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  • 1.
    Kjellström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lund university.
    Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    When Objects Are Talking: How Tacit Knowing Becomes Explicit Knowledge2019In: Journal of Small Business Strategy, ISSN 1081-8510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to build a model of how tacit knowing is externalised and becomes reflected external knowledge. 

    Knowledge Management (Nonaka, 1991, 1994; Nonaka, Toyama and Konno, 2000) is an important field in Business Administration. Based on the model provided by Nonaka and his colleagues, researchers and practitioners have fallen into the pipe dream that employees’ tacit knowledge can be coded and canned in computers (structural capital), eventually leading to the enterprise without humans. Earlier critics (Gourlay, 2002, 2006; Gourlay and Nurse, 2005, Grant, 2007; Author 1, 2016a, 2019) of the knowledge management paradigm have shown that it does not understand Polanyi’s concept tacit knowing and that it is much more complicated to “externalize” such knowing than presumed by KM. The understanding in extant management literature of this process has been very problematic. 

    Building on concepts in philosophy, psychology, pedagogics, organizational science, and engineering, a model is built and exemplified. This paper develops a theoretical framework for how tacit knowing can be externalized, what is required for such an externalization, and discusses the problems in such externalization, limiting it.

  • 2.
    Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Bachelor and Master theses, bird or fish? What is a good thesis? And what are the Differences and Similarities between Theses and scientific articles?2018In: 11th Annual Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business: Research Advancements in National and Global Business Theory and Practice / [ed] Vrontis, D., Weber, Y. and Tsoukatos, E., EuroMed Press , 2018, p. 1085-1094Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the similarities and differences between peer-reviewed scientific articles and students’ theses (bachelor, one-year master, and two-year master). A sample of theses and scientific articles is analyzed as a basis for a discussion of what is a good thesis.

    It holds that the Goals are different and that those goals should affect the principal process to be documented, the Research Process or the Presentation of the research results. It also proposes that the Structure of a thesis should to some degree be different from the scientific article. Finally, it proposes a Framework for a good thesis.

  • 3.
    Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Consumers And Enterprises As Actors On The Market2019In: 12th Annual Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business Conference Readings: Business Management Theories and Practices in a Dynamic Competitive Environment / [ed] Demetris Vrontis, Yaakov Weber, Evangelos Tsoukatos, Euriomed Press , 2019, , p. 13p. 989-996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper discusses the phenomenon of differentiation made possible through branding or innovation or a combination of the two. Differentiation is eventually the driving force for the development of its own negation, commoditization. When customers have endured a commoditized market long enough the opportunities open up for creative destruction, this concept of Schumpeter (1942), means that an entrepreneur invents a completely new way of satisfying the customers’ unsatisfied needs, making the industry that no longer bothered about their customers. Many researchers have tried to re/brand destructive innovation as their own, with concepts, such as of ”transilience”, and “blue ocean strategy’, as opposed to ‘red ocean strategy’.

    The paper focuses on innovation as a differentiation strategy and on temporary monopoly rent as a driver of innovation. Increased competition and shortening and life cycles makes capitalism more volatile and the strategies to reduce the risks involved are discussed. These strategies lead to the real-world implementation of the concentration of capital forecasted by Marx and feared by Schumpeter.

    The paper identifies the need to continuously monitor the concentration of capital and to understand individual markets by studying the firm’s profit.

  • 4.
    Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Cost-structure and the volatility of capitalism2019In: 12th Annual Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business Conference Proceedings: Business Management Theories and Practices in a Dynamic Competitive Environment, Euromed Press , 2019, , p. 8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper explores the phenomena of changing cost-structures and the implications for the volatility of capitalism and the possibility to manage firms in such a hostile environment and proposes future research. It also provides an explanation of why the relevance of accounting is lost, the so-called “relevance lost” debate (see among others Francis

    & Schipper, 1999).The changing cost-structures raises fundamental questions concerning the resulting the volatility of capitalism and the management of firms in such an increasingly more volatile environment. In Philipson, Johansson & Scheley (2016), we raised the question if it was possible to “...to ride the dragon.” Considering the importance of these phenomena, it is astonishing that we have not found any empirical research concerning them. They restresearch questions, based on the author’s almost 25 years of experience, as a senior executive in Scandinavian industry.

  • 5.
    Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sources of Innovation - Revisited2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In his groundbreaking work Sources of Innovation, Eric von Hippel discussed from where in (and out of) the value-chain innovations came in different industries, the customer, the manufacturer, the supplier or the third-party innovator (universities, research laboratories, etc.).

     

    The world has changed and new phenomena have become apparent. This article is a conceptual paper, discussing these new phenomena and presenting a tentative updated pheno-typology of the sources of innovation. To build these phenotypes it draws heavily on Kaulio (1998), Borrus & Zysman (1997) and Hart & Sangbae (2002).

  • 6.
    Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Sources of innovation: Consequences for knowledge production and transfer2020In: Journal of Innovation and Knowledge, E-ISSN 2444-569X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 50-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In his ground-breaking work Sources of Innovation, Eric von Hippel discussed from where in (and out of) the value-chain innovations came in different industries: the customer, the manufacturer, the supplier or the third-party innovator (universities, research laboratories, etc.).

    The world has changed, and new phenomena have become apparent. This article is a conceptual paper that discusses these new phenomenaand presenting a tentative updated pheno-typology of the sources of innovation, adding six to von Hippel’s original four. To build these phenotypes it draws heavily on Kaulio (1998), Borrus & Zysman (1997) and Hart & Sangbae (2002). 

    As principal take-away, the consequences for the knowledge production and transfer are discussed for each of the 10 phenotypes, in comparison to the in-house, non-open innovation, default phenotype.

  • 7.
    Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The difficulty with which tacit knowing is transformed into explicit knowledge2019In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 346-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a conceptual paper giving a fundamental critique of knowledge management, as conceptualised by Nonaka and colleagues by a critical reading of Polanyi, inspired by the Russian psychologist Vygotsky and the US engineering professor Ferguson. The findings are that the externalisation of tacit knowing is much more complex and less prone to be managed than suggested in extant literature. In creating knowledge from such tacit knowing the community pf practice is identified as crucial.

  • 8.
    Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Value of listed companies: abnormal earnings and innovativeness2017In: Global and natinoal business theories and practice: Bridging the past with the future / [ed] Vrontis, D., Weber, Y., Tsoukatos, E., EUROMED PRESS , 2017, p. 1342-1348Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This a conceptual paper concerning the relation between innovativeness and monopoly rent/abnormal earnings. It discusses how these concepts can be measured and proposes that abnormal earnings are the result differentiation, by innovativeness (monopoly rent) or branding, by under-or overvalued assets, or by imperfect market information (value irrelevance). Specifically, innovativeness as a driver of monopoly rent/abnormal earnings is discussed.

  • 9.
    Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Well-grounded Theory–Pattern-finding in qualitative data: A 19 steps procedure of making data analyzable2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish secondary school graduates has become less and less apt in mathematics, since the past 20 years (Mullis, et al., 2009). University students mostly chose to make qualitative studies, irrespective of if this is the best choice to study the research question on not. Many of them don’t even know how to make good qualitative studies. 

     

    After analysis of the requirements of what is needed, using Prahalad’s (2006) ‘sandbox of innovation’, I have developed an abductive method for analyzing qualitative data to help students to get good use of their empirical material, a well-grounded theory, in contrast to the inherent deductive or inductive nature of grounded theory. It is suitable for studies based on interviews, focus groups and observations.

     

    As the dataset grows, the method becomes cumbersome, which I don’t consider is a big problem, as big qualitative datasets would preferably be analyzed by non-parametric statistics, rather than the iterative interpreting qualitative methodology I suggest here. 

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