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  • 1.
    Ramirez Villegas, Ricardo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Dalarna University.
    A methodology to assess impacts of energy efficient renovation: a Swedish case study2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union aims to reduce energy use and CO2-emissions by 40 % by the year 2030. The building sector has been identified as having a great potential to reduce emission of CO2 by increasing its energy efficiency. Also, there is a growing concern of the buildings environmental performance, that lead to the development of building environmental assessment tools. However, different types of energy sources and confusing environmental impacts affect the decision making when renovating for improved energy efficiency. This study develops and tests a methodology to help decision-makers when considering major renovation of their building stock when connected to adistrict heating system. The proposed methodology is applied and used to investigate how different renovation scenarios affects the building environmental impacts in terms of CO2 emissions and identify and discuss future improvements of the methodology.

    The novelty of the method is the expanded system boundaries that include both the distribution and production of district heating and the energy use at a building level. In this way it is possible to compare and weight measures made both at the energy system level and the building level. This work has limited its approach to energy use in buildings, but it is important to bring the life cycle thinking to the methodology. During the choice of the renovation methods it was noticed that the environmental impact of the production of some components in order to reduce the energy use of a building are not insignificant. Even if all the renovation measures considered in this case study are feasible, it is important to determine in which order they are desirable or achievable from an economic point of view. Uncertainty in the future development of energy, and limited economic resources can play an important role in the possibility of energy efficient renovation.

  • 2.
    Ramirez Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Falun, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Falun, Sweden; Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Assessment of renovation measures for a dwelling area - Impacts on energy efficiency and building certification2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 97, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has an ambitious plan to reduce energy use and emissions by the year 2030. The building and real estate sectors have a great potential to help reduce emissions by energy efficiency. However, different energy sources and environmental standards affect the decision making of these major renovations in the existing stock. This study investigates how different renovation strategies affect the energy rating of a selected Building Environmental Assessment Tool and analyses the consequences in terms of greenhouse gas emissions for the local district heating system. Both building energy simulations and energy systems cost optimization were used to determine the energy use and local emissions. The results of different renovation scenarios were used to evaluate the rating in the selected tool and the impact in the district heating local emissions. The used methodology illustrates how energy efficient renovation impacts on the district heating system’s local emissions. However, a bias towards resource classification within the Swedish Building Environmental Tool, Miljöbyggnad, needs to be addressed in order to assess the impact of local emissions.

  • 3.
    Ramirez Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Building Renovation Measures: Trade-off between Building Materials and Energy2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this study is to assess how different energy efficient renovation strategies affect the environmental impacts of a multi-family house in a Nordic climate within district heating systems. The European Union has set ambitious targets to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2030. There is special attention on reducing the life cycle emissions in the buildings sector. However, the focus has often been on new buildings, although existing buildings represent great potential within the building stock in Europe. In this study, four different renovation scenarios were analyzed with the commercially available life cycle assessment software that follows the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) standard. This study covers all life cycle steps from the cradle to the grave for a residential building in Borlange, Sweden, where renewable energy dominates. The four scenarios included reduced indoor temperature, improved thermal properties of building material components and heat recovery for the ventilation system. One finding is that changing installations gives an environmental impact comparable to renovations that include both ventilation and building facilities. In addition, the life cycle steps that have the greatest environmental impact in all scenarios are the operational energy use and the building and installation processes. Renovation measures had a major impact on energy use due to the cold climate and low solar irradiation in the heating season. An interesting aspect, however, is that the building materials and the construction processes gave a significant amount of environmental impact.

  • 4.
    Ramírez-Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Combined Environmental and Economic Assessment of Energy Efficiency Measures in a Multi-Dwelling Building2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 2484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to assess how different renovation scenarios affect the environmental and economic impacts of a multi-dwelling building in a Nordic climate, how these aspects are correlated and how different energy carriers affect different environmental impact categories. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union has set an agenda in order to reduce energy use in buildings. New buildings on the European market have a low replacement rate, which makes building renovation an important factor for achieving the European Union goals. In this study, eight renovation strategies were analyzed following the European Committee for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment and life cycle costs of buildings. This study covers all life cycle steps from cradle to grave. The renovation scenarios include combinations of photovoltaics, geothermal heat pumps, heat recovery ventilation and improved building envelopes. Results show that, depending on the energy carrier, reductions in global warming potential can be achieved at the expense of an increased nuclear waste disposal. It also shows that for the investigated renovation strategies in Sweden there is no correlation between the economic and the environmental performance of the building. Changing energy carriers in Sweden in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be a good alternative, but it makes the system more dependent on nuclear power.

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