees at different workplaces. The results show that respondents with awareness of EMS report higher levels of source separation at work, stronger environmental concern, personal and social norms, and perceive source separation to be less difficult. Furthermore, the results support the notion that after the adoption of EMS at the workplace, source separation at work spills over into source separation in the household. The potential implications for environmental management systems are discussed.

  • 3.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  • 4.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frostell, Björn
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    ORWARE: an aid to Environmental Technology Chain Assessment2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 265-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the ORWARE tool, a model originally developed for environmental systems analysis of waste management systems, and shows its prospect as a tool for environmental technology chain assessment. Different concepts of technology assessment are presented to put ORWARE into context in the discussion that has been going for more than two decades since the establishment of the US Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). An even-handed assessment is important in different ways such as reproducibility, reliability, credibility, etc. Conventional technology assessment (TA) relied on the judgements and intuition of the assessors. A computer-based tool such as ORWARE provides a basis for transparency and a structured management of input and output data that cover ecological and economic parameters. This permits consistent and coherent technology assessments. Using quantitative analysis as in ORWARE makes comparison and addition of values across chain of technologies easier. We illustrate the application of the model in environmental technology chain assessment through a study of alternative technical systems linking waste management to vehicle fuel production and use. The principles of material and substance flow modelling, life cycle perspective, and graphical modelling featured in ORWARE offer a generic structure for environmentally focused TA of chains and networks of technical processes.

  • 5.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Avdelningen för industriellt miljöskydd, KTH, Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Avdelningen för industriellt miljöskydd, KTH, Stockholm.
    Frostell, Björn
    Avdelningen för industriellt miljöskydd, KTH, Stockholm.
    Kuttainen, Karin
    Avdelningen för industriellt miljöskydd, KTH, Stockholm.
    Kompostering eller förbränning av hushållsavfall i Stockholm: En systemstudie av effekter på miljö, energi och ekonomi2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En systemanalys som utvärderar potentiella effekter på miljön, energiomsättning och ekonomi har genomförts där storskalig kompostering jämförts med förbränning. Studien har utförts på uppdrag av Birka Värme och är tänkt som en jämförelse av olika former av kapacitetsökning för behandling av avfall i Stockholmsområdet. Förebilder för behandlingsprocesserna är avfallsförbränningsanläggningen Högdalenverket som drivs av Birka Energi och en planerad storskalig komposteringsanläggning i Stora Vika i Rondecos regi. Avfallet samlas in från Stockholm med närområden. Avfallet består till större delen av lättnedbrytbart organiskt avfall och slam från reningsverk. Även rötning har jämförts där en mindre del av totala avfallet, motsvarande ledig kapacitet i rötningsanläggningen, behandlas.

    Studien visar att det ur de flesta av de betraktade aspekterna är fördelaktigare att förbränna avfallet än att kompostera det. Detta beror på miljöpåverkan (övergödning och höga tungmetallhalter) i hanteringen av kompostpelletsen och inverkan av att förlorad fjärrvärmeproduktion vid kompostering måste ersättas.

    Kompostering är att föredra ur klimatsynpunkt då dess bidrag till global uppvärmning (växthuseffekten) är totalt sett något lägre än för förbränning. Det beror till största del på att koldioxid från förbränning av plast som finns i avfallet frigörs vid avfallsförbränningen. Skillnaden är dock inom felmarginalen och resultatet bör ej tas för självklart.

    För den potentiella miljöeffekten försurning är det dött lopp mellan kompostering och förbränning. Förbränningen av avfall ger visserligen högre försurande utsläpp än komposteringen men när hänsyn tas till att förlorad fjärrvärme måste ersättas vid kompostering och att det går åt mer elektricitet vid kompostering, elektricitet som antas framställas från förbränning av kol, jämnar resultatet ut sig.

    Det finns en hel del svagheter i analysen, bland annat är det inte fullständigt klarlagt vilka materialbalanser som råder i komposteringsprocessen. Även för spridningen av kompostpelletsen råder stora osäkerheter. I dessa fall har antaganden gjorts men det är viktigt att i den fortsatta granskningen använda tillförlitligare data.

  • 6.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Industrial Ecology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),.
    Järås, Sven
    Chemical Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kusar, Henrik
    Chemical Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Treatment Technologies: An environmental and financial systems analysis of gasification, incineration and landfilling of waste2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A technology which is currently developed by researchers at KTH is catalytic combustion which is one component of a gasification system. Instead of performing the combustion in the gas turbine by a flame, a catalyst is used. When the development of a new technology (as catalytic combustion) reaches a certain step where it is possible to quantify material-, energy- and capital flows, the prerequisites for performing a systems analysis is at hand. The systems analysis can be used to expand the know-how about the potential advantages of the catalytic combustion technology by highlighting its function as a component of a larger system. In this way it may be possible to point out weak points which have to be investigated more, but also strong points to emphasise the importance of further development.

    The aim of this project was to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts and economic costs of thermal treatment technologies in general and catalytic combustion in particular. By using a holistic assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of catalytic combustion of waste it was possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the technology under different conditions. Following different treatment scenarios have been studied: (1) Gasification with catalytic combustion, (2) Gasification with flame combustion, (3) Incineration with energy recovery and (4) Landfilling with gas collection. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios is supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied were classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment into the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential (also called the green house effect), Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants.

    It is obvious that a decreased use of landfilling in favour of an increased energy recovery from waste is positive from all considered impact categories. Gasification with energy recovery in a combi cycle using catalytic combustion in the gas turbine is the most competitive technology from primarily an environmental point of view. The financial costs are however a bit higher than for incineration with energy recovery. This conclusion depends, however, on the assumption that the gasification and catalyst technologies work as the researchers presume and that the fuel is of high quality. For this, the pelletising unit is vital in the technology chain.

    A comparison of the catalytic combustion and the flame combustion shows that all impact categories except acidification, eutrophication and photochemical oxidants remain the same. The gasification process is identical between the two alternatives; it is just the combustion technology in the gas turbine that is different. This explains why the fuel consumption and the financial costs are not changed (a minor extra investment is made for the catalyst but is not noticeable in comparison to the total impact). Emissions of greenhouse gases are also identical. For the other impact categories there are differences for several of the emissions involved in the impact assessment but NOX is clearly the dominating one.

    Gasification with catalytic combustion is competitive to incineration. The small difference for eutrophication is within the error margin and is strongly dependent on the reduction of NOX in the incineration plant. The explanation to this result is that a combi cycle in combination with natural gas as the alternative power generation is a better system solution than incineration with biofuel as compensatory fuel. Financial costs are somewhat higher than for incineration but could also claimed to be within the error margin since the inventory of costs are more uncertain due to the fact that there is no plant with gasification and catalytic combustion in operation.

  • 7.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Ecology, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Quality versus impact: Comparing the environmental efficiency of building properties using the EcoEffect tool2010In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1095-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are tools that are developed for the assessment of the environmental impact of buildings (e.g. ATHENA). Other tools dealing with the indoor and outdoor environmental quality of building properties (referred to as real estates in other literature) are also available (e.g. GBTool). A platform where both the aspects of quality and impact are presented in an integrated fashion are few. The aim of this contribution is to present how the performance of different building properties can be assessed and compared using the concept of environmental efficiency in a Swedish assessment tool called EcoEffect. It presents the quality dimension in the form of users' satisfaction covering indoor and outdoor performance features against the weighted environmental impact covering global and local impacts. The indoor and outdoor values are collected using questionnaires combined with inspection and some measurements. Life cycle methodology is behind the calculation of the weighted external environmental impact. A case study is presented to show the application of EcoEffect using a comparative assessment of Lindas and a Reference property. The results show that Lindas block is better in internal environment quality than the Reference property. It performs slightly worse than the Reference property in the external environmental impact due to emissions and waste from energy and material use. The approach of integrated presentation of quality and impact as in EcoEffect provides with the opportunity of uncovering issues problem shifting and sub-optimisation. This avoids undesirable situations where the indoor quality is improved through measures that result in higher external environmental impact. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Industrial Ecology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Department of Infrastructure, Royal Institute of Technology, Built Environment Analysis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kindembe, Beatric
    White Arkitekter, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Myhr, Ulla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Environmental assessment of building properties - where natural and social sciences meet: the case of EcoEffect2007In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 1458-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EcoEffect method of assessing external and internal impacts of building properties is briefly described. The external impacts of manufacturing and transport of the building materials, the generation of power and heat consumed during the operation phase are assessed using life-cycle methodology. Emissions and waste; natural resource depletion and toxic substances in building materials are accounted for. Here methodologies from natural sciences are employed. The internal impacts involve the assessment of the risk for discomfort and ill-being due to features and properties of both the indoor environment and outdoor environment within the boundary of the building properties. This risk is calculated based on data and information from questionnaires; measurements and inspection where methodologies mainly from social sciences are used. Life-cycle costs covering investment and utilities costs as well as maintenance costs summed up over the lifetime of the building are also calculated.

    The result presentation offers extensive layers of diagrams and data tables ranging from an aggregated diagram of environmental efficiency to quantitative indicators of different aspects and factors. Environmental efficiency provides a relative measure of the internal quality of a building property in relation to its external impact vis-à-vis its performance relative to other building properties.

  • 9.
    Assefa, Getashew
    et al.
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frostell, Björn
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies using ORWARE2005In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 797-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies for wastes was performed in the form of scenarios of chains of technologies. The Swedish assessment tool, ORWARE, was used for the assessment. The scenarios of chains of thermal technologies assessed were gasification with catalytic combustion, gasification with flame combustion, incineration and landfilling. The landfilling scenario was used as a reference for comparison. The technologies were assessed from ecological and economic points of view.

    The results are presented in terms of global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, consumption of primary energy carriers and welfare costs. From the simulations, gasification followed by catalytic combustion with energy recovery in a combined cycle appeared to be the most competitive technology from an ecological point of view. On the other hand, this alternative was more expensive than incineration. A sensitivity analysis was done regarding electricity prices to show which technology wins at what value of the unit price of electricity (SEK/kW h).

    Within this study, it was possible to make a comparison both between a combined cycle and a Rankine cycle (a system pair) and at the same time between flame combustion and catalytic combustion (a technology pair). To use gasification just as a treatment technology is not more appealing than incineration, but the possibility of combining gasification with a combined cycle is attractive in terms of electricity production.

    This research was done in connection with an empirical R&D work on both gasification of waste and catalytic combustion of the gasified waste at the Division of Chemical Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.

  • 10.
    Baky, Andras
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural Environmental Engineering (JTI), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Systems Analysis of Organic Waste Management in Denmark: Environmental Project No. 822 2003 Miljøprojekt2003Report (Other academic)
  • 11. Bisaillon, Mattias
    et al.
    Haraldsson, Mårten
    Sundberg, Johan
    Eriksson, Ola
    Systemstudie Avfall - Borås: En systemstudie för den framtida avfallsbehandlingen i Borås: Ett delprojekt inom projektet "Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv"2015Report (Other academic)
  • 12. Bisaillon, Mattias
    et al.
    Sundberg, J.
    Haraldsson, M.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv: Etapp 12009Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Carlos-Pinedo, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Methane yield from SS-AD: Experiences to learn by a full spectrum analysis at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale2019In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 127, article id 105270Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) takes place when solid content of the substrate is higher than 15%. Some advantages of this technology have been recognized as e.g., less required water added to raw feedstock and consequently minimized digester size and cost, higher volumetric organic loading rates (OLR) that may lead to higher efficiency methane yield and better acceptance of a wide range of feedstocks. However, scientific studies of SS-AD at pilot- and full-scale are very few and difficulties have been reported in operating SS-AD, especially when the system undergoes a scale-up, where methane production is the purpose. As a result, this review gives a summary of scientific studies for SS-AD processes at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale, where a great diversity of substrate composition, reactor design and operational parameters have been categorized, and their performances in terms of methane yield have been analyzed. This, in turn, helps to identify that factors affecting methane yields at different scales arise mainly from operational conditions as well as the characteristic of feedstocks. This review even contributes to suggest several strategies for improvement of methane yield at full-scale.

  • 14.
    Carlsson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Gävle; ACC Glasrådgivare, Stockholm.
    Wintzell, Helene
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Helene Wintzell AB.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ohring, Ilari
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Erlandsson, Malin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Stockholm.
    Lindholm, Torbjörn
    Installationsteknik, Chalmers, Göteborg.
    Andersson, Johnny
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Gävle.
    Malmström, Tor-Göran
    Installationsteknik, KTH, Stockholm.
    Testfasen i miljöklassningsprojekten: Delrapport september 20072007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en redovisning av resultat och underlag i testfasen imiljöklassningsprojekten.

    I januari 2005 inleddes tre forskningsprojekt med målet att föreslå ettsystem för miljöklassning av byggnader. Forskningsprojekten har engemensam projektgrupp där 27 företag ingår. Syftet med projekten är attta fram förslag till indikatorer och kriterier för klassning inom områdenaenergi, innemiljö och farliga ämnen. Projekten avslutas hösten 2007.

    Under perioden december 2006 – mars 2007 genomfördes ett test avflera alternativa förslag till indikatorer. Testet utfördes i nära samverkanmed 16 företag från projektgruppen och ytterligare 10 bostadsrättföreningaroch 6 småhusägare. Sammanlagt ingick 46 byggnader av olika typ(flerbostadshus, kontor, sjukhus, småhus etc.).

    Testet utfördes genom att företag, föreningar och småhusägare samladein nödvändiga data för klassning av ett antal preliminära indikatorer. Defick också svara på frågor om prioritering av aspekter, indikatorer ochvilka resurser som krävdes.

    Insamlingen av mätdata kompletterades sedan med intervjuer för att fåin ytterligare information och synpunkter.

    Denna rapport innehåller resultat i form av:

    • Indata från dem som testat.
    • Försök till klassning av respektive byggnad.
    • Synpunkter på genomförandet av testningen.
    • Synpunkter på klassningssystemet.

    Dessutom ingick en studie av kopplingen mellan energideklarationer ochmiljöklassning. Några av byggnaderna energideklarerades och dessa datajämfördes med vad som behövs för miljöklassning.

    Rapporten innehåller samtliga dokument från testningen och kommeratt vara ett viktigt underlag i det fortsatta arbetet. Under hösten 2007kommer ett förslag till klassningssystem att presenteras.

  • 15.
    Carpenter, Angela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability Ltd., Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Astner, Linda
    Port Authority, Gävle Hamn AB/Port of Gävle AB, Fredriksskans, Gävle, Sweden.
    Securing a port's future through Circular Economy: Experiences from the Port of Gävle in contributing to sustainability2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 128, p. 539-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ports are an important player in the world, due to their role in global production and distributions systems. Theyare major intermodal transport hubs, linking the sea to the land. For all ports, a key requirement for commercialand economic viability is to retain ships using them and to remain accessible to those ships. Ports need to findapproaches to help them remain open. They must ensure their continued economic viability. At the same time,they face increasing pressure to become more environmentally and socially conscious. This paper examines theapproach taken by the Port of Gävle, Sweden, which used contaminated dredged materials to create new landusing principles of Circular Economy. The paper demonstrates that using Circular Economy principles can be aviable way of securing a port's future and contributing to its sustainability, and that of the city/region where itoperates.

  • 16.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    No zero burden assumption in a circular economy2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 352-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of previous studies on environmental problems caused by waste generation have focused on waste disposal issues without fully highlighting the primary reasons behind the problems. As a consequence, efforts to reduce these problems are usually directed towards the stakeholders that provide waste treatment and disposal instead of the stakeholders that contribute to waste generation. In order to detect connections between different problems of sustainability and to suggest measures which may contribute to their solutions, this study provides a simplified overview of the mechanisms behind waste generation and management. The results from the study show that the only way to eliminate problems of sustainability is to apply an upstream approach by dealing with the primary problems which occur in the early stages of the system (e.g. overconsumption of products, as well as use of finite resources, toxic materials, and non-recyclable materials). By dealing with these problems, the emergence of secondary problems would be prevented. Thereby, stakeholders who have the highest possibility to contribute to the sustainable development of the waste generation and management are the stakeholders from the origin of the product's life cycles, such as product developers, manufacturing companies, product users and policy makers. Different trade-off situations such as contradictions between economics, recyclability, energy efficiency, make it even harder to deal with issues of sustainability related to the system and to detect the stakeholders who may contribute to the development. One of the main conclusions from this study is that when transforming society towards a circular economy, the traditional view of separate systems for production and waste management must be changed. In order to refer to all problems of sustainability and also cover the top steps of the waste hierarchy, life cycle assessment of waste management should include manufacture and use of products ending up as waste. Waste entering the waste management system with “zero burden” by releasing the previous actors of the waste life cycle from any responsibility related to the environment (i.e. by shifting the total environmental burden into the waste management system), does not capture the problems with waste generation.

  • 17.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assefa, Getachew
    Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Environmental Strategies Research - FMS, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Environmental Strategies Research - FMS, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    What life-cycle assessment does and does not do in assessments of waste management2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 989-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which are relevant specifically in the context of waste management. Several of them are relevant also for other types of systems analysis. We have identified and discussed such characteristics with regard to how they may restrict the applicability of LCA in the context of waste management. Efforts to improve LCA with regard to these aspects are also described. We also identify what other tools are available for investigating issues that cannot be adequately dealt with by traditional LCA models, and discuss whether LCA methodology should be expanded rather than complemented by other tools to increase its scope and applicability.

  • 18. Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    Malmheden, Sara
    Hållbar avfallshantering: populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning av Naturvårdsverkets forskningsprogram2012Report (Other academic)
  • 19. Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    Malmheden, Sara
    Towards Sustainable Waste Management - Popular Summary Report from a Swedish EPA Research Programme2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the research program Towards Sustainable Waste Management has been to assemble, develop and evaluate ideas for policy instruments for a more sustainable waste management. The waste management should contribute to reducing the environmental impact of the society, for example through reduced waste quantities and increased recycling. It should be cost-efficient and also be accepted among the public as well as other important stakeholders. Our aim was also to develop tools and methods to evaluate such instruments. For example we have developed a package of computer models to analyse the quantities of waste that can arise in the future (EMEC), how these different quantities might be treated (NatWaste), and how this can affect the environment (SWEA). The models also provide information about the cost of waste management and how the Swedish economy in general can be affected by the policy instruments. This package of models, together with our other models and methods, give us a unique capability for the assessment of new policy instruments and the analysis of complex questions on waste quantities and waste treatment. Our assessments and conclusions have a broad scientific basis. We combined the three models above with other calculations and with qualitative analysis and discussions, based on research in ethnology, psychology, economics, etc. This means that we are also able to analyze issues of acceptance and discuss how information should be designed to be effective. People often like to contribute to a good environment, through source separation, etc. However, each individual has a clear limit regarding how much effort to spend. A positive attitude towards source separation does not reach far, when the sorting of a waste fraction is considered difficult. Hence, it must be easy to do the right thing. We found that people who are not satisfied with the waste-management system are uncertain over it rather than unhappy with it. Clear information can be of great benefit, if adapted to the situation and audience, and especially when combined with other policy instruments. Besides information, we assessed fifteen other policy instruments that aim for waste prevention and increased recycling of materials:

    • Raw materials tax
    • Tax on hazardous substances
    • Recycling certificates
    • Prohibition of distribution of advertising to households that have not expressly agreed to this
    • Reduced value added tax (VAT) on services
    • Negative labeling of products with hazardous substances
    • Requirements for companies to work on waste minimization
    • Improved surveillance by authorities
    • Weight-based waste-collection fee
    • Environmentally differentiated waste-collection fee
    • Consumer-friendly waste collection systems
    • Climate Tax on incineration of waste with fossil origin
    • Weight-based tax on incineration of waste
    • Green electricity certificates for waste incineration
    • Obligation to recycle recyclable materials

    Of these, the obligation to recycle recyclables seems to provide the greatest environmental benefit. A weight-based waste fee also results in increased source separation and recycling. Raw material taxes and recycling certificates aim at stimulating or requiring a demand for recycled materials. The introduction of such instruments in a single country like Sweden has a small effect on the total recycling of the materials, partly because the supply of recycled material is insensitive to changes in the market. Reducing VAT on services helps to shift consumption away from goods to services. This reduces the quantity of waste per consumed Euro. The quantity of paper waste in the households is reduced if the distribution of advertising is prohibited to households that have not expressly agreed to this. The waste quantity can also be reduced through demanding waste-minimization plans or similar in companies and through improved surveillance of the companies by authorities. We expect each of these instruments to affect the waste quantity with a few percent or less, but together they can still have a significant effect. Some instruments are complementary and therefore good to combine. It is, for example, a good idea to combine the weight-based waste-collection fee with consumer-friendly collection and information, because this reduces the risk that households dispose of their waste illegally. Information can be a powerful tool if it is combined with other instruments, but isolated it is difficult to get it effective. In Towards Sustainable Waste Management we evaluated one or two versions of each instrument. Our studies in addition gave ideas for new versions of some of the investigated instruments and also ideas for completely new instruments. A substantial tax on the use of materials could, for example, lead to increased material efficiency in industry. Support to repairing services could extend the life of certain products and thus reduce the waste quantity. Allowing temporary landfill or storage of plastic waste that cannot be recycled could reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Well established tools like deposit systems and the landfill tax could be expanded to include more products and waste fractions. Further research or investigations are needed both on these new ideas about the instruments we have studied, to determine whether – and if so, how – they are inserted into practice. Among the instruments in place today, and also among the possible policy instruments that we have studied, there are a few that greatly affect the treatment of waste. Examples include landfill bans, the extended producer responsibility, and the obligation to recycle recyclables. However, it is more difficult to find instruments that drastically can reduce the waste quantity. This quantity seems to be decided mainly by the economic and technological development in the society, and by consumption patterns and the lifestyle of the citizens. To find policy instruments that can greatly reduce the quantity of waste we need further innovation in this area. The results from the research program have been published in more reports, scientific articles, etc., many of them in English. Visit our website www.sustainablewaste.info for a full list of publications.

  • 20.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL.
    Åkeson, Lynn
    Lunds Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys .
    Ljunggren Söderman, M
    IVL.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL.
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bridging the gap between the sustainability pillars2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough assessment of the sustainability performance of a product, a system, or a decision requires expertise on environmental, economic, and social aspects. In an assessment that involves researchers from different disciplines, communication is challenging because of different background knowledge, terminology, research traditions, etc.In the research program Towards Sustainable Waste Management, a new approach to interdisciplinary interaction was tested. The program included a group of researchers on life cycle assessment (LCA) and systems analysis of waste management. To this group, specialists in national economy, environmental psychology, and ethnology were linked in various projects. In each specific research project at least 20% of the budget was allocated to a waste LCA expert, who, through participating actively in the project, would be an interpreter, a two-way bridge between the disciplines. The first purpose of this LCA expert was to interpret the sustainability questions and to help make the research relevant for the overall purpose of the research program. The second purpose was to interpret the results of the specialists’ research and to help making the results useful for the overall program.Our experience demonstrates that this set-up forces the specialists and their interpreters/bridges to face the challenge of understanding each other. Establishing such an interdisciplinary interaction requires that the researchers share a mutual interest in trying to reach understanding. However, despite this interest and despite the significant resources made available for the participation, our collaboration was restricted by the fact that it can be difficult for the specialists to find suitable tasks in their projects for the LCA expert. The chance of the interaction being successful increases if the background knowledge of the researchers in the project overlaps, if they have similar research cultures, if they share a common interest in the research questions, and/or if the disciplinary scientists are accustomed to interdisciplinary collaboration.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Energy and Waste Management2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 1072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management and energy systems are often interlinked, either directly by waste-to-energy technologies, or indirectly as processes for recovery of resources-such as materials, oils, manure, or sludge-use energy in their processes or substitute conventional production of the commodities for which the recycling processes provide raw materials. A special issue in Energies on the topic of “ Energy andWaste Management” attained a lot of attention from the scientific community. In particular, papers contributing to improved understanding of the combined management of waste and energy were invited. In all, 9 papers were published out of 24 unique submissions. The papers cover technical topics such as leaching of heavy metals, pyrolysis, and production of synthetic natural gas in addition to different systems assessments of horse manure, incineration, and complex future scenarios at a national level. All papers except one focused on energy recovery from waste. That particular paper focused on waste management of infrastructure in an energy system (wind turbines). Published papers illustrate research in the field of energy and waste management on both a current detailed process level as well as on a future system level. Knowledge gained on both types is necessary to be able to make progress towards a circular economy.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Ola
    KTH, Kemiteknik.
    Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management is something that affects most people. Thewaste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment ischanging towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Swedenproducers’responsibility for different products, a taxand bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates areorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plansare made for new incineration plants, which leads to that wastecombustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of theSwedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed toadapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclearplants and decreased use of fossil fuels.

    Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste,scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a largeextent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has beenstudied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metalpackages that by source separation haven’t ended up in thewaste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentionedfractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard-and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of thismixed household waste is combustible, and the major part ofthat is also possible to recycle.

    Several systems analyses of municipalsolid waste managementhave been performed. Deposition at landfill has been comparedto energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic andcardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste).Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculatedfor the entire lifecycle from the households, until the wasteis treated and the by-products have been taken care of.

    To stop deposition at landfills is the most importantmeasure to take as to decrease the environmental impact fromlandfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, therebysubstituting production from virgin resources (avoidingresource extraction and emissions). The best alternative tolandfilling is incineration, but also material recycling andbiological treatment are possible.

    Recycling of plastic has slightly less environmental impactand energy consumption than incineration. The difference issmall due to that plastic is such a small part of the totalwaste amount, and that just a small part of the collectedamount is recycled. Cardboard recycling is comparable toincineration; there are both advantages and disadvantages.Source separation of food waste may lead to higher transportemissions due to intensified collection, but severalenvironmental advantages are observed if the waste is digestedand the produced biogas substitutes diesel in busses.Composting has no environmental advantages compared toincineration, mainly due to lack of energy recovery. Therecycling options are more expensive than incineration. Theincreased cost must be seen in relation to the environmentalbenefits and decreased energy use. If the work with sourceseparation made by the households is included in the analysis,the welfare costs for source separation and recycling becomesnon-profitable. It is however doubted how much time is consumedand how it should be valuated in monetary terms.

    In systems analyses, several impacts are not measured.Environmental impact has been studied, but not allenvironmental impact. As the parts of the system are underconstant change, the results are not true forever. Recyclingmay not be unambiguously advantageous today, but it can be inthe future.

    Despite the fact that systems analysis has been developedduring 10 years in Sweden, there are still many decisions takenregarding waste management without support from systemsanalysis and use of computer models. The minority of users ispleased with the results achieved, but the systems analysis isfar from easy to use. The adaptation of tools and models to thedemands from the potential users should consider thatorganisations of different sizes have shifting demands andneeds.

    The application areas for systems analysis and models arestrategic planning, decisions about larger investments andeducation in universities and within organisations. Systemsanalysis and models may be used in pre-planning procedures. Apotential is a more general application (Technology Assessment)in predominantly waste- and biofuel based energy processes, butalso for assessment of new technical components in a systemsperspective. The methodology and systems approach developedwithin the systems analysis has here been transformed to anassessment of environmental, economic and technical prestandaof technical systems in a broad sense.

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Environmental technology assessment of natural gas compared to biogas2010In: Natural Gas / [ed] Potocnik, Primoz, Rijeka: INTECH, 2010, p. 127-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Centrum för miljöstrategisk forskning, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm; Institutionen för infrastruktur och samhällsbyggnad, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Fjärrvärme i ett ekologiskt hållbarhetsperspektiv2004Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Nuclear power and resource efficiency-A proposal for a revised primary energy factor2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring resource efficiency can be achieved using different methods, of which primary energy demand is commonly used. The primary energy factor (PEF) is a figure describing how much energy from primary resources is being used per unit of energy delivered. The PEF for nuclear power is typically 3, which refers to thermal energy released from fission in relation to electricity generated. Fuel losses are not accounted for. However; nuclear waste represents an energy loss, as current plans for nuclear waste management mostly include final disposal. Based on a literature review and mathematical calculations of the power-to-fuel ratio for nuclear power, PEF values for the open nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) option of nuclear power and different power mixes are calculated. These calculations indicate that a more correct PEF for nuclear power would be 60 (range 32-88); for electricity in Sweden (41% nuclear power) PEF would change from 1.8 to 25.5, and the average PEF for electricity in the European Union (EU) would change from 2.5 to 18. The results illustrate the poor resource efficiency of nuclear power, which paves the way for the fourth generation of nuclear power and illustrates the policy implication of using PEFs which are inconsistent with current waste management plans.

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Perspektiv på biogas: En antologi om biogas som drivmedel med fokus på teknik, miljöpåverkan och samhällsnytta2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av utvecklingsprojektet BiogasMitt har Högskolan i Gävle sammanställt denna antologi om biogas. Målgruppen är studenter som läser energi- och miljöteknik på högskolenivå, men den kan också användas i uppdragsutbildning för tjänstemän och politiker som vill veta mer om biogas som samhällsföreteelse.

    Antologin är sammansatt av följande delar:

    Del 1 En kunskapssammanställning om biogas. Denna del är en bearbetad version av en större systemanalys för Gästrikeregionen som Högskolan tagit fram med stöd av forskningsstiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö. I bearbetningen har vissa delar valts och kompletterats med ny text. Studien i sin helhet är publicerad på BiogasMitts hemsida och skriven av Ola Eriksson och Teresa Hermansson. Texten publicerad här är bearbetad av Ola Eriksson.

    Del 2 Varför kommunerna är viktiga för framväxten av biogas. Denna del baseras på en presentation framförd vid seminariet ”LNG och LBG i Gävleborg och Dalarna?” som hölls i Stora gasklockan i Gävle torsdagen den 29 september av Ola Eriksson. Föredraget har dokumenterats i löpande text och anpassats till antologins format av Ola Eriksson.

    Del 3 Environmental technology assessment of natural gas compared to biogas. Denna del är skriven på engelska och tidigare publicerad i boken “Natural Gas” editedby Primoz Potocnik. Författare är Ola Eriksson.

    Del 4 Improvements in environmental performance of biogas production from municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Denna del är skriven på engelska och tidigare publicerad som ett bidrag till konferensen World Renewable Energy Congresss om hölls i Linköping 8-12 maj 2011. Huvudförfattare är Ola Eriksson. Medförfattare är Mattias Bisaillon, Mårten Haraldsson och Johan Sundberg.

    Del 5 Energianalys av Svensk Växtkrafts biogasanläggning i Västerås. Denna del återger i sin helhet ett examensarbete som handletts av Ola Eriksson. Författare är Jenny Liljestam Cerruto.

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Centrum för miljövetenskap, KTH, Stockholm.
    Projektbaserad tvärvetenskaplig doktorandkurs: Utredning av förutsättningar2003Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Baky, A.
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering (JTI), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Identification and testing of potential key parameters in system analysis of municipal solid waste management2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 1095-1099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) are well-established methods used for many years in many countries for system analysis of waste management. According to standard LCA procedure the assessment should include improvement analysis, in many cases this is performed by simple sensitivity analyses. An obstacle to perform more thorough sensitivity analyses is that it is hard to distinguish input data important to the results, i.e. key parameters. This paper further elaborates sensitivity analyses performed in an environmental system analysis fora hypothetical Swedish municipality. In this paper, the method to identify and test input data that can be categorised as potential key parameters is described. The method and the results from computer simulations of the identified parameters are presented, and some conclusions are drawn regarding the robustness of the results for environmental impact from municipal solid waste management. The major conclusion is that the results are robust. Changes in results, when changing the preconditions, are often small and the changes observed do not lead to new conclusions; i.e., a change of ranking order between treatment options.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu i Göteborg AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Multiple system modelling of waste management2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 2620-2630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Haraldsson, Mårten
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Enhancement of biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge: environmental and economic life cycle performance2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 175, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to increase resource efficiency, as well as to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources due to that (1) waste to a large extent is renewable as it consists of food waste, paper, wood etc. and (2) when energy and materials are recovered from waste treatment, fossil fuels can be substituted. In this paper results from a comprehensive system study of future biological treatment of readily degradable waste in two Swedish regions are presented. Different collection and separation systems for food waste in households have been applied as well as technical improvements of the biogas process as to reduce environmental impact. The results show that central sorting of a mixed fraction into recyclables, combustibles, biowaste and inert is a competitive option compared to source separation. Use of pellets is beneficial compared to direct spreading as fertiliser. Fuel pellets seem to be the most favourable option, which to a large extent depends on the circumstances in the energy system. Separation and utilisation of nitrogen in the wet part of the digestion residue is made possible with a number of technologies which decreases environmental impact drastically, however to a substantial cost in some cases.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Haraldsson, Mårten
    Sundberg, Johan
    Integrated waste management as a mean to promote renewable energy2014In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 61, p. 38-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to both increase resource efficiency (material and energy recovery instead of landfill disposal) and to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources (waste is renewable in itself to a large extent as it contains paper, wood, food waste etc.). The paper presents the general outline and results from a comprehensive system study of future waste management. In the study a multifunctional waste management system integrated with local energy systems for district heating and electricity, wastewater treatment, agriculture and vehicle fuel production is investigated with respect to environmental impact and financial economy. Different waste technologies as well as management strategies have been tested. The treatment is facilitated through advanced sorting, efficient treatment facilities and upgrading of output products. Tools used are the ORWARE model for the waste management system and the MARTES model for the district heating system. The results for potential global warming are used as an indicator for renewable energy. In all future scenarios and for all management strategies net savings of CO2 is accomplished. Compared to a future reference the financial costs will be higher or lower depending on management strategy. 

  • 32.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Carlsson Reich, M.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Sundqvist, J-O
    Granath, J
    Baky, A
    Thyselius, L
    Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different waste treatment options for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of biodegradable waste, were studied and compared to landfilling. The evaluation covered use of energy resources, environmental impact and financial and environmental costs. In the study, a calculation model ( ) based on methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA) was used. Case studies were performed in three Swedish municipalities: Uppsala, Stockholm, and Älvdalen.

    The study shows that reduced landfilling in favour of increased recycling of energy and materials lead to lower environmental impact, lower consumption of energy resources, and lower economic costs. Landfilling of energy-rich waste should be avoided as far as possible, partly because of the negative environmental impacts from landfilling, but mainly because of the low recovery of resources when landfilling.

    Differences between materials recycling, nutrient recycling and incineration are small but in general recycling of plastic is somewhat better than incineration and biological treatment somewhat worse.

    When planning waste management, it is important to know that the choice of waste treatment method affects processes outside the waste management system, such as generation of district heating, electricity, vehicle fuel, plastic, cardboard, and fertiliser.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research-fms, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering (SEED), School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy Recovery from Waste Incineration: The Importance of Technology Data and System Boundaries on CO2 Emissions2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on waste incineration as part of the energy system show that waste management and energy supply are highly dependent on each other, and that the preconditions for the energy system setup affects the avoided emissions and thereby even sometimes the total outcome of an environmental assessment. However, it has not been previously shown explicitly which key parameters are most crucial, how much each parameter affects results and conclusions and how different aspects depend on each other. The interconnection between waste incineration and the energy system is elaborated by testing parameters potentially crucial to the result: design of the incineration plant, avoided energy generation, degree of efficiency, electricity efficiency in combined heat and power plants (CHP), avoided fuel, emission level of the avoided electricity generation and avoided waste management. CO2 emissions have been calculated for incineration of 1 kWh mixed combustible waste. The results indicate that one of the most important factors is the electricity efficiency in CHP plants in combination with the emission level of the avoided electricity generation. A novel aspect of this study is the plant by plant comparison showing how different electricity efficiencies associated with different types of fuels and plants influence results. Since waste incineration typically have lower power to fuel ratios, this has implications for further analyses of waste incineration compared to other waste management practises and heat and power production technologies. New incineration capacity should substitute mixed landfill disposal and recovered energy should replace energy from inefficient high polluting plants. Electricity generation must not be lost, as it has to be compensated for by electricity production affecting the overall results.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Plastic waste as a fuel - CO2-neutral or not?2009In: Energy and Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 907-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is not only a societal problem addressed with environmental impact, it is also a resource that can be used for energy supply. In Northern Europe combustion of MSW (incineration with energy recovery) in combination with district heating systems is quite common. In Sweden, about 47 % of the household waste is treated by incineration with energy recovery. Most incineration plants are CHP, summing up to 0.3 % of the total electricity generation. MSW is to a high extent a renewable fuel, but plastic, rubber etc. can amount to 50 % of the carbon content in the waste. Recycling of plastic is in general environmentally favourable in comparison to landfill disposal or incineration. However, some plastic types are not possible to recycle and some plastic has such low quality that it is not suited for recycling. This paper focuses on the non-renewable and non-recyclable plastic in the MSW. A CO2 assessment has been made for non-recyclable plastic where incineration with energy recovery has been compared to landfill disposal. In the assessment, consideration has been taken to alternative fuel in the incinerator, emissions from waste treatment and avoided emissions from heat and power supply.

     

    For landfill disposal of plastic the emissions of CO2 amounts to 253 g/kg plastic. For incineration, depending on different discrete choices, the results vary from -673 g/kg to 4 605 g/kg. Results indicate that for typical Swedish and European conditions, incineration of plastics has net emissions of greenhouse gases. These emissions are also in general higher for incineration than for landfill disposal. However in situations where plastics are incinerated with high efficiency and high electricity to heat ratios, and the heat and the electricity from incineration of plastics are replacing heat and electricity in non-combined heat and power plants based on fossil fuels, incineration of plastics can give a net negative contribution of greenhouse gases. The results suggests that efforts should be made to increase recycling of plastics, direct incineration of plastics to places where it can be combusted with high efficiencies and high electricity-to-heat ratios where it is replacing fossil fuels, and reconsider the present policies of avoiding landfill disposal of plastics.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Environmental Strategies Research—fms, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Environmental Strategies Research—fms, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: a comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 1346-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management (landfill disposal or material recovery). A secondary objective was to test a combination of dynamic energy system modelling and LCA by combining the concept of complex marginal electricity production in a static, environmental systems analysis. Furthermore, we wanted to increase the methodological knowledge about how waste can be environmentally compared to other fuels in district-heat production. The results indicate that combustion of biofuel in a CHP is environmentally favourable and robust with respect to the avoided type of electricity and waste management. Waste incineration is often (but not always) the preferable choice when incineration substitutes landfill disposal of waste. It is however, never the best choice (and often the worst) when incineration substitutes recycling. A natural gas fired CHP is an alternative of interest if marginal electricity has a high fossil content. However, if the marginal electricity is mainly based on non-fossil sources, natural gas is in general worse than biofuels. 

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frostell, Björn
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Assefa, Getachew
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Swedish Environmental Reserach Institute (IVL), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granath, J.
    Swedish Environmental Reserach Institute (IVL), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, M.
    Department of Economy, Swedish Univinversity for Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Baky, A.
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural (JTI), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thyselius, L.
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural (JTI), Uppsala, Sweden.
    ORWARE: a simulation tool for waste management2002In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 287-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) is described. The model is mainly used as a tool for researchers in environmental systems analysis of waste management. It is a computer-based model for calculation of substance flows, environmental impacts, and costs of waste management. The model covers, despite the name, both organic and inorganic fractions in municipal waste. The model consists of a number of separate submodels, which describes a process in a real waste management system. The submodels may be combined to design a complete waste management system. Based on principles from life cycle assessment the model also comprises compensatory processes for conventional production of e.g. electricity, district heating and fertiliser. The compensatory system is included in order to fulfil the functional units, i.e. benefits from the waste management that are kept constant in the evaluation of different scenarios. ORWARE generates data on emissions, which are aggregated into different environmental impact categories, e.g. the greenhouse effect, acidification and eutrophication. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of up to 50 substances. The extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. Scientists have used ORWARE for 8 years in different case studies for model testing and practical application in the society. The aims have e.g. been to evaluate waste management plans and to optimise energy recovery from waste.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hennessy, Jay
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hästkrafter och hästnäring – hållbara systemlösningar för biogas och biogödsel: Explorativ systemanalys med datormodellen ORWARE2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of horses in Sweden is increasing and according to estimated statistics from Swedish Board of Agriculture, there are an estimated amount of 360,000 horses in the country. These horses are found in different types of activities (agriculture, trail riding, trot and canter, etc.) and they generate large quantities of horse manure. Horse manure consists of feces, urine and bedding material which various bedding materials used to various amount. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest for horse manure be subject to anaerobic digestion and thereby produce biogas has increased with the increased interest in biogas as a renewable fuel.

    This study has aimed to highlight the environmental impact of different ways to treat horse manure from a system perspective. Special attention has been focused on the involve­ment of different types of litter/bedding material and how it affects the effective­ness of various treatment processes. The treatment methods investigated are

    1. Unmanged composting
    2. Managed Composting
    3. Large-scale incineration in a waste fired CHP plant
    4. Drying and small-scale combustion
    5. Solid state anaerobic digestion
    6. Liquid state anaerobic digestion with and without thermal pre-treatment

    Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative, but they still point to large-scale incineration as an environmentally sound method. An excep­tion is the contribution to climate impact where digestion in different forms are preferred. Based on the study of various bedding materials, paper pellet appear as an interesting alternative to move forward with.

    The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hennessy, Jay
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden; University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Life cycle assessment of horse manure treatment2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  • 39.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Avfallsprevention i stålindustrin: Exempel från Sandvik Materials Technology2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med extern granskning av forskningsprogrammet Hållbar avfallshantering kom det fram att mer fokus borde läggas på att beskriva åtgärder som träffar högt upp i avfallshierarkin, d.v.s. att undvika att avfall uppkommer, återanvändning och återvinning. Denna rapport utgår från detta önskemål och beskriver hur återvinning och prevention av interna restproduktflöden inom stålindustrin kan gå till och ger exempel från Sandvik Materials Technology. Underlag till denna studie är ett studiebesök på SMT i Sandviken, samtal med Lotta Lind som arbetade som restproduktingenjör och granskning av textdokument som miljörapport och ett tidigare utfört examensarbete. Rapporten är en syntes utifrån dessa källor.

    I rapporten redovisas vilka problem och lösningar som finns för rent metallavfall som skrot, spånor och stofter, metalloxider som gasreningstoft och glödskal, metallhydroxidslam, slagger och blyhaltigt avfall. Det rena metallavfallet återanvänds redan till 100 % i processen, ofta internt men ibland av extern aktör. För metalloxider i form av glödskal finns det en fungerande återvinningsprocess utan för SMT, men planer finns på att göra investeringar för att SMT själva skall kunna ta hand om avfallet. Metallhydroxidslam deponeras men det finns långt gångna planer för hur processer och rening skall ändras så att slammet skall kunna återvinnas. Även för slagg, som är det till mängden mest betydelsefulla avfallet, finns planer för hur den nuvarande deponeringen skall kunna minskas drastiskt till förmån för återbruk och återvinning av materialet som exempelvis konstruktionsmaterial på deponier. Blyhaltiga avfall har visat sig kunna värmebehandlas så att blyet kan återvinnas. Resultatet blir att värdefullt och miljöfarligt bly recirkuleras inom SMT och de rester som blir kvar skulle kunna klassas om till icke-farligt.

    Samtliga exempel på avfallsprevention bygger på tankar om ökad recirkulering, extern avsättning för uppkomna restprodukter och minskad mängd restprodukt per mängd prima vara producerad. Förutom betydande miljömässiga fördelar uppvisar många av förändringarna goda ekonomiska resultat efter relativt kort tid.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Biogas i Gästrikeregionen - BiG: En systemanalys2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I södra Sverige finns en tämligen väl utbyggd infrastruktur för biogas (Gasföreningen, 2009). Totalt finns över 92 tankställen för personbilar och 30 tankställen för tunga fordon i landet. Gävleborgs län kallas ibland för ”stopplänet” eftersom det finns, eller kommer snart att finnas, fordonsgas såväl söderut, norrut som västerut. Förutom en lokal användning av biogas i regionen så passerar en betydande del av de bilburna semesterfirarna vårt län på väg till fjällen eller sommarvisten. En del av dessa vill kunna tanka biogas här.

    Undersökningar utförda på uppdrag av Gästrike Avfallshantering AB 1999 gav vid handen att det fanns för lite slakteriavfall för att göra rötning lönsamt. Några år senare ställdes frågan på nytt om vilken sorts biologisk behandling man borde ha och då valdes kompostering framför rötning p.g.a. teknikkrångel på andra ställen. Dessutom visade undersökningarna inte på någon större efterfrågan på biogas.

    Målet har varit att i en systemanalys ge en samlad bild av förutsättningarna (fysiska och icke-fysiska) för etablering av biogas i Gästrikeregionen. Systemanalysen har utförts i flera delar:

    1. Aktörsanalys
    2. Teknik- och omvärldsbevakning
    3. SWOT-analys
    4. Teknisk systemanalys

    Resultaten visar att det i regionen, eventuellt med stöd av omgivande regioner, finns möjligheter att röta avfallet. Anläggningarna är tekniskt sett bättre idag, det borde gå att få tag på tillräckligt med substrat som ger tillräckligt med gas och det finns efterfrågan på gasen.

    För att detta skall ske så måste kommunerna (förvaltningar, bolag, kommunalförbund) jobba samlat och klara av att hantera alla olika brickor i biogasspelet. Nästa lika viktiga är lantbrukarna som skulle kunna få fram stora mängder substrat samtidigt som de är viktiga för återförningen av rötrest till åkermark. Dessvärre noterar vi vissa samarbetssvårigheter mellan lantbrukare och kommun.

    Vad krävs då för att det skall bli någon biogasproduktion i regionen? Listan över kriterier som behöver vara uppfyllda för att biogasproduktion skall komma till stånd kan göras oändlig men vi har i denna studie försökt vaska fram några huvuddrag. Vi har redan betonat vikten av regional samordning inom kommunsfären och i synnerhet kommuner visavi lantbruket. Det handlar om förtroendeskapande åtgärder och det handlar om letter-of-intent och avtal för att säkra substratleveranser och avsättning för rötrest och biogas. Priset på fossil energi liksom den nationella energi- och miljöpolitiken påverkar på mer än ett sätt hur snabbt utvecklingen sker. Lokaliseringsfrågan är också en nöt att knäcka där vi i denna studie visat att det finns för- och nackdelar med både Forsbacka och Duvbacken. Det som avgör det hela är ifall det går att räkna hem en satsning ekonomiskt. Affärsmässigheten bedöms av Gävle Energi i en separat studie (dock med andra geografiska gränser).

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Hållbar konsumtion och hållbar avfallshantering - vad är det?: Diskussion kring dagsläget och framtiden : Dokumentation från seminarium och workshop på Högskolan i Gävle den 18 mars 20102013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I samarbete med forskare inom forskningsprogrammet Hållbar avfallshantering inbjöd forskningsstiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö till en heldag om avfall och konsumtion. Inbjudan riktades till kommuner, länsstyrelser, företag och organisationer i Gävleborg och Dalarna. Under förmiddagen hölls ett antal olika föredrag och presentationer med en avslutande paneldebatt. Eftermiddagen bjöd på en workshop med gruppvisa diskussioner kring vilka styrmedel som skulle fungera regionalt och lokalt samt kring avfallsminimering (avfallsprevention). Forskningsseminariet ägde rum torsdagen den 18 mars på Högskolan i Gävle.

    Syftet med seminariet var att sprida kunskap om pågående forskning till branschfolk samt att fånga upp vilka styrmedel som kan vara aktuella på lokal respektive regional nivå, men även diskutera mekanismer för att åstadkomma avfallsminimering. Dokumentationen av seminariet följer programmet.

  • 42.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Regional avfallshantering: Slutrapport från projekt finansierat av Forskningsstiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje svensk kommun är skyldig att upprätta en avfallsplan som redogör för hur avfallet som uppkommer i kommunen skall omhändertas. Den nuvarande avfallsplanen för Gästrikeregionen (som omfattar kommunerna Gävle, Sandviken, Hofors, Ockelbo och Älvkarleby) gäller för perioden 2011-2020. Avfallsplanen arbetades fram under 2009-2010 med Högskolan i Gävle som deltagare. I anslutning till detta utvecklingsarbete har högskolan arbetat med ett antal frågeställningar med koppling till avfallsplanen:

    • Miljöbedömning av avfallsplanen
    • Förebyggande av avfall
    • Människors beteende avseende sortering
    • Fastighetsnära insamling
    • Minskning av fossila koldioxidutsläpp
    • Energiberäkningar för material som lämnas via återvinningscentraler
    • Förutsättningar för och konsekvenser av en övergång från kompostering till rötning av matavfallet

    Projektet har pågått under 2009-2010 med Ola Norrman Eriksson och Teresa Hermansson som utförare. Utredningen har genomförts genom intervjuer, litteraturstudier, personlig kommunikation och ett publikt seminarium.

    Resultaten visar att en miljöbedömning av en avfallsplan är en komplex och omfattande uppgift. Bedömningen bör göras utifrån nuläget och beskriva de framtida konsekvenserna av de mål och åtgärder som planen föreskriver. Projektet har genom ett välbesökt seminarium också visat att samhället ännu inte funnit formerna för att arbeta med förebyggande åtgärder. Att på bästa sätt hantera ett uppkommet avfall är en sak, att förhindra dess uppkomst en annan. För produktionsavfall finns det goda exempel, medan det för konsumtionsavfall är betydligt svårare.

    Beteendevetenskapliga studier inom området visar att det är en utmaning att utforma information på ett sådant sätt att den når alla typer av mottagare och får dessa att agera i enlighet med infor-mationen. Vi människor tänker mer i termer av att återanvända och sortera olika slags material, snarare än att fundera på vad som är förpackning eller ej. Sortering av avfall är något folk i regel förväntar sig ska vara enkelt att utföra och det måste vara bekvämt. Införande av fastighetsnära insamling är ett sätt att underlätta och i de kommuner där det införts har mängderna återvinningsbart material ökat kraftigt samtidigt som mängderna brännbart restavfall minskat markant. Ett ökat insamlingsarbete för kommunen skall vägas mot minskat bilåkande till återvinningsstationer och återvinningscentraler samt minskade transporter till förbränning och därmed associerade utsläpp. Då återvinning generellt är bättre för miljön än förbränning uppstår vinster även i behandlingsledet. Studien visar också att avfall kan transporteras långa sträckor till återvinningscentraler utan att på något sätt hota den miljövinst som görs genom att avfallet materialåtervinns eller energiutvinns.

    Vid en övergång från kompostering till rötning tillkommer nya bioråvaror och denna studie visar på några av de faktorer man måste ta hänsyn till vid kapacitetsberäkningar. Detta är av yttersta vikt då mängder och gaspotentialer ligger som grund för de investeringskalkyler som upprättas och kan vara avgörande för om en biogasanläggning alls byggs. Men det är inte bara biogas som produceras utan även en biogödsel som bör komma in i kretsloppet. Studien redovisar svar från lantbrukare kring frågor om leverans av gödsel och användning av biogödsel liksom intresset för delägarskap i en framtida anläggning. Studien ger också några svar på frågor kring hur sorteringsinformationen bör förändras.

  • 43.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural production and further processing to food and drink have large impacts on the environment. However, there are still few examples of LCA studies on beverages such as whisky. This paper presents a life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky and different environmental improvements of the production chain are discussed. The functional unit is one bottle (70cl) of whisky and results are obtained for global warming potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), Eutrophication potential (EP) and primary energy (PE). The contribution to GWP is dominated by CO<inf>2</inf> emissions from transport of stillage. When avoided emissions from use of biogas are included, the net result is 2.1tonnes CO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Acidification is mainly due to emissions of SO<inf>2</inf> from bottle production, transport and barley cultivation which ends up to 14.6kgSO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Eutrophication results are totally dominated by barley cultivation, in total 8.6kgPO43-The total use of primary energy is 53.5MJ/FU with a 50/50 distribution in renewable and non-renewable. Non-renewables emanate from fossil fuels used for transports and in glass production, whereas renewables are mostly used for heating in the distillery. Improvement analysis of transports included; (1) decreasing need of transport, (2) change of fuel and (3) change of transport mode. Decreasing transport of stillage is an efficient measure to reduce GWP and use of non-renewable energy. Substituting diesel with biodiesel for all road transports is an even more efficient measure for these categories, but increases other environmental impact. For all impact categories except use of renewable energy a scenario combining all improvements is the most efficient measure to reduce environmental impact. The results can be used by the manufacturer, but an improved and expanded LCA on product level can be used for a more specific eco-labelling of the different whisky editions. 

  • 44.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jönsson, Johanna
    Svensk avfallshantering: Diskussion kring dagsläget och branschens forskningsbehov : Dokumentation från workshop på Högbo bruk 19 Januari 20052013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö inbjöd i samarbete med Högskolan i Gävle till en eftermiddag och kväll med workshop-diskussioner kring var avfallshanteringen i Sverige står idag och vilka frågor som behöver få en lösning framöver. Workshopen ägde rum onsdag 19 januari 2005 kl. 12-21 på Högbo Bruk i Sandviken.

    Syftet med workshopen var att sprida kunskap om pågående forskning (frågeställningar, kompetenser och idéer för framtiden) till branschfolk samt att tillsammans lokalisera vilka frågor som engagerar mest och där vi kan göra en gemensam insats. I konkreta termer vill stiftelsen hitta kompletterande forskning till den verksamhet som redan bedrivs vid Högskolan i Gävle och som i enlighet med Stiftelsens och Gästrike Återvinnares önskemål är inriktad på människors och företags attityder, kunskaper och göranden.

    Dokumentationen följer workshopens program så som det genomfördes. Bilagorna är upplagda enligt följande:

    Bilaga 1 är en kopia av programmet.

    Bilaga 2-8 innehåller det underlag som användes vid de olika presentationerna.

    Bilaga 9 innehåller en förteckning över de personer som deltog på workshopen.

    Bilaga 10 innehåller det förslag som Leif Magnusson lade fram angående grundandet av Föreningen Avfallsforskning.

  • 45. Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Thygesen, Richard
    Regelstyrd energi- och miljövärdering av byggnader2017Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Industrial Ecology, Dept. of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Mattias
    Energy Systems Technology Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Energy Systems Technology Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    How model-based systems analysis can be improved for waste management planning2003In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 488-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management models have been developed worldwide since the late 1960s. The overall aim of the models is to assist decision makers who are facing a complex task in order to handle waste in a cost-efficient and environmentally sound way. International research publications regarding waste management models point out the major benefits to be their capacity to deal with complexity and uncertainty and of finding benefits of co-operation and handling different goals. Such models have been developed and used successfully in Swedish research projects since the beginning of the 1990s, but the current situation is that such models are rarely requested for waste management planning in the country. Based on case studies (with the waste management models MIMES/Waste and ORWARE) in the Swedish municipality of Jönköping and a follow-up study, the paper discusses and draws conclusions on how to improve and increase the use of models to better correspond to the needs of decision makers involved in waste management planning.

  • 47.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Avdelningen för industriellt miljöskydd, KTH, Stockholm.
    Svanblom, Leif
    Avdelningen för industriellt miljöskydd, KTH, Stockholm.
    Framtida behandling av lättnedbrytbart organiskt avfall i Jönköpings kommun: En systemstudie av effekter på miljö, energi och ekonomi2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie utförd av KTH - Industriellt Miljöskydd på uppdrag av Jönköpings kommun har en jämförelse av rötning och förbränning av lättnedbrytbart organiskt avfall genomförts. Jämförelsen omfattar effekter på miljö, energi och ekonomi för insamling, transport och behandling av avfallet samt omhändertagande av restprodukter.

    Med hjälp av datormodellen ORWARE har, efter genomförd inventering, ett antal simuleringar av Jönköpings tänkta framtida avfallsbehandling gjorts. De simulerade scenarierna har arbetats fram i samarbete mellan Tekniska kontoret på Jönköpings Kommun och Jönköpings Energi AB. Effekter på miljön i form av global uppvärmning, övergödning, försurning samt bildande av fotokemiska oxidanter har kvantifierats och uttag av energiresurser samt företags- och miljöekonomiska kostnader beräknats.

    Studien omfattar allt lättnedbrytbart organiskt avfall i Jönköpings län och tar inte hänsyn till hur stora mängder som i realiteten är tillgängliga för organisk avfallsbehandling. En kommande förbränningsanläggning förbränner inte endast lättnedbrytbart organiskt avfall. Därför har även blandat hushållsavfall tagits med för att kompensera förbränningsanläggningen då det lättnedbrytbara organiska avfallet rötas.

    Studien visar att det i dagens situation inte förekommer någon konkurrens mellan rötning och förbränning av det lättnedbrytbara organiska avfallet. Alla insatser som kan göras för att undvika deponering av avfallet (som är det vanligaste idag) bör genomföras. En kombination av rötning av det lättnedbrytbara organiska avfallet (istället för förbränning) och förbränning av det blandade avfallet (istället för deponering) har en positiv inverkan på global uppvärmning, försurning, energiåtgång och kostnader. Biologisk behandling ger försämringar för övergödning relativt förbränning med nuvarande jordbruksteknik.

    I en framtid då rötning konkurrerar med förbränning finns det både för- och nackdelar med båda alternativen. Miljöekonomiskt och även energimässigt är det fördelaktigare att förbränna avfallet medan det är obetydliga skillnader för global uppvärmning och försurning. Även i framtiden är det ogynnsamt att röta ur övergödningssynpunkt.

  • 48.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson Reich, Marcus
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. S1-S8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  • 49.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys; Institutionen för miljöstrategiska studier, FOI, Stockholm. .
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys .
    Carlsson Reich, Markus
    Naturvårdsverket, Stockholm .
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Sörblom, Adrienne
    Sociologiska Institutionen, Stockholm, Stockholms Universitet.
    Robusta och flexibla strategier för utnyttjande av energi ur avfall2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avfallsfrågor engagerar. Det är någonting som berör människor i deras vardag och det är kanske ett skäl till att vi då och då får uppblossande debatter om hur vi ska hantera avfall. Beslut och investeringar inom avfallsområdet kan få långsiktiga konsekvenser. En avfallsförbränningspanna är exempelvis en stor och långsiktig investering. Samtidigt lever vi i en föränderlig värld. Avfallspolitiken har förändrats både i Sverige och internationellt och man kan förvänta sig fortsatta förändringar. Kombinationen av långsiktiga beslut med en osäker framtid och det engagemang som finns kring avfallsfrågor, gör det intressant att söka lösningar som är flexibla och robusta. Med flexibla menar vi att de bör kunna anpassas efter eventuella förändringar i omgivningen så att man inte bygger in sig i återvändsgränder. Med robusta menar vi dels att lösningarna och strategierna ska vara någorlunda bra i olika tänkbara framtidsscenarier, dels att de är någorlunda bra både med avseende på miljöfaktorer, ekonomiska aspekter och att det finns en social acceptans för dem. En utgångspunkt är alltså att lösningar som bara uppfyller kraven för en eller ett par av dessa dimensioner inte är intressanta. Den här rapporten har som syfte att sammanfatta och syntetisera resultaten från ett flerårigt projekt finansierat av Energimyndigheten. Syftet med projektet var att diskutera och föreslå flexibla och robusta strategier för utnyttjande av energi ur avfall.

    I rapporten görs en genomgång av ett antal olika studier där man har jämfört återvinning med förbränning, biologisk behandling och deponering. Jämförelserna görs med avseende på miljöegenskaper samt ekonomi. Vidare redovisas en genomgång av beteendevetenskapliga studier. Bland slutsatserna finns att en robust avfallsstrategi bör innehålla dessa komponenter:

    • en ökning av materialåtervinning exempelvis av plaster, papper, metaller och glas
    • förbränning av sådant som kan klassas som biobränslen
    • förbränningsanläggningar bör vara utrustade för kraftvärme och för att kunna ta emot en varierad blandning av fasta bränslen
    • deponering av avfall som ej kan behandlas på annat sätt och möjligen av svårnedbrytbara plaster
    • rötning av vissa väldefinierade fraktioner
    • lättillgänglig källsortering hos konsumenter
    • ökad källsortering i näringslivet Inom avfallsområdet finns det ett antal olika styrmedel.

    Samtidigt kan man notera att det finns luckor i styrmedelspaketen. Förutom producentansvaret finns exempelvis inga styrmedel som styr mot ökad återvinning av material. Vidare finns det få styrmedel som tydligt styr mot minskade avfallsmängder. Det finns därför ett behov av nytänkande inom styrmedelsområdet. En kombination av ekonomiska styrmedel som styr mot uppsatta miljömål skulle sammanfattningsvis kunna vara:

    • En förbränningsskatt som jämställer beskattningen av de fossila delarna av avfall med andra fossila bränslen och som ger undantag för avfall med biologiskt ursprung.
    • En viktsbaserad förbränningsskatt som styr mot ökad återvinning av papper samt biologisk behandling.
    • En motsvarande ökning av deponiskatten.
    • Ett stöd till biogasanvändning.

    För att öka källsorteringen bör de ekonomiska styrmedlena slå igenom även hos konsumenterna. Man bör dock inte bara använda ekonomiska styrmedel utan även arbeta med information, stödjande fysiska strukturer (exempelvis fastighetsnära insamlingssystem) samt 4utforska olika typer av positiva styrmedel t.ex. olika former av bonus- eller återbäringssystem. Styrmedel behöver också riktas mot olika delar av näringslivet för att stimulera deras källsortering.

  • 50.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Gunnarsson Östling, Ulrika
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Environmental Systems Analysis Energy and Environment, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Sahlin, Jenny
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden .
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sundberg, Johan
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden .
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Economics Unit, Luleå, Sweden .
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Forsfält, Tomas
    Konjunkturinstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Guath, Mona
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management2013In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 841-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: "Information"; "Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials"; "Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems"; "Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals", "Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures"; and "Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services". Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.

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