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  • 1. Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Melander Bowden, Helen
    Supplementary tutoring in Sweden and Russia: A safety net woven with numbers2019In: New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education: Conducting Empirically Based Research / [ed] C. Elde Mølstad & D. Pettersson, London & New York: Routledge, 2019, p. 207-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    A numbers game: Insights from shadow education in Russia2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Dancing shadows: public education and private tutoring in the eighteenth-century Russia2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shadow education as a phenomenon has expanded globally during the past decades, attracting interest among educational researchers, policymakers and planners. The concept of "shadow education", made popular by Mark Bray, refers to fee-based education activities which are related to the school curricula but provided by private tutors outside ordinary school hours.

    This paper presents preliminary findings of an ongoing research project on shadow education in Russia. Specifically, it seeks to throw into light the emergence of shadow education in Russia. This is done by illuminating policy strategies through which the incipient national education system positioned and legitimized itself in relation to a historically well-established tradition of private tutoring.

    The study is theoretically framed by a Foucauldian perspective (historicizing of a present phenomenon, namely shadow education) as well as curriculum theory. By that, the paper elaborates on how private tutoring and public education have changed over time with regard to curriculum, positioning and legitimacy.

    The paper has a theoretical contribution in that it seeks to historicize a particular phenomenon as well as how this can be discussed in relation to curriculum theory. While curriculum theory has been predominantly used for studying educational institutions governed by the state, it will in this paper be applied to educational processes taking place outside these institutions normally in focus. This raises questions on new ways of thinking about the curriculum concept and the relationship between policy and practice, as well as the public good and the private good in education.

  • 4.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring shadow education with curriculum theory: A conceptual framework2019In: : Att teoretisera läroplansarbete, didaktik och ledarskap i en transnationell tid, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education, has become a global enterprise, challenging the traditional boundaries of the educational landscape. The concept of shadow education refers to educational activities, which are related to school subjects and are provided by private tutors outside school hours, usually in exchange for a fee (Bray, 1999). The last decades saw the research on shadow education gaining in popularity; however, due to methodological challenges shadow education is still understudied and remains largely undertheorized.

    Recently, several studies have theorized the nature and the demands for shadow education by deploying the concepts of curriculum studies (Bray, Kobakhidze, Zhang, & Liu, 2018; Forsberg et al, 2019; Jokić, 2013; Kim, 2016; Kim & Jung, 2019; Sriprakash, Proctor, & Hu, 2016). The present paper joins this line of research. Drawing on findings from previous research and the ongoing PhD project, it provides a conceptual framework for analyzing and understanding the relationship between public education and private tutoring.

    From the perspective of curriculum theory, hiring a tutor can be seen as a strategic response  arising from an individual’s experiences or encounters with public education and from a mismatch between one’s own educational needs, aspirations and desires, and the preordained curriculum. The present paper exemplifies how the variety of manifestations and functions of private tutoring can be explained in terms of the (perceived) gaps between planned and enacted curriculum on the one hand, or between enacted and attained curricula on the other. However, since curriculum theory traditionally has been most concerned with public education, the explanatory capacity of the established terms (i.e. planned, enacted and attained curriculum) is limited; in particular, they tend to overlook the capability of the targeted subjects of education to refuse, contest, challenge and go beyond the prescribed set of knowledge. With this in mind, I endeavor to introduce a new concept - a desired curriculum – for exploring the tensions between structure and agency in education in general and for theorizing shadow education in particular. Together, these conceptual and analytical tools seem well suited for exploring how school curriculum is both reproduced and resisted in shadow education.

    References

    Bray, M. (1999). The Shadow Education System: Private Tutoring and its Implications for Planners. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).

    Bray, M., Kobakhidze, M. N., Zhang, W., & Liu, J. (2018). The hidden curriculum in a hidden marketplace: Relationships and values in Cambodia’s shadow education system. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 50(4), 1–21.

    Forsberg, E., Mikhaylova, T., Hallsén, S., & Melander Bowden, H. (2019). Supplementary tutoring in Sweden and Russia: A safety net woven with numbers. In C. Elde Mølstad & D. Pettersson (Eds.), New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education: Conducting Empirically Based Research (pp. 207–229). London & New York: Routledge.

    Jokić, B. (Ed.). (2013). Emerging from the shadow: A Comparative Qualitative Exploration of Private Tutoring in Eurasia. Zagreb: Network of Education Policy Centers.

    Kim, Y. (2016). Shadow education and the curriculum and culture of schooling in South Korea. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Kim, Y. C., & Jung, J.-H. (2019). Conceptualizing shadow curriculum: Definition, features and the changing landscapes of learning cultures. Journal of Curriculum Studies, (Journal Article), 1–21.

    Sriprakash, A., Proctor, H., & Hu, B. (2016). Visible pedagogic work: Parenting, private tutoring and educational advantage in Australia. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 37(3), 426–441.

  • 5.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Private tutoring for public good? Constructing educational policy in 19th century-Russia.2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Private tutoring is a phenomenon that in various forms had existed long before the inception of the national system of education in Imperial Russia. It was slightly downplayed under the Soviet period when collective values were put to the foreground, only to resurrect with a renewed intensity in the recent decades (Mikhaylova, 2016). However, it was during the nineteenth century that private tutoring most frequently appeared on a formulation arena (cf. Lindensjö & Lundgren, 2000). It was also during this time that education came to function as an important instrument for nation building with a strong emphasis on delivering what could be characterized as a public good.

    The paper focuses on this period and examines what aspects of private tutoring were recognized as a problem and what policy tools were employed to resolve it. In answering this question, the paper uses the concepts of ‘public good’ and ‘private good’ (see e.g. Labaree, 1997) for framing the discussion. By that, the overall aim is to develop knowledge on the relationship between public education and private tutoring as constructed in policy documents in nineteenth-century Russia.

    Theoretically, the study draws on the Foucauldian “history of the present” approach (Foucault, 1979) in order to uncover the conditions that shaped the hierarchical relations between public education and private tutoring. In doing so, I also use curriculum theory, which offers a broad understanding of curriculum as a historically, politically and culturally produced set of ideas about education (Englund, 2005; Lundgren, 1989). Specifically, the study deals with activities and inscriptions on the formulation arena and investigates the (trans)formation of policy regarding private tutoring. It elaborates on the following question: What ‘problems’ were intended to be solved by a particular form of selecting and organizing curriculum?

    Preliminary findings suggest that exacerbation of relations between publicly and privately provided education in the first half of the nineteenth century was triggered by two main factors. Firstly, private tutoring was recognized as a serious obstacle for further expansion of public education. Secondly, of special concern was the fact that the majority of tutors were foreigners who potentially could spread dangerous political ideas. By employing a variety of policy tools, the government gradually aligned the goals and content of private tutoring with those of public education. Hence, private tutoring no longer raised the same amount of concerns and eventually faded from the policydiscourse into the ‘shadows’, but, in fact, it has never disappeared from practice.

  • 6.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    The formation of policy on private supplementary tutoring in post-Soviet Russia2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Private supplementary tutoring (PST) is a phenomenon that in various forms has existed since the establishment of the national education in nineteenth-century Russia (Mikhaylova, 2018). However, it was after the collapse of the Soviet Union when a whole industry of PST has emerged, providing tutoring at all levels of national educational system (Kozar, 2013). Moreover, today the majority of Russians perceive private tutoring as an essential part of education (Forsberg et al, 2019).

    This paper explores the role and the legitimacy of PST in relation to public education in contemporary Russia. Drawing on curriculum theory (Forsberg, 2011; Lundgren, 1989) and Foucault’s (1984) concept of problematisation, I discuss the norms, assumptions and beliefs about education that lie behind national policy regarding PST. By examining what aspects of PST have been onto policy agenda, the study illuminates the impacts of particular problematisations on the relations between public education and PST.

    References

    Foucault, M. (1984). Polemics, politics and problematizations, based on an interview conducted by Paul  Rabinow.  In L. Davis. (Trans.), Essential works of Foucault (Vol. 1), Ethics, New York: New Press. 

    Forsberg, E.  (2011). Curriculum theory revisited: curriculum as content, pedagogy and evaluation. Saarbrücken: LAP, Lambert Academic publ.

    Forsberg, E., Mikhaylova, T., Hallsén, S., Melander, H.  (2019). Supplementary tutoring in Sweden and Russia: A safety net woven with numbers. Forthcoming.

    Kozar, O. (2013). The face of private tutoring in Russia: Evidence from online marketing by private tutors. Research in Comparative and International Education , 8(1), 74–86.

    Lundgren, U. P. (1989). Att organisera omvärlden: en introduktion till läroplansteori (2. uppl.). Stockholm: Utbildningsförl. på uppdrag av Gymnasieutredningen.

    Mikhaylova, T. (2018). A Numbers Game: Insights from Shadow Education in Russia. Presentedat the ECER, Bolzano

  • 7.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    The language of excellence: Insights from shadow education in imperial and post-Soviet Russia2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The history of private supplementary tutoring (PST), or shadow education, in Russia dates back to the second half of the nineteenth century. The notable expansion of formal education after the liberal reforms of 1860s and increased importance ascribed to educational credentials were accompanied by the growth of tutoring markets. It was around that time that the word repetitor, that is, the modern word for a private tutor, appeared and gradually gained currency in Russian educational discourse. Since then, the practice of PST underwent many changes simultaneously adopting the language and ideology of the ever-evolving education policies. Today, private tutoring – or repetitorstvo – is perceived as an essential part of education by the majority of Russians.

    Objectives: The present study seeks to contribute with knowledge on the interrelations between education policies and the practice of PST. More precisely, by focusing on assessment policies developed in Imperial and respectively post-Soviet Russia the study explores how those policies were translated into a specific language of excellence used for promotional purposes on the tutoring market.

    Data and methodology: The study consists of content analysis of policy documents and tutoring advertisements from both Imperial and post-Soviet Russia. The historical part concerns the introduction of the number system for measuring students’ achievement and the subsequent assessment policies in the second half of the nineteenth century. A special emphasis is put on the regulations for Maturity Examination issued in 1873. After that, I examine tutoring advertisements published in the daily newspapers Novoe Vremya between 1869 and 1910. The second part deals with the introduction of the Unified State Exam (USE) during the 2000s and proceeds with an analysis of tutors’ profiles collected in 2018 from on one of the largest online PST platforms in Russia.

    Findings: The so-called number system (ballovaya sistema) for grading students’ academic achievements came into Russian schools’ daily practice in the mid-nineteenth century. The need for replacing previous practice of verbal evaluations was justified by the assumed capacity of numbers to serve as a unified and objective measurement device that could protect children from personal bias. Regular measuring of individual achievements by means of tests and examinations was intended to provide a ‘fairer’ and more efficient basis for transition between different levels of education system. Eventually, a whole apparatus for centrally administrated nation-wide examinations – Maturity Examination – was developed to serve as a tool for final certification and selection to tertiary education.

    A century and a half later, in the early 2000s, a rather similar transition policy was launched; responding to global neoliberal discourse, Russia introduced the USE as a common test for both school leaving and university entrance. By means of unification of assignments and testing procedure, USE was supposed to provide students throughout the country with equal opportunities for pursuing further education.

    The analysis reveals some striking similarities between the assessment policies of the Imperial and post-Soviet Russia. However, the language of excellence created through those policies has considerably changed over time. This becomes evident in the practice of PST where references to academic achievements are frequently used to demonstrate the existing expertise of a tutor. In the nineteenth century, tutors put forward their academic awards and degrees, which implied highest scores in all subjects, without explicitly naming their original numerical value. In contrast, today tutors highlight their expert knowledge in one or two subjects by referring to “pure” numbers, which largely correspond to the USE’s 100-point scale. In both cases, the highly specialized - categorical or numerical - language of excellence might be unintelligible for the uninitiated.

  • 8.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Cybernetics and Systems Thought as a Salvation for Educational Problems2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparison between two national educational contexts – the Soviet Union and Sweden. The countries exhibit similarities on how education was thought in relation to cybernetics (for a description of the early thinking of cybernetics, see Wiener, 1948) and ‘systems thought’ (for a description, see Heyck, 2015) from the early 1960s and onwards. By performing our study, we are able to historicize some of the prerequisites for the contemporary beliefs in education such as accountability, ‘evidence-based education’, and ‘feedback’.

    The history of Soviet cybernetics is a history of rebellion and conformity, enchantment and disappointment. This is a story of fascination with a new revolutionary language, which eventually gave way to a frustration when this new language was appropriated by the Soviet nomenclature (Gerovitch, 2002). But, it is also a history of how a new educational language and a new way of reasoning (cf. Hacking, 1990) on education was developed that embraced all educational ‘things’ in terms of organization, structure, system, function, and process (cf. Heyck, 2015). In this way, Soviet cybernetics in education carried a promise and a means of ‘salvation’ for making the educational sciences more ‘objective’ and ‘evidence-based’.

    In the Swedish case, we acknowledge cybernetics and ‘systems thought’ as something growing into a specific intellectual tradition, commonly labeled as a ‘systems approach’ (Kaijser & Tiberg, 2000). It has advanced into different fields of science, such as systems analysis, policy analysis and futures studies. The ‘systems approach’, combining cybernetics and ‘systems thought’, also entered the field of education through the language of behaviorism (Bosseldal, 2019) and ‘education technology’.

    Our paper is elaborative in its purpose: When dealing with data we firstly present articles important for the phase when cybernetics and ‘systems thought’ were introduced in the educational sciences in the USSR and Sweden (1960s an onwards). In the analysis of these texts we conclude that cybernetics and ‘systems thought’, carried a promise of ‘imagined futures’ (Beckert, 2016) and a tool for resolving some of the perceived educational problems at that time.  Secondly, we analyze (text)books published with a mission of introducing cybernetics and ‘systems thought’ to Soviet and Swedish teachers and students. In performing this task, we are able to demonstrate how cybernetics and ‘systems thought’ changed the organization, practices and roles within education creating a new ‘technology’ of teaching and learning; this is specifically demonstrated in relation to changes in curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation (cf. Bernstein, 1975).

    This setup allows us to elaborate on why and how the present reasoning on accountability, feedback, and evidence-based education are made intelligible.

    References:

    Beckert, J. (2016) Imagined Futures: Fictional Expectations and Capitalist Dynamics. Cambridge & London: Harvard University Press.

    Bernstein, B. (1975) Class, Code and Control. Volume 3. Towards a Theory of Educational Transmissions. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    Bosseldal, I. (2019) Vart tog behaviorismen vägen? Social responsivitet mellan barn och vuxen, hund och människa. Lund: Lunds universitet.

    Gerovitch, S. (2002) Newspeak to Cyberspeak: A History of Soviet Cybernetics. Cambridge & London: MIT Press.

    Hacking, I. (1990) The Taming of Chance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Heyck, H. (2015) Age of System: Understanding the development of modern social science. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

    Kaijser, A. & Tiberg, J (2000) From Operations Research to Future Studies: The Establishment, Diffusion, and Transformation of the Systems Approach in Sweden. A. C. Hughes & T. P. Hughes (Ed.) Systems, Experts, and Computers: The Systems Approach in Management and Engineering, World War II and After. Cambridge & London: MIT Press.

    Wiener, N. (1948) Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • 9.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Cybernetics in Soviet Union: From threat to treat2019Conference paper (Other academic)
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