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  • 1.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Sun, Tao
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Sanborn, Paul
    Ni, Xiangying
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Magnesium dynamics in decomposing foliar litter - a synthesis2019In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. De Marco, Anna
    et al.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Zarrelli, A.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Changes in soil C and N pools across a chronosequence on volcanic parent material following afforestation with Pinus pinea and Pinus nigra Arn.2019In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    De Marco, Anna
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Esposito, Fabrizio
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zarrelli, Armando
    Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Litter inhibitory effects on soil microbial biomass, activity, and catabolic diversity in two paired stands of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus nigra Arn2018In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Highlights: Plant cover drives the activity of the microbial decomposer community and affects carbon (C) sequestration in the soil. Despite the relationship between microbial activity and C sequestration in the soil, potential inhibition of soil microbial activity by plant cover has received little attention to date.

    Background and Objectives: Differences in soil microbial activity between two paired stands on soil at a very early stage of formation and a common story until afforestation, can be traced back to the plant cover. We hypothesized that in a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stand the high-quality leaf litter of the tree, and that of the blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) understory had an inhibitory effect on soil microbial community resulting in lower mineralization of soil organic matter compared to the paired black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stand.

    Materials and Methods: We estimated potential mineralization rates (MR), microbial (MB), and active fungal biomass (AFB) of newly-shed litter, forest floor, and mineral soil. We tested the effects of litters' water extracts on soil MR, MB, AFB and its catabolic response profile (CRP).

    Results: Newly-shed litter of black locust had higher MR than that of blackberry and black pine; MR, MB, and AFB were higher in forest floor and in mineral soil under black pine than under black locust. Water extracts of black locust and blackberry litter had a negative effect on the amount, activity of microorganisms, and CRP.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential for black locust and blackberry litter to have a marked inhibitory effect on decomposer microorganisms that, in turn, reduce organic matter mineralization with possible consequences at the ecosystem level, by increasing C sequestration in mineral soil.

  • 4.
    Djukic, Ika
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Kappel Schmidt, Inger
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Steenberg Larsen, Klaus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Beier, Claus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Gontrode, Belgium.
    Early stage litter decomposition across biomes2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 628-629, p. 1369-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through litter decomposition enormous amounts of carbon is emitted to the atmosphere. Numerous large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process in order to understand the controls on the terrestrial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. However, previous studies were mostly based on site-specific litter and methodologies, adding major uncertainty to syntheses, comparisons and meta-analyses across different experiments and sites. In the TeaComposition initiative, the potential litter decomposition is investigated by using standardized substrates (Rooibos and Green tea) for comparison of litter mass loss at 336 sites (ranging from −9 to +26 °C MAT and from 60 to 3113 mm MAP) across different ecosystems. In this study we tested the effect of climate (temperature and moisture), litter type and land-use on early stage decomposition (3 months) across nine biomes. We show that litter quality was the predominant controlling factor in early stage litter decomposition, which explained about 65% of the variability in litter decomposition at a global scale. The effect of climate, on the other hand, was not litter specific and explained <0.5% of the variation for Green tea and 5% for Rooibos tea, and was of significance only under unfavorable decomposition conditions (i.e. xeric versus mesic environments). When the data were aggregated at the biome scale, climate played a significant role on decomposition of both litter types (explaining 64% of the variation for Green tea and 72% for Rooibos tea). No significant effect of land-use on early stage litter decomposition was noted within the temperate biome. Our results indicate that multiple drivers are affecting early stage litter mass loss with litter quality being dominant. In order to be able to quantify the relative importance of the different drivers over time, long-term studies combined with experimental trials are needed.

  • 5.
    Dong, Lili
    et al.
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Lili
    National Engineering Laboratory for Soil Nutrient Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zhang, Quanquan
    School of International Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Effects of different forms of N deposition on leaf litter decomposition and extracellular enzyme activities in a temperate grassland2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 134, p. 78-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of decomposition for biogeochemical cycles, it is still not clear how this process is affected by different forms of nitrogen (N). Equal amounts of N with different ratios of inorganic N: organic N (0 : 0, 10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, 3 : 7, and 0 : 10) were added to the soil in a steppe. We studied the response of litter decomposition to different forms of N enrichment. The treatment with 30% organic N resulted in the fastest decomposition, which was higher than with inorganic N or organic N addition alone. Our results highlight the need for studies of N deposition on carbon cycles that consider different components in N deposition.

  • 6.
    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar
    et al.
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; Biology Department, Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
    Lee, Kwang-Sik
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Song, Byeong-Yeol
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; Chemical Analysis Division, National Forensic Service, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
    Yeon, Jeh-Yeong
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    Trends of major, minor and rare earth elements in decomposing litter in a cool temperate ecosystem, South Korea2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 222, p. 214-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decomposition dynamics of 34 different elements in four different litter types (foliar and woody litter) from Pinus densiflora (Korean red pine) and Castanea crenata (Korean chestnut) was investigated in a cool temperate ecosystem using the litterbag method. Two contrasting trends were observed in the dynamics of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon. Leaf litter of Korean chestnut, which was richer in elements, showed a general decrease in concentrations of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon on a dry mass basis during decomposition in the field. Other litter types, with initially lower concentrations of elements, exhibited an increase in concentration on a dry mass basis during field incubation. Highest relative increase in the concentration was noticed for the minor elements, and for the woody litters. Concentrations of major and minor elements increased by factors ranging from 1.07 for antimony (Sb) to 853.7 for vanadium (V). Rare earth elements (REE) concentrations increased by factors ranging from 1.04 for scandium (Sc) to 83.5 for thorium (Th). Our results suggest that litter type plays an important role for nutrient dynamics. Results from principal component analysis for major, minor, and rare earth elements showed grouping of elements and high correlation among them (P < 0.05), which suggests a common source. At both sites, element concentrations were high in the soil, especially for REE. This suggests that increase in element concentrations during field incubation probably was due to transfer of elements from soil to the overlying decomposing litter.

  • 7. Gautam, Mukesh
    et al.
    Lee, K-S.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Song, B.Y.
    Spatial distribution of elements in the soil, vegetation and litter in a cool temperate ecosystem, South Korea2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ge, Jielin
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Xie, Zongqiang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
    Climatic seasonality is linked to the occurrence of the mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forests in China2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e02862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved tree species can coexist across the globe and constitute different broad-leaved forests along large-scale geographical and climatic gradients. A better understanding of climatic influence on the distribution of mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest is of fundamental importance when assessing this mixed forest's resilience and predicting potential dynamics of broad-leaved forests under future climate change. Here, we quantified the horizontal distribution of this mixed forest in mountains in relation to climate seasonality by compiling vegetation information from the earlier records and our own field sampling on major subtropical mountains of China. We found that the probability of occurrence of this forest in subtropical mountains was positively associated with the latitude but not the longitude. The occurrence probability of this forest was observed at high-temperature but not precipitation seasonality mountains. Temperature seasonality was five times more important than precipitation seasonality in explaining the total variation of occurrence of this mixed forest. For its distribution, our results shed light on that temperature seasonality was generally a more powerful predictor than precipitation seasonality for montane mixed forest distribution. Collectively, this study clearly underscores the important role of temperature seasonality, a previously not quantified climatic variable, in the occurrence of this mixed forest along geographical gradients and hence yields useful insight into our understanding of climate?vegetation relationships and climate change vulnerability assessment in a changing climate.

  • 9.
    Ji, Huawei
    et al.
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Wen, Jiahao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Du, Baoming
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Sun, Ningxiao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Liu, Chunjiang
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Comparison of the nutrient resorption stoichiometry of Quercus variabilis Blume growing in two sites contrasting in soil phosphorus content2018In: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 75, no 2, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key message: Foliar phosphorus (P) resorption inQuercus variabilisBlume was significantly lower at a P-rich than at a P-deficient site. Moreover, P resorption strongly decreased, and nitrogen:phosphorus and carbon:phosphorus resorption ratios increased with soil P content. This demonstrates a strong link between foliar P resorption and P content in soils, and emphasizes the importance of P resorption in leaves of trees growing in soils with contrasted P content. Context: Subtropical ecosystems are generally characterized by P-deficient soils. However, P-rich soils develop in phosphate rock areas. Aims: We compared the patterns of nutrient resorption, in terms of ecological stoichiometry, for two sites naturally varying in soil P content. Methods: The resorption efficiency (percentage of a nutrient recovered from senescing leaves) and proficiency (level to which nutrient concentration is reduced in senesced leaves) of 12 elements were determined in two oak (Q. variabilis) populations growing at a P-rich or a P-deficient site in subtropical China. Results: P resorption efficiency dominated the intraspecific variation in nutrient resorption between the two sites. Q. variabilis exhibited a low P resorption at the P-rich site and a high P resorption at the P-deficient site. Both P resorption efficiency and proficiency strongly decreased with soil P content only and were positively related to the N:P and C:P ratios in green and senesced leaves. Moreover, resorption efficiency ratios of both N:P and C:P were positively associated with soil P. Conclusion: These results revealed a strong link between P resorption and P stoichiometry in response to a P deficiency in the soil, and a single- and limiting-element control pattern of P resorption. Hence, these results provide new insights into the role of P resorption in plant adaptations to geologic variations of P in the subtropics.

  • 10.
    Ni, Xiangyin
    et al.
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Yang, Wanqin
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Li, Han
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Liao, Shu
    Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Tan, Bo
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Yue, Kai
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Xu, Zhenfeng
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Zhang, Li
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Wu, Fuzhong
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Formation of forest gaps accelerates C, N and P release from foliar litter during 4 years of decomposition in an alpine forest2018In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 139, no 3, p. 321-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative to areas under canopy, the soils in forest gaps receive more irradiance and rainfall (snowfall); this change in microclimate induced by forest gaps may influence the release of carbon (C) and nutrients during litter decomposition. However, great uncertainty remains about the effects of forest gaps on litter decomposition. In this study, we incubated foliar litters from six tree and shrub species in forest gaps and canopy plots and measured the release of C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in different snow cover periods in an alpine forest from 2012 to 2016. We found that N was retained by 24–46% but that P was immediately released during an early stage of decomposition. However, forest gaps decreased litter N retention, resulting in more N and P being released from decomposing litters for certain species (i.e., larch, birch and willow litters). Moreover, the release of C and nutrients during litter decomposition stimulated by forest gaps was primarily driven by warmer soil temperature in this high-altitude forest. We conclude that gap formation during forest regeneration may accelerate C turnover and nutrient cycling and that this stimulation might be regulated by the litter species in this seasonally snow-covered forest. © 2018, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 11.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Ciu, Yalan
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Quanquan
    School of International Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Dong, Li-Li
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    We, Zhijie
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zhang, Li-Li
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    A test of manganese effects on decomposition in forest and cropland sites2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 129, p. 178-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Litter of plant origin is the main source of soil organic matter, and its physical and chemical quality and decomposition rates are key variables in the prediction and modelling of how litter-derived carbon (C) is cycling through the ecosystem. However, the biological control factors for decomposition are not well understood and often poorly represented in global C models. These are typically run using simple parameters, such as nitrogen (N) and lignin concentrations, characterizing the quality of the organic matter input to soils and its accessibility to decomposer organisms. Manganese (Mn) is a key component for the formation of manganese peroxidase (MnP), an important enzyme for lignin degradation. However, the functional role of Mn on plant litter decomposition has been rarely experimentally examined. Here, using a forest and a cropland site we studied, over 41 months, the effects of Mn fertilization on MnP activity and decomposition of eight substrates ranging in initial lignin concentrations from 9.8 to 44.6%. Asymptotic decomposition models fitted the mass loss data best and allowed us to separately compare the influence of Mn fertilization on different litter stages and pools. Across substrates, Mn fertilization stimulated decomposition rates of the late stage where lignin dominates decomposition, resulting in smaller fraction of slowly decomposing litter. The increased MnP activity caused by Mn fertilization provided the mechanism explaining the stimulated decomposition in the Mn-addition treatments.

  • 12.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Hobbie, Sarah
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhank, Hongguang
    Laoshan Forest Station, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.
    Wang, Qingkui
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Hättenschwiler, Stephan
    Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS–Université de Montpellier–Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier–Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Montpellier, France.
    Contrasting dynamics and trait controls in first-order root compared with leaf litter decomposition2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 41, p. 10392-10397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition is a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle, yet current ecosystem C models do not adequately represent the contributions of plant roots and their mycorrhizae to this process. The understanding of decomposition dynamics and their control by traits is particularly limited for the most distal first-order roots. Here we followed decomposition of first-order roots and leaf litter from 35 woody plant species differing in mycorrhizal type over 6 years in a Chinese temperate forest. First-order roots decomposed more slowly (k = 0.11 ± 0.01 years−1) than did leaf litter (0.35 ± 0.02 years−1), losing only 35% of initial mass on average after 6 years of exposure in the field. In contrast to leaf litter, nonlignin root C chemistry (nonstructural carbohydrates, polyphenols) accounted for 82% of the large interspecific variation in first-order root decomposition. Leaf litter from ectomycorrhizal (EM) species decomposed more slowly than that from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species, whereas first-order roots of EM species switched, after 2 years, from having slower to faster decomposition compared with those from AM species. The fundamentally different dynamics and control mechanisms of first-order root decomposition compared with those of leaf litter challenge current ecosystem C models, the recently suggested dichotomy between EM and AM plants, and the idea that common traits can predict decomposition across roots and leaves. Aspects of C chemistry unrelated to lignin or nitrogen, and not presently considered in decomposition models, controlled first-order root decomposition; thus, current paradigms of ecosystem C dynamics and model parameterization require revision.

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