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  • 1.
    Agndal, Henrik
    et al.
    School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Two decades of business negotiation research: an overview and suggestions for future studies2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, ISSN 0885-8624, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 487-504Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article present a review of articles on business negotiation published between 1995 and 2015.

    Design/methodology/approach: This literature review is based on 490 article on business negotiation.

    Findings: When analyzing the conceptual underpinnings of this field, two paradigms emerge as dominant. The most prominent paradigm is a cognitive, psychological approach, typically relying on experiments and statistical testing of findings. The second dominating paradigm is a behavioral one, largely concerned with mathematical modelling and game-theoretical models.

    Practical implications: Besides offering a description of the characteristics adhered to the business negotiation field, this paper will also suggest recommendations for further research and specify areas in which the research field needs further conceptual and empirical development.

    Originality/value: This literature review serves to be the first representation of the characteristics adhered to the budding research field of business negotiation.

  • 2.
    Eklinder Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Uppsala.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    ”Happy-happy” business negotiation – agreements beyond ”win-win”2016In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual IMP Conference: Change and Transformation of Markets, Networks and Relationships, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Research background - describes the business negotiation literature as historically dominated by a transactional perspective, which has affected the conceptual discourse as well as the scope of interest for empirical studies. Assumptions that arise from this transactional perspective includes the notion that (1) business negotiations are a linear process that follows episodic or stage models. (2) That business negotiations are geared towards an outcome in the form of a one-time exchange. (3) That the value of the negotiation outcome is often expressed in economic or mathematical terms. (4) That negotiation research focuses on the single negotiator or negotiation in a dyad. (5) That the research historically has viewed negotiation as a “zero-sum” game. Viewed from an interactional perspective, influenced by IMP theory, there is good reason to challenge these five assumptions within the business negotiation literature. The interactional perspective goes beyond the dyadic perspective and views value creation as emanating from the mutual adaptation of resources that takes place between several interacting actors within a network context: a view that is incompatible with the five assumptions posed above. Methods – This is a theoretical paper. The purpose of this paper - is to analyse and discuss the differences in the way that central aspects of negotiations such as the process, outcome, value, actors and resources are conceptualized in both the business negotiation and in the IMP literature. Also, we will discuss and analyze managerial implications that come from the inclusion of IMP perspective into the business negotiation research. The main contribution of this paper – is to divide the business negotiation literature into the transactional and interactional perspectives and then discusses the concept of “win-win” and the way it is used in negotiation research. An alternative concept is suggested to describe that negotiations is non-linear and focusing on mutual interdependence, emphasizes value creation, networks and mutual adaptations. This concept is thus more interactional and is dubbed “happy-happy” negotiation outcome.

  • 3.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Perspectives on regional innovation policy: from new economic geography towards the IMP approach2017In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 61, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has the aim of becoming the world's most competitive and knowledge-based economy, which entails investments in industry agglomeration. However, these investments have had limited impact. This conceptual paper problematizes the new economic geography terminology used in policy and, more specifically, the way that the key concepts of "industry agglomeration," "social capital," "knowledge," and "innovation" are conceptualized. By adding the perspective of the industrial network or industrial marketing and purchasing (IMP) approach, this paper contributes to a more nuanced understanding of how to facilitate innovation within regional policy. Since the IMP approach offers an organizational-level perspective, including such a perspective will help make the EU's policies more practically applicable. We propose that regional policy should pay more attention to the socio-material resource interaction between the actors involved in the cluster initiatives. This would shift the focus away from creating spillover effects of knowledge towards viewing knowledge as a performative construct that is inseparable from the specific resource interaction in which it is embedded. Also, the definition of innovation within policy could benefit from being reconceptualized as the processual use within producer-user relationships. 

  • 4.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Science and Technology Studies Centre, Uppsala University.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Transactional and interactional perspectives on business negotiation2016In: IMP ASIA in Africa: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Peter J. Batt, Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group , 2016, p. 21-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transactional perspective has historically dominated the business negotiation literature. Assumptions which arise from this transactional perspective include the notion that: (i) business negotiations are a linear process that follow episodic or stage models; (ii) business negotiations are geared towards an outcome in the form of a one-time transaction; (iii) the value of the negotiation outcome is often expressed in economic or mathematical terms; (iv) negotiation research focuses on the single negotiator or negotiation in a dyad; and (v) research historically has viewed negotiation as a "zero-sum" game. Viewed from the interaction approach within the IMP perspective, there is good reason to challenge these five assumptions within the business negotiation literature. The purpose of this conceptual paper is to analyse and discuss the differences in the way that central aspects of business negotiations such as the process, outcome, value creation, involved actors and resource allocation are conceptualized in both the business negotiation and the IMP literature. The conceptual deliberation concludes that business negotiation research has thus far tended to focus on individual skills and the examination of isolated dyadic interactions. Business negotiation research largely ignores the fact that the nature of industrial business is predominantly relationship-based rather than transactional. Introducing the relational perspective of the IMP tradition into business negotiation research would help in furthering the critique already posed within this stream of research towards its transactional, linear and dyadic focus. Viewing business negotiation through an interactional perspective will further managers understanding of the negotiation process.

  • 5.
    Fremont, Vincent
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Interaction through boundary objects: controversy and friction within digitalization2019In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 111-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze friction and controversies with interaction processes and their effects on forming new resource interfaces, through the lens of boundary objects.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The empirical setting consists of two organizations that are trying to enhance their competitive advantage through digitalization. During the process of data collection four different boundary objects were identified. The study illustrates how these boundary objects were characterized in terms of their modularity, standardization, abstractness and tangibility. This paper provides an analysis of how respondents perceived that the development of these boundary objects affected the creation of novel resource interfaces, and the resulting friction and controversy between new and old structures.

    Findings

    The study concludes that within a producer?user setting a focal boundary object will take on tangible and standardized properties, and the interaction process will expose friction in terms of both power struggles and resource incompatibilities. On the other hand, a boundary object?s modularity gives the actors central to the interaction room to maneuver and avoid resource incompatibilities and the development setting will hence be characterized by controversies.

    Originality/value

    The analysis indicates that the way individuals perceive boundary objects is central to interaction processes, answering calls for studies that investigate the role of objects within subject-to-object interaction.

  • 6.
    Fremont, Vincent
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Understanding interaction through boundary objects: How digitalization affects activity coordination2017In: , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focus on analyzing interaction processes and their effects on activity coordination through the lens of boundary objects. The empirical setting is organizations that are trying to enhance their competitive advantage by technological innovation and the use of big data.This study also contributes by addressing the cognitive dimensions of interactions by analyzing how activity links are being viewed by the involved actors based on their perceptions of the boundary objects.

  • 7.
    Gustavsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, Stockholm University (Stockholms universitet, Redovisning).
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Department of Marketing & Strategy, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Conceptualizing for managerial relevance in B2B research: a grounded theory approach2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 7/8, p. 626-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study aims to formulate recommendations for business-to-business (B2B) researchers, with the potential to increase the extent to which B2B research is relevant to managers.

    Design/methodology/approach - These recommendations are derived from and inspired by the grounded theory methodology.

    Findings - In this article, we argue that conceptualizations which are potentially relevant to managers are those that discover new perspectives, simplify complexity, enable managers to take action and have an instant grab. To accomplish this as researchers, the authors emphasize fostering a beginner's mind, creating umbrella models, increasing the level of abstraction of concepts and finding the core process in data.

    Originality/value - In this article, we translate the basic principles within the grounded theory methodology into more general recommendations that can be used by B2B researchers.

  • 8.
    Molin, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Business streamlining - an integrated model of service sourcing2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 194-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purchasing of services is a significantly under-researched area. The purpose of this study is to suggest a conceptual model of service sourcing relationships, including the post-contract phase. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative methodology involving two longitudinal case studies that were analyzed with a grounded theory approach in order to build a conceptual model. Findings The proposed model consists of a core process that is termed ?business streamlining? and denotes the process by which four interrelated dimensions are managed in order to making the business processes of the buying organization simpler and more effective and/or productive. Research limitations/implications Although the research methodology is qualitative and does not allow statistical generalization, the study does provide valuable insights into the management of the service (out-) sourcing process. Practical implications The model proposed in this study can be utilized by managers to impose a useful conceptual structure on otherwise fluid and intangible processes, which makes them easier to analyze and facilitates strategic corporate decision-making. Originality/value The paper proposes a model that grasps the dynamics and reality of service (out-) sourcing relationships, including the ongoing relationship management process.

  • 9.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Handelshögskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Affärsbaxning - ett ramverk för den goda affären2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is addressing people within the public procurement sector and its aim is to provide a framework that describes the basis for an effective public procurement process. The starting point of this report is a PhD thesis presented at Stockholm School of Economics in 2009 that suggested a new scientific theory for contemporary business management. It consisted of four different principles: business standardization, business fraternization, personalization and probationary business rationalization. This rapport translate these four principles into a public procurement perspective and describes what is critical in order to manage these principles in accordance to the ‚business manoeuvring‛ model and, thereby, how to create effective business process within the public procurement sector.

    Regarding business standardization, this rapport emphasizes the importance of having standardized processes that are adapted for their purpose and supportive of the overall principles of the purchase. It is also critical that these processes encompass the transfer of knowledge within the buying organization and that there is a supportive structural capital. The principle of business fraternization describes the importance of internal and external collaboration. It is about having work methods and processes aiming at managingsuppliers before, during and after a purchasing process. A common view is also stressed, not only regarding the goal of the purchase but also regarding long term strategic goals and visions. Concerning personalization, this principle focus on the level ofthe individual and describes the importance of that the involved actors in the buying organization have the basic competence when it comes to establishing long term relationships, finding critical information, safeguarding the self interest of the buying organization, establishing value creating meetings and understanding the role of dialogue and negotiation in public procurement. Finally, the principle of probationary business rationalization focuses on the role of rational considerations in public procurement processes. This is about making effective and correct analysis based on the buying organizations organizational and economical conditions and requirements and to express those conditions in an effective and appropriate way.

    The main message of this report is that the prescription for a ‛good deal‛ is that these four principles are in place ‛at the right dose at the right time‛. The individual weight of each principle is dependent on where in the procurement process we are and what type of purchase process we are involved in at the moment. Business people involved in public procurement should therefore be able to ‛manoeuver‛ these four principles in a situation specific manner in order to reach the good deal. Thus, this report provides a framework, or a map, that can function as an ‛air photography‛ that can be used to find the good deal. There are also checklists in the report in order to facilitate the use of this framework in order to find an effective value creating process and a good deal in every public procurement process.

  • 10.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. Economic Research Institute (EFI), Stockholm School of Economics/Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Business Manoeuvring: A Grounded Theory of Complex Selling Processes2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Business manoeuvring: a model of B2B selling processes2011In: Management Decision, ISSN 0025-1747, E-ISSN 1758-6070, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 1574-1591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study aims at developing a model that captures the reality of complex contemporary B2B selling processes.

    Design/methodology/approach - The grounded theory methodology was deployed in this study. In-depth interviews and interactive lectures were used for data collection.

    Findings - This study indicates that contemporary B2B selling processes are complex and dynamic endeavours in which various (sometimes conflicting) interests are ultimately managed by the involved actors through a dynamic process best described as "business manoeuvring".

    Research limitations/implications - Possible avenues of future enquiry include investigation of other industrial sectors in which the proposed model's description of selling processes is valid and assessment of the characteristics of companies (in terms of size and profitability).

    Practical implications - The model proposed in this study can be utilised by practitioners to impose a useful conceptual structure on otherwise fluid and intangible processes thus making them easier to analyse and thereby facilitating strategic corporate decision-making.

    Originality/value - Based on the real life experiences of the involved actors, this model describes that complex contemporary B2B selling processes are dynamic processes and not linear or sequential ones.

  • 12.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Goal oriented balancing – a general model of negotiation processes2015In: The 15th International Conference on Group Decisions & Negotiation Letters / [ed] Kamiński, B., Kersten, G., Szufel, P., Jakubczyk, M. & Wachowicz, T., Warsaw: Warsaw School of Economics Press , 2015, p. 111-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first grounded theory on negotiation processes and suggests that it is necessary to simultaneously apply strategies that are focusing on building trust based relationships and those that are more rational when negotiating. The process by which these two dimensions are deployed is dubbed “Goal oriented balancing” and describes how the negotiator is continuously balancing these opposing, and seemingly contrasting, strategies in a situation specific and dynamic manner in order to reach the goal.

  • 13.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Goal-oriented Balancing: a New Model of Contemporary Sales Management2014In: The Grounded Theory Review, ISSN 1556-1542, E-ISSN 1556-1550, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the substantive area of sales management and it suggests that the main concern of a sales manager is to reach the sales and economical goals of the sales organization. The social process by which this main concern is resolved is called goal-oriented balancing and it describes two complementary organizational dimensions, frame development and individual development that are continuously balanced against each other. That is, the sales manager must establish effective organizational processes and structures as well as find the keys to maximum individual performance. These two processes have to be in balance and supportive of each other.

  • 14.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism2011In: Qualitative Report, ISSN 1052-0147, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1599-1615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of positivism, hermeneutics, and pragmatism; and (b) the general philosophical questions of the aims of science and the issue of choosing a scientific methodology. The commentary then seeks to position grounded theory methodology in terms of these philosophical perspectives. The study concludes that grounded theory methodology contains elements of positivism, hermeneutics, and pragmatism. In coming to this conclusion, the study clarifies the degree to which these three perspectives are found within Glaserian grounded theory methodology.

  • 15.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Happy happy: fem steg för att komma överens med vem som helst2019 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Department of Marketing and Strategy, Stockholm School of Economics.
    How and why managers use conceptual devices in business-to-business research2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 7/8, p. 633-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study aims to analyze how and why managers adopt and use business-to-business (B2B) research.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected through participant observations, focus groups and interviews in three organizations that had used a certain conceptual model from B2B research.

    Findings - The study suggests that managers use B2B research in an action-oriented, flexible and dynamic manner. Such conceptual or translational use is characterized by managers' creative translation of the research to match the problems they are facing at that particular time.

    Research limitations/implications -This study suggests that researchers and managers are on equal footing, and can contribute to one another in an active and creative way.

    Practical implications - Through translating research into their specific context, managers can find a new spectrum of research usage in their organization, but can also contribute to research in an interactive and creative way. Originality/value - This study gives empirical examples for how and why a certain piece of B2B research has been used by managers in three organizations. Moreover, this study contributes to existing models relating to marketing use by giving examples of the active translation process in which managers adopt the research to their specific challenges.

  • 17. Åge, Lars-Johan
    et al.
    Cederlund, Cecilia Anna
    Department of Marketing and Strategy, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Editorial2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 7/8, p. 561-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary managers regularly face complex multifunctional problems. Unfortunately, researchers are not always there to help them. The research conducted within the business-to-business (B2B) field is often of a high quality and magnitude, but does not always seem to reach managers to a great extent. There are also signs that the gap between managers and researchers could be especially significant when it comes to industrial marketing (Brennan and Turnbull, 2000, 2002; Ankers and Brennan, 2002). We believe that this development could jeopardize the long-term health of the B2B marketing field and that further elaboration is called for; hence, this special issue. We are not alone −82 per cent of B2B marketing researchers believe it is “important” or “very important” for research to be of potential value to managers (Brennan and Turnbull, 2000).

    Despite the fact that almost all published articles have a section on how results could be of use for managers, these managerial implications are somehow out of reach for most managers. This special issue is dedicated to exploring and enhancing the understanding of the gap between managers and researchers – why it is there, what it consists of – and presenting various perspectives on how it can be bridged, or at least narrowed.

    The first two articles serve as introductions to the discussion of this issue, by giving a feel for what managerial implications typically look like in contemporary articles within our field. The first article, by Salminen, Oinonen and Haimala, provides insights into the character of managerial implications in articles on the theme of solution business; it does this by applying Jaworski’s (2011) framework for role-relevant research to classify the implications. Baraldi, La Rocca and Perna’s article assesses the characteristics of managerial implications in 60 most-cited articles within B2B marketing. The implications are classified in terms of features that the authors believe have an impact on the ready to use quality of findings for managers (e.g. how easy is it to find implications in the text, the extent to which scientific language is used and how concrete the implications are, etc.).

    While these first two articles concern the researcher side of the gap – that is, the characteristics of what is “posted to managers” under the managerial implications headline – the third article, by Kusuula, Närvänen, Saarijärvi and Yrjölä, accounts for the manager side of the gap; that is, top executives’ perceptions regarding academia’s results, as addressed to them. Using these opinions as a backdrop, the authors list the relevance challenges for B2B marketing by using a framework developed by Arndt (1985) regarding scientific balance.

    The six remaining articles in this special issue focus on how the gap between managers and researchers can be narrowed. Brennan, Tzempelikos and Wilson’s article takes a process view of research and lists critical structural elements and communication areas in which further improvement is needed for academia to reach out to managers. Their recommendations concern four groups of stakeholders: researchers, practitioners, policymakers and academic managers.

    The next five articles have a distinct common theme: one of the major reasons for the widening division between researchers and practitioners is the fact that managers’ realities are characterized by an immense complexity that research has not been able to keep up with. The authors of these articles are unanimous in arguing that the relevance of our research will increase if it manages to embrace complexity to a greater extent, rather than reducing it at early stages in the research process. These articles also underscore the need to reconsider the nature of the methodological approach that researchers use.

    The first in this set of articles, by Guiette, Matthyssens and Vandenbempt, argues that complexity calls for a more mindful approach to organizing (by both researchers and practitioners) to better understand and manage strategic change processes. By this, they mean that (business) marketing on a strategic level has little to offer in the way of guidance, taking complexity, interdependence and emergence into account. The next two articles emphasize the need for broader, more condensed and abstract conceptualizations to grasp this complexity, which will enhance the relevance for managers. For better real-world-based theories, Gummesson argues that we should strive to establish comprehensive and abstract theories that have the potential to “boil down” complexity to its core, and that this can be accomplished by case theory, and more involved (action) research.

    Based on the grounded theory methodology, Gustavsson and Åge deliver further recommendations for research in terms of how to create abstract conceptualizations that are able to capture core processes, and they also discuss the possible intricacies involved in such endeavors. The study by Åge shows how managers in three different companies have actually used such abstract conceptualizations as creative devices to tackle challenges. Cederlund emphasizes the role of managerial relevance in the research process – an underrated opportunity for theoretical developments within B2B marketing – which ties together the discussions in the preceding four articles. By placing practice in a research process perspective, she highlights the epistemological remedies for closing the relevance gap and illustrates why managerial relevance is not prioritized on the research agenda.

    In total, the nine contribute to this special issue’s aim of providing a more nuanced picture of what managerial relevance is and why it is needed. Our aim is to create the platform for a discussion that favors the development of the B2B marketing filed.

  • 18.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Goal-oriented balancing: happy–happy negotiations beyond win–win situations2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 525-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper aims to suggest a dynamic model incorporating the important dimensions that exist in negotiation processes. Design/methodology/approach To produce a general and conceptual theory of negotiation, the grounded theory methodology is deployed. Findings The core process in this model is dubbed ?goal-oriented balancing? and describes how he negotiator is continuously balancing opposing, and seemingly contrasting, forces in a situation specific and dynamic manner to reach agreements. Based on these findings, this study also suggests a concept to describe negotiations that is focused on collaboration and that is not an oxymoron as is the concept of ?win?win?. Practical implications This conceptual model can be used by managers and practitioners to navigate in a negotiation process. Originality/value This is the first grounded theory study in negotiation research and attempt to describe negotiation processes as dynamic events in which different dimensions are managed simultaneously.

  • 19.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Bengt
    University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The art of discovering - experiences of novice researchers2016In: Qualitative Research Journal, ISSN 1443-9883, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize and analyze novice researchers' experiences of the Glaserian grounded theory methodology.

    Design/methodology/approach - The grounded theory analytical procedures were applied.

    Findings - The paper suggests that the creative freedom inherited in the Glaserian grounded theory approach empowers novice researchers, and many students reported positive emotions related to this freedom. At the same time, this freedom can represent a difficulty. Several students thought the tabula rasa instruction was something of a paradox, and the instructions within the methodology to be without preconceptions, let the theory emerge, and find the social process was difficult for most students to understand. However, some students found that they could counteract this difficulty via a systematic coding process and by working in pairs that enabled them to conduct an analytical dialogue.

    Originality/value - This is the first study that investigates the way that novice researchers experience the Glaserian grounded theory methodology.

  • 20.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herbst, Uta
    Department of Marketing, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Hedberg, Per
    Guest editorial2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 485-486Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Holmgren, Per-Erik
    Konsten att göra affärer2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laurin, Ebba
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coexisting Perspectives on the Selling Process When Delivering Complex Solutions2011In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual IMP Conference: The Impact of Globalization on Networks and Relationship dynamics, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selling processes on B2B markets are complex endeavors characterized by increased collaboration among both several actors on both the selling and the buying side of the deal. Also, the solutions being offered are often based on advanced technology and service concepts that are difficult to define beforehand. The concept of sales culture in extant literature seems to limited to grasp complex selling processes on B2B markets since, in such processes, many actors collaborate and many different perspective and values are interacting. This study aims at determining the extent to which different actors look upon the different stages in a selling process in a different way. Result indicate that there is different perspectives on the different stages in the selling process in terms of artifacts and patterns of behavior, values and beliefs and, finally, assumptions regarding the selling process. Managerial application of these differences are also discussed.

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