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  • 1.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Long-term effects of climate and litter chemistry on rates and stable fractions of decomposing Scots pine and Norway spruce needle litter - A synthesis2022In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have reviewed information on early-, late- and limit-value decomposition stages for litter of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). This synthesis covers c 16 studies/papers made along a climatic gradient; range in mean annual temperature (MAT) from −1 to +7 °C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 425 to 1070 mm. Scots pine has an early stage dominated by carbohydrate decomposition and a late stage dominated by decomposition of lignin; Norway spruce has just one stage dominated by lignin decomposition. We used data for annual mass loss to identify rate-regulating factors in both stages; climate data, namely, MAT and MAP, as well as substrate properties, namely, nitrogen (N), acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), manganese (Mn). Early-stage decomposition for Scots pine litter was dominated positively by MAT; the late stage was dominated negatively by MAT, N, and AUR, changing with decomposition stage; there was no effect of Mn. Norway spruce litter had no early stage; decomposition in the lignin-dominated stage was mainly negative to MAP, a negative relationship to AUR and non-significant relationships to N and MAT. Mn had a positive relationship. Limit values for decomposition, namely, the accumulated mass loss at which decomposition is calculated to be zero, were related positively to Mn and AUR for Scots pine litter and negatively to AUR for Norway spruce litter. With different sets of rate-regulating factors as well as different compounds/elements related to the limit values, the decomposition patterns or pathways are different.

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  • 2.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Ni, Xiangyin
    Fujian Normal University, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Dong, Lili
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Gaitnieks, Talis
    Latvian State Forest Research Institute SILAVA.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    SLU.
    Decomposition rates in late stages of Scots pine and Norway spruce needle litter: Influence of nutrients and substrate properties over a climate gradient2022In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 522, article id 120452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show different patterns for decomposition of the main mass of needle litter from two boreal and temperate coniferous tree species, both leading to a stabilized fraction of litter. To this purpose we have reviewed information on decomposition patterns in the lignin-dominated (late) stages of two local foliar litter types, namely those of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) from two climatic gradients of equal extension. We have also reviewed factors determining the limit values for both species.

    Long-term decomposition studies were used to calculate annual mass loss in the lignin-dominated decomposition stage and relate these to mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP) and concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and acid unhydrolyzable residue (gravimetric lignin, AUR).

    There was no effect of MAT on decomposition of either needle litter type. MAP had a rate-dampening effect on decomposition of Norway spruce litter. There was a rate-stimulating effect of Mn for Norway spruce litter but not for that of Scots pine. In spite of the strong negative effect of AUR and N on decomposition of Scots pine litter there was none at all for that of Norway spruce.

    Limit values for decomposition were related to the litters’ initial concentrations of N, Mn and AUR and differed between litter types for locally collected, natural litter and for that from experimental litter, the latter having higher N and lower Mn concentrations than the natural litter.

    We conclude that the two litter types have clear differences as regards rate- regulating factors for decomposition in the late lignin-dominated stage as well as for the stable fraction and suggest two different pathways for their decomposition. This is the first time that different pathways have been suggested for decomposing litter.

  • 3.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Sun, Tao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences Shenyang, China.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sanborn, Paul
    University of Northern British Columbia, Canada.
    Ni, Xiangying
    Sichuan Agricultural University, China.
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Magnesium dynamics in decomposing foliar litter - a synthesis2021In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 382, article id 114756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We synthesized available data for magnesium (Mg) dynamics in newly shed and decomposing foliar litter of mainly pine (Pinus) species, Norway spruce (Picea abies), and birch (Betula) species. Using original, measured data from 40 stands organized in climatic gradients we intended to determine patterns of Mg concentration and net release vs accumulated mass loss of the litter. This synthesis is likely the first synthesis of Mg dynamics in decomposing litter.

    In paired stands, litter of both Norway spruce and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) had higher Mg concentrations than Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), with concentrations in Norway spruce litter even twice as high.

    In decomposing litter, Mg concentrations followed a quadratic (X2-X) function vs accumulated mass loss and consequently had minima, different for Norway spruce and Scots pine litter. Out of 68 decomposition studies 53 gave minimum concentration. The Mg minimum concentration during decomposition was positively related to initial Mg concentration for Scots pine and Scots pine plus lodgepole pine but not for Norway spruce. The increase in concentration suggests that after the minimum Mg was temporarily limiting.

    For Norway spruce litter there was a relationship between minimum concentration of Mg and the limit value. There was no such relationship for Scots pine and not for the combined pine data.

    Magnesium net release started directly after the incubation and was linear to accumulated mass loss of litter, giving a slope coefficient (release rate) for each study. The net release rate was linear to initial Mg concentration and all studies combined gave a negative linear relationship.

  • 4.
    De Marco, Anna
    et al.
    Università di Napoli, Italy.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki.
    Zarrelli, Armando
    Università di Napoli, Italy.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Università di Napoli, Italy.
    Shifts in soil chemical and microbial properties across forest chronosequence on recent volcanic deposits2021In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Applied Soil Ecology, ISSN 0929-1393, E-ISSN 1873-0272, Vol. 161, article id 103880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Afforestation of new unconsolidated volcanic deposits is a practice used to stabilize barren areas and enhance the accumulation of organic matter in the developing soil. Changes in soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools, including the soluble and microbial fractions, within the first decades since afforestation have been poorly investigated. Therefore the objective of the present study was to investigate how key C and N pools vary in litter and soil of four forests planted on barren volcanic deposits from recent Mount Vesuvius eruptions. We examined three forest stands (40, 70 and 100 years old) afforested with Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and a 40-year old forest of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.). As a baseline of C and N pools prior to afforestation, data from treeless sites were included in the study. Both the inputs with litter fall and soil C and N stocks increased with forest age in the Stone pine stands. In the mineral soil, C concentration per gram soil dry weight and C:N ratio increased with age from treeless sites to the oldest forest. Microbial biomass C and fungal biomass as a fraction of organic carbon (OC) and respiration per unit OC (an index of organic matter mineralization potential) decreased significantly with stand age. The results suggest that a main driver of C accumulation in the mineral soil is the decline with increasing stand age of the microbial fraction of organic matter and its activity. The comparison between the two pine species revealed that litter production was more abundant in the Black pine than in the even-aged, 40-year-old, Stone pine stand; moreover Black pine litter was more acidic and had a higher stable residue than Stone pine litter. Therefore a different pattern of C sequestration occurs with a higher C stock in the organic layers and a lower C stock in the mineral soil of Black pine compared to Stone pine.

  • 5.
    De Marco, Anna
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Esposito, Fabrizio
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zarrelli, Armando
    Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Litter inhibitory effects on soil microbial biomass, activity, and catabolic diversity in two paired stands of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus nigra Arn2018In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Highlights: Plant cover drives the activity of the microbial decomposer community and affects carbon (C) sequestration in the soil. Despite the relationship between microbial activity and C sequestration in the soil, potential inhibition of soil microbial activity by plant cover has received little attention to date.

    Background and Objectives: Differences in soil microbial activity between two paired stands on soil at a very early stage of formation and a common story until afforestation, can be traced back to the plant cover. We hypothesized that in a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stand the high-quality leaf litter of the tree, and that of the blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) understory had an inhibitory effect on soil microbial community resulting in lower mineralization of soil organic matter compared to the paired black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stand.

    Materials and Methods: We estimated potential mineralization rates (MR), microbial (MB), and active fungal biomass (AFB) of newly-shed litter, forest floor, and mineral soil. We tested the effects of litters' water extracts on soil MR, MB, AFB and its catabolic response profile (CRP).

    Results: Newly-shed litter of black locust had higher MR than that of blackberry and black pine; MR, MB, and AFB were higher in forest floor and in mineral soil under black pine than under black locust. Water extracts of black locust and blackberry litter had a negative effect on the amount, activity of microorganisms, and CRP.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential for black locust and blackberry litter to have a marked inhibitory effect on decomposer microorganisms that, in turn, reduce organic matter mineralization with possible consequences at the ecosystem level, by increasing C sequestration in mineral soil.

  • 6.
    Djukic, Ika
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Kappel Schmidt, Inger
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Steenberg Larsen, Klaus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Beier, Claus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Gontrode, Belgium.
    Early stage litter decomposition across biomes2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 628, p. 1369-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through litter decomposition enormous amounts of carbon is emitted to the atmosphere. Numerous large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process in order to understand the controls on the terrestrial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. However, previous studies were mostly based on site-specific litter and methodologies, adding major uncertainty to syntheses, comparisons and meta-analyses across different experiments and sites. In the TeaComposition initiative, the potential litter decomposition is investigated by using standardized substrates (Rooibos and Green tea) for comparison of litter mass loss at 336 sites (ranging from −9 to +26 °C MAT and from 60 to 3113 mm MAP) across different ecosystems. In this study we tested the effect of climate (temperature and moisture), litter type and land-use on early stage decomposition (3 months) across nine biomes. We show that litter quality was the predominant controlling factor in early stage litter decomposition, which explained about 65% of the variability in litter decomposition at a global scale. The effect of climate, on the other hand, was not litter specific and explained <0.5% of the variation for Green tea and 5% for Rooibos tea, and was of significance only under unfavorable decomposition conditions (i.e. xeric versus mesic environments). When the data were aggregated at the biome scale, climate played a significant role on decomposition of both litter types (explaining 64% of the variation for Green tea and 72% for Rooibos tea). No significant effect of land-use on early stage litter decomposition was noted within the temperate biome. Our results indicate that multiple drivers are affecting early stage litter mass loss with litter quality being dominant. In order to be able to quantify the relative importance of the different drivers over time, long-term studies combined with experimental trials are needed.

  • 7.
    Dong, Lili
    et al.
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki.
    Gu, Weiping
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China.
    Effects of different forms of nitrogen addition on microbial extracellular enzyme activity in temperate grassland soil2022In: Ecological Processes, E-ISSN 2192-1709, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Nitrogen (N) deposition alters litter decomposition and soil carbon (C) sequestration by influencing the microbial community and its enzyme activity. Natural atmospheric N deposition comprises of inorganic N (IN) and organic N (ON) compounds. However, most studies have focused on IN and its effect on soil C cycling, whereas the effect of ON on microbial enzyme activity is poorly understood. Here we studied the effects of different forms of externally supplied N on soil enzyme activities related to decomposition in a temperate steppe. Ammonium nitrate was chosen as IN source, whereas urea and glycine were chosen as ON sources. Different ratios of IN to ON (Control, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, and 0:10) were mixed with equal total amounts of N and then used to fertilize the grassland soils for 6 years. Results Our results show that IN deposition inhibited lignin-degrading enzyme activity, such as phenol oxidase (POX) and peroxidase (PER), which may restrain decomposition and thus induce accumulation of recalcitrant organic C in grassland soils. By contrast, deposition of ON and mixed ON and IN enhanced most of the C-degrading enzyme activities, which may promote the organic matter decomposition in grassland soils. In addition, the beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was remarkably stimulated by fertilization with both IN and ON, maybe because of the elevated N availability and the lack of N limitation after long-term N fertilization at the grassland site. Meanwhile, differences in soil pH, soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass partially explained the differential effects on soil enzyme activity under different forms of N treatments. Conclusions Our results emphasize the importance of organic N deposition in controlling soil processes, which are regulated by microbial enzyme activities, and may consequently change the ecological effect of N deposition. Thus, more ON deposition may promote the decomposition of soil organic matter thus converting C sequestration in grassland soils into a C source.

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  • 8.
    Dong, Lili
    et al.
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki.
    Sun, Tao
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Han, Xingguo
    Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Response of fine root decomposition to different forms of N deposition in a temperate grassland2020In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 147, article id 107845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of plant litter decomposition for ecosystem nutrient cycling and soil fertility, it is still largely unknown how this biogeochemical process is affected by different forms of nitrogen (N). Numerous studies have investigated the effects of exogenous N addition on leaf litter decomposition, while the response of decomposing roots and their microbial communities to externally applied N is rarely studied. Fine roots, however, represent a key input to soil organic matter and understanding their decomposition under elevated atmospheric N deposition is important for predicting soil carbon (C) dynamics in response to changes in climatic conditions. In this study, we decomposed fine roots of five dominant grassland species for two years in field plots fertilized with different forms of N in a typical temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia. Ammonium nitrate was selected as inorganic N (IN), while urea and glycine were chosen as organic N (ON). Equal amounts of N (10 g N·m−2·yr−1) with different ratios of IN: ON (control, 10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, 3 : 7, and 0 : 10) were added to the soil. Our results showed that all exogenous N additions, either IN or ON forms, stimulated the decomposition rates across species. Furthermore, the treatment with a mixture of IN and ON fertilizers led to the strongest responses in decomposition rate, which were, on average, 20% higher than control, and 12% higher than using just IN addition across the five studied species. Our results suggest that we need to consider the different components in N deposition when examining nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles.

  • 9.
    Dong, Lili
    et al.
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Lili
    National Engineering Laboratory for Soil Nutrient Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zhang, Quanquan
    School of International Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Effects of different forms of N deposition on leaf litter decomposition and extracellular enzyme activities in a temperate grassland2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 134, p. 78-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of decomposition for biogeochemical cycles, it is still not clear how this process is affected by different forms of nitrogen (N). Equal amounts of N with different ratios of inorganic N: organic N (0 : 0, 10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, 3 : 7, and 0 : 10) were added to the soil in a steppe. We studied the response of litter decomposition to different forms of N enrichment. The treatment with 30% organic N resulted in the fastest decomposition, which was higher than with inorganic N or organic N addition alone. Our results highlight the need for studies of N deposition on carbon cycles that consider different components in N deposition.

  • 10.
    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar
    et al.
    Korea Basic Science Institute; City University of New York.
    Lee, Kwang-Sik
    Korea Basic Science Institute.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki.
    Song, Byeong-Yeol
    Korea Basic Science Institute; National Forensic Service, Korea.
    Major, trace and rare earth elements dynamics in decomposing litters on successional sites in a cool temperate region of South Korea2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 749, article id 142352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating the decomposition-based change dynamics of various elements in plant litter is important for improving our understanding about their biogeochemical cycling in ecosystems. We have studied the concentrations of major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) (34 elements) in green tissue litter, and soil and their dynamics in the decomposing litters of successional annual fleabane (Erigeron annuus) and silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis). Concentrations of major and trace elements in the litter of annual fleabane were 1.02–2.71 times higher compared to silvergrass. For REEs the difference between the two litter types for elements studied was in the range of 1.02–1.29 times. Both the litters showed a general decrease in the concentrations of elements in the initial stages of decomposition (60–90 days). All the major and trace elements (except for Na) in silvergrass showed a net increase in concentration at the end of the decomposition study (48.9–52.5% accumulated mass loss). Contrastingly, a few trace elements (Mn, Mo, Sr, Zn, Sb, and Cd) in annual fleabane showed a net decrease in their concentrations. For REEs, there was an increase in concentrations as well as in net amounts in both litter types. Similarities observed in the dynamics together with high and significant correlations among them likely suggest their common source. The higher concentrations of REEs in soil likely suggest its role in the net increase in REEs' concentrations and amount in litter during decomposition.

  • 11.
    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar
    et al.
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; Biology Department, Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
    Lee, Kwang-Sik
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Song, Byeong-Yeol
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; Chemical Analysis Division, National Forensic Service, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
    Yeon, Jeh-Yeong
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    Trends of major, minor and rare earth elements in decomposing litter in a cool temperate ecosystem, South Korea2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 222, p. 214-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decomposition dynamics of 34 different elements in four different litter types (foliar and woody litter) from Pinus densiflora (Korean red pine) and Castanea crenata (Korean chestnut) was investigated in a cool temperate ecosystem using the litterbag method. Two contrasting trends were observed in the dynamics of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon. Leaf litter of Korean chestnut, which was richer in elements, showed a general decrease in concentrations of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon on a dry mass basis during decomposition in the field. Other litter types, with initially lower concentrations of elements, exhibited an increase in concentration on a dry mass basis during field incubation. Highest relative increase in the concentration was noticed for the minor elements, and for the woody litters. Concentrations of major and minor elements increased by factors ranging from 1.07 for antimony (Sb) to 853.7 for vanadium (V). Rare earth elements (REE) concentrations increased by factors ranging from 1.04 for scandium (Sc) to 83.5 for thorium (Th). Our results suggest that litter type plays an important role for nutrient dynamics. Results from principal component analysis for major, minor, and rare earth elements showed grouping of elements and high correlation among them (P < 0.05), which suggests a common source. At both sites, element concentrations were high in the soil, especially for REE. This suggests that increase in element concentrations during field incubation probably was due to transfer of elements from soil to the overlying decomposing litter.

  • 12.
    Ge, Jielin
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, State Key Lab Vegetat & Environm Change, 20 Nanxincun, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China..
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, Helsinki, Finland..
    Xie, Zongqiang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, State Key Lab Vegetat & Environm Change, 20 Nanxincun, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Climatic seasonality is linked to the occurrence of the mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forests in China2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e02862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved tree species can coexist across the globe and constitute different broad-leaved forests along large-scale geographical and climatic gradients. A better understanding of climatic influence on the distribution of mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest is of fundamental importance when assessing this mixed forest's resilience and predicting potential dynamics of broad-leaved forests under future climate change. Here, we quantified the horizontal distribution of this mixed forest in mountains in relation to climate seasonality by compiling vegetation information from the earlier records and our own field sampling on major subtropical mountains of China. We found that the probability of occurrence of this forest in subtropical mountains was positively associated with the latitude but not the longitude. The occurrence probability of this forest was observed at high-temperature but not precipitation seasonality mountains. Temperature seasonality was five times more important than precipitation seasonality in explaining the total variation of occurrence of this mixed forest. For its distribution, our results shed light on that temperature seasonality was generally a more powerful predictor than precipitation seasonality for montane mixed forest distribution. Collectively, this study clearly underscores the important role of temperature seasonality, a previously not quantified climatic variable, in the occurrence of this mixed forest along geographical gradients and hence yields useful insight into our understanding of climate-vegetation relationships and climate change vulnerability assessment in a changing climate.

  • 13.
    Ji, Huawei
    et al.
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Wen, Jiahao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Du, Baoming
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Sun, Ningxiao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Liu, Chunjiang
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Comparison of the nutrient resorption stoichiometry of Quercus variabilis Blume growing in two sites contrasting in soil phosphorus content2018In: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 75, no 2, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key message: Foliar phosphorus (P) resorption inQuercus variabilisBlume was significantly lower at a P-rich than at a P-deficient site. Moreover, P resorption strongly decreased, and nitrogen:phosphorus and carbon:phosphorus resorption ratios increased with soil P content. This demonstrates a strong link between foliar P resorption and P content in soils, and emphasizes the importance of P resorption in leaves of trees growing in soils with contrasted P content. Context: Subtropical ecosystems are generally characterized by P-deficient soils. However, P-rich soils develop in phosphate rock areas. Aims: We compared the patterns of nutrient resorption, in terms of ecological stoichiometry, for two sites naturally varying in soil P content. Methods: The resorption efficiency (percentage of a nutrient recovered from senescing leaves) and proficiency (level to which nutrient concentration is reduced in senesced leaves) of 12 elements were determined in two oak (Q. variabilis) populations growing at a P-rich or a P-deficient site in subtropical China. Results: P resorption efficiency dominated the intraspecific variation in nutrient resorption between the two sites. Q. variabilis exhibited a low P resorption at the P-rich site and a high P resorption at the P-deficient site. Both P resorption efficiency and proficiency strongly decreased with soil P content only and were positively related to the N:P and C:P ratios in green and senesced leaves. Moreover, resorption efficiency ratios of both N:P and C:P were positively associated with soil P. Conclusion: These results revealed a strong link between P resorption and P stoichiometry in response to a P deficiency in the soil, and a single- and limiting-element control pattern of P resorption. Hence, these results provide new insights into the role of P resorption in plant adaptations to geologic variations of P in the subtropics.

  • 14.
    Ni, Xiangyin
    et al.
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Yang, Wanqin
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Li, Han
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Liao, Shu
    Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Tan, Bo
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Yue, Kai
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Xu, Zhenfeng
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Zhang, Li
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Wu, Fuzhong
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Formation of forest gaps accelerates C, N and P release from foliar litter during 4 years of decomposition in an alpine forest2018In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 139, no 3, p. 321-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative to areas under canopy, the soils in forest gaps receive more irradiance and rainfall (snowfall); this change in microclimate induced by forest gaps may influence the release of carbon (C) and nutrients during litter decomposition. However, great uncertainty remains about the effects of forest gaps on litter decomposition. In this study, we incubated foliar litters from six tree and shrub species in forest gaps and canopy plots and measured the release of C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in different snow cover periods in an alpine forest from 2012 to 2016. We found that N was retained by 24–46% but that P was immediately released during an early stage of decomposition. However, forest gaps decreased litter N retention, resulting in more N and P being released from decomposing litters for certain species (i.e., larch, birch and willow litters). Moreover, the release of C and nutrients during litter decomposition stimulated by forest gaps was primarily driven by warmer soil temperature in this high-altitude forest. We conclude that gap formation during forest regeneration may accelerate C turnover and nutrient cycling and that this stimulation might be regulated by the litter species in this seasonally snow-covered forest. © 2018, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 15.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Ciu, Yalan
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Quanquan
    School of International Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Dong, Li-Li
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    We, Zhijie
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zhang, Li-Li
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    A test of manganese effects on decomposition in forest and cropland sites2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 129, p. 178-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Litter of plant origin is the main source of soil organic matter, and its physical and chemical quality and decomposition rates are key variables in the prediction and modelling of how litter-derived carbon (C) is cycling through the ecosystem. However, the biological control factors for decomposition are not well understood and often poorly represented in global C models. These are typically run using simple parameters, such as nitrogen (N) and lignin concentrations, characterizing the quality of the organic matter input to soils and its accessibility to decomposer organisms. Manganese (Mn) is a key component for the formation of manganese peroxidase (MnP), an important enzyme for lignin degradation. However, the functional role of Mn on plant litter decomposition has been rarely experimentally examined. Here, using a forest and a cropland site we studied, over 41 months, the effects of Mn fertilization on MnP activity and decomposition of eight substrates ranging in initial lignin concentrations from 9.8 to 44.6%. Asymptotic decomposition models fitted the mass loss data best and allowed us to separately compare the influence of Mn fertilization on different litter stages and pools. Across substrates, Mn fertilization stimulated decomposition rates of the late stage where lignin dominates decomposition, resulting in smaller fraction of slowly decomposing litter. The increased MnP activity caused by Mn fertilization provided the mechanism explaining the stimulated decomposition in the Mn-addition treatments.

  • 16.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Hobbie, Sarah
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhank, Hongguang
    Laoshan Forest Station, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.
    Wang, Qingkui
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Hättenschwiler, Stephan
    Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS–Université de Montpellier–Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier–Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Montpellier, France.
    Contrasting dynamics and trait controls in first-order root compared with leaf litter decomposition2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 41, p. 10392-10397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition is a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle, yet current ecosystem C models do not adequately represent the contributions of plant roots and their mycorrhizae to this process. The understanding of decomposition dynamics and their control by traits is particularly limited for the most distal first-order roots. Here we followed decomposition of first-order roots and leaf litter from 35 woody plant species differing in mycorrhizal type over 6 years in a Chinese temperate forest. First-order roots decomposed more slowly (k = 0.11 ± 0.01 years−1) than did leaf litter (0.35 ± 0.02 years−1), losing only 35% of initial mass on average after 6 years of exposure in the field. In contrast to leaf litter, nonlignin root C chemistry (nonstructural carbohydrates, polyphenols) accounted for 82% of the large interspecific variation in first-order root decomposition. Leaf litter from ectomycorrhizal (EM) species decomposed more slowly than that from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species, whereas first-order roots of EM species switched, after 2 years, from having slower to faster decomposition compared with those from AM species. The fundamentally different dynamics and control mechanisms of first-order root decomposition compared with those of leaf litter challenge current ecosystem C models, the recently suggested dichotomy between EM and AM plants, and the idea that common traits can predict decomposition across roots and leaves. Aspects of C chemistry unrelated to lignin or nitrogen, and not presently considered in decomposition models, controlled first-order root decomposition; thus, current paradigms of ecosystem C dynamics and model parameterization require revision.

  • 17.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Yu, Chunxiao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki.
    Wei, Zhanbo
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Wang, Lingli
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Liu, Xinyue
    Shenyang Agriculture University, Shenyang, China.
    Feng, Chen
    Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Wu, Zhijie
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Bai, Wei
    Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, China; National Agricultural Experimental Station for Agricultural Environment, Fuxin, China.
    Zhang, Lili
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Empirical evidence that manganese enrichment accelerates decomposition2021In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Applied Soil Ecology, ISSN 0929-1393, E-ISSN 1873-0272, Vol. 168, article id 104148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of the controls regulating the rate of litter decomposition is important for improving confidence in the parameterization of carbon cycle–climate feedbacks. Traditional conceptual models rely primarily on climate and lignin/N ratios as the main regulators of decomposition. Here we studied the effects of manganese (Mn) addition on long-term decomposition across 18 substrates in a laboratory incubation. Mn addition remarkably promoted later stage of decomposition, resulting into a smaller fraction of slowly decomposing litter. This dynamic is closely associated with the changes of activities of manganese peroxidase, an important enzyme with greater capacity for lignin degradation. Our findings suggest the necessity of incorporating the interaction of Mn and decomposition into biogeochemical models.

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